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1.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 845-850, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression efficiency of exogenous gene mediated by different serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in retina, and to compare the expression efficiency of AAV vector and two kinds of promoters commonly used in ophthalmology after transfection into mouse retina, so as to provide the basis for selecting appropriate AAV vector and promoter for gene therapy of retinitis pigmentosa. METHODS: AAV2/2, AAV2/5, AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 were prepared. The C57BL/6J mice were injected subretinally with 1 µL purified AAV vectors (1.00×1013 mg/L). Then the mice were killed 2 or 4 weeks after treatment, and the eyes were enucleated for frozen section. The expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was observed under the confocal microscope. Two kinds of promoters, CMV and CAG, were selectd, and the expression of AAV2/8-GFP-CMV and AAV2/8-GFP-CAG was observed under confocal microscope. RESULTS: No bacterial infection or immune response were seen in the injected mice. 2 weeks after injection, the GFP green fluorescence of AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 in the mouse retina was obvious, which indicated that the GFP green fluorescence of AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 was high after transfection into the mouse retina. In these two serotypes, GFP green fluorescence of AAV2/8 was mainly concentrated in photoreceptor cells while AAV2/8 was expressed in the whole retina, indicating that AAV2/8 was more specific to photoreceptors. Further experiments on AAV2/8 showed that the GFP green fluorescence of the mouse retina was obvious 4 weeks after injection, indicating that the exogenous gene mediated by AAV2/8 could be stably expressed in vivo. For CMV and CAG promoters, CMV promoter was expressed stronger in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)cells, while CAG promoter was stronger in photorecepters. In photorecepters, CAG promoter was expressed almost the same as CMV promoter, while CMV promoter was stronger in RPE cells. CONCLUSION: AAV vectors could express transgene robustly in retinal cells; Among several AAV serotypes, AAV2/2 and AAV2/5 showed weaker GFP fluorescence than AAV2/8 and AAV2/9. AAV2/9 showed expression in each layer of the retina including ganglion cells. AAV2/8 was more specific for photoreceptor; CAG promoters had higher specificity for photoreceptors than CMV promoters.


Assuntos
Dependovirus , Vetores Genéticos , Animais , Dependovirus/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Retina , Sorogrupo , Transdução Genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903281

RESUMO

To facilitate preclinical testing of T-cell receptors (TCRs) derived from tumor-reactive T-cell clones it is necessary to develop convenient and rapid cloning strategies for the generation of TCR expression constructs. Herein, we describe a pDONR™221 vector backbone allowing to generate Gateway™ compatible entry clones encoding optimized bicistronic αßTCR constructs. It harbors P2A-linked TCR constant regions and head-to-head-oriented recognition sites of the Type IIS restriction enzymes BsmBI and BsaI for seamless cloning of the TCRα and TCRß V(D)J regions, respectively. Additional well-established TCR optimizations were incorporated to enhance TCR functionality. This included replacing of the human αßTCR constant regions with their codon-optimized murine counterparts for chimerization, addition of a second interchain disulfide bond and arrangement of the TCR chains in the order ß-P2A-α. We exemplified the utility of our vector backbone by cloning and functional testing of three melanoma-reactive TCRs in primary human T cells.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Retroviridae/genética , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Células COS , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Técnicas de Cocultura , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Transdução Genética , Recombinação V(D)J
3.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 209(6): 681-691, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918599

RESUMO

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells show great efficacy in the patient-specific therapy of hematologic malignancies. Here, we demonstrate that a DARPin with specificity for CD4 specifically redirects and triggers the activation of CAR engineered T cells resulting in the depletion of CD4+ target cells aiming for elimination of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir.


Assuntos
Repetição de Anquirina , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Gammaretrovirus/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Peptídeos/química , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Transdução Genética
4.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000851, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822389

RESUMO

High levels of the amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide have been shown to disrupt neuronal function and induce hyperexcitability, but it is unclear what effects Aß-associated hyperexcitability may have on tauopathy pathogenesis or propagation in vivo. Using a novel transgenic mouse line to model the impact of human APP (hAPP)/Aß accumulation on tauopathy in the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal (EC-HIPP) network, we demonstrate that hAPP overexpression aggravates EC-Tau aggregation and accelerates pathological tau spread into the hippocampus. In vivo recordings revealed a strong role for hAPP/Aß, but not tau, in the emergence of EC neuronal hyperactivity and impaired theta rhythmicity. Chronic chemogenetic attenuation of EC neuronal hyperactivity led to reduced hAPP/Aß accumulation and reduced pathological tau spread into downstream hippocampus. These data strongly support the hypothesis that in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Aß-associated hyperactivity accelerates the progression of pathological tau along vulnerable neuronal circuits, and demonstrates the utility of chronic, neuromodulatory approaches in ameliorating AD pathology in vivo.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Córtex Entorrinal/metabolismo , Tauopatias/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Dependovirus/genética , Dependovirus/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrodos Implantados , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Agregados Proteicos , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Tauopatias/metabolismo , Tauopatias/patologia , Tauopatias/terapia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Transdução Genética , Transgenes , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3929, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764559

RESUMO

Surfactant protein B (SP-B) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that impairs surfactant homeostasis and manifests as lethal respiratory distress. A compelling argument exists for gene therapy to treat this disease, as de novo protein synthesis of SP-B in alveolar type 2 epithelial cells is required for proper surfactant production. Here we report a rationally designed adeno-associated virus (AAV) 6 capsid that demonstrates efficiency in lung epithelial cell transduction based on imaging and flow cytometry analysis. Intratracheal administration of this vector delivering murine or human proSFTPB cDNA into SP-B deficient mice restores surfactant homeostasis, prevents lung injury, and improves lung physiology. Untreated SP-B deficient mice develop fatal respiratory distress within two days. Gene therapy results in an improvement in median survival to greater than 200 days. This vector also transduces human lung tissue, demonstrating its potential for clinical translation against this lethal disease.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Parvovirinae/genética , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/congênito , Proteína B Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/deficiência , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Proteolipídeos/genética , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/genética , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/metabolismo , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/terapia , Proteína B Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/genética , Proteína B Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas a Surfactantes Pulmonares/genética , Transdução Genética
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 8178-8187, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619241

RESUMO

The application of gene-editing technology is currently limited by the lack of safe and efficient methods to deliver RNA-guided endonucleases to target cells. We engineered lentivirus-based nanoparticles to co-package the U6-sgRNA template and the CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) fused with a virion-targeted protein Vpr (Vpr.Prot.Cas9), for simultaneous delivery to cells. Equal spatiotemporal control of the vpr.prot.cas9 and gag/pol gene expression (the presence of Rev responsive element, RRE) greatly enhanced the encapsidation of the fusion protein and resulted in the production of highly efficient lentivector nanoparticles. Transduction of the unconcentrated, Vpr.Prot.Cas9-containing vectors led to >98% disruption of the EGFP gene in reporter HEK293-EGFP cells with minimal cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we detected indels in the targeted endogenous loci at frequencies of up to 100% in cell lines derived from lymphocytes and monocytes and up to 15% in primary CD4+ T cells by high-throughput sequencing. This approach may provide a platform for the efficient, dose-controlled and tissue-specific delivery of genome editing enzymes to cells and it may be suitable for simultaneous endogenous gene disruption and a transgene delivery.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Elementos de Resposta , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Nanopartículas/química , Células THP-1 , Transdução Genética/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3279, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606306

RESUMO

Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are currently considered the safest and most reliable gene delivery vehicles for human gene therapy. Three serotype capsids, AAV1, AAV2, and AAV9, have been approved for commercial use in patients, but they may not be suitable for all therapeutic contexts. Here, we describe a novel capsid identified in a human clinical sample by high-throughput, long-read sequencing. The capsid, which we have named AAVv66, shares high sequence similarity with AAV2. We demonstrate that compared to AAV2, AAVv66 exhibits enhanced production yields, virion stability, and CNS transduction. Unique structural properties of AAVv66 visualized by cryo-EM at 2.5-Å resolution, suggest that critical residues at the three-fold protrusion and at the interface of the five-fold axis of symmetry likely contribute to the beneficial characteristics of AAVv66. Our findings underscore the potential of AAVv66 as a gene therapy vector.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Dependovirus/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Animais , Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Proteínas do Capsídeo/classificação , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Dependovirus/classificação , Dependovirus/fisiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Transdução Genética , Montagem de Vírus/genética
8.
Gene ; 758: 144958, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683073

RESUMO

Short-lived therapeutic gene expression in mammalian cells by DNA methylation is one of the major challenges in gene therapy. In this study, we assessed the implication of DNA methylation on the duration of GFP expression in mouse embryonic stem (ES) and mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The cells were transduced with lentivirus (LV) carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by either human elongation factor (EF1α) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. Transduced iPS cells exhibited higher percentage of GFP+ cells with persistent mean fluorescent intensity than transduced ES cells. Analysis on the integrated copy of transgene in the population of the transduced cells demonstrated similar copy number. However, significant increase in GFP intensity following 5-azaC treatment was observed in transduced ES cells only, suggesting the influence of DNA methylation in transgene silencing. Subsequent DNA methylation analysis showed that the promoter and the GFP region of the provirus in iPS cells had negligible methylation profile compared to transduced ES cells. Interestingly, sustained transgene expression was observed upon directed differentiation of transduced iPS cells towards CD34+ CD45+ cells. Hence, this study has shown that favourable transgene activity from lentiviral transduced iPS cells was due to the lack of methylation at the proviral regions.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/genética , Fator de Iniciação 1 em Eucariotos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Transdução Genética
9.
Cell ; 182(3): 734-743.e5, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643603

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a virulent pneumonia, with >4,000,000 confirmed cases worldwide and >290,000 deaths as of May 15, 2020. It is critical that vaccines and therapeutics be developed very rapidly. Mice, the ideal animal for assessing such interventions, are resistant to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we overcome this difficulty by exogenous delivery of human ACE2 with a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5-hACE2). Ad5-hACE2-sensitized mice developed pneumonia characterized by weight loss, severe pulmonary pathology, and high-titer virus replication in lungs. Type I interferon, T cells, and, most importantly, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) are critical for virus clearance and disease resolution in these mice. Ad5-hACE2-transduced mice enabled rapid assessments of a vaccine candidate, of human convalescent plasma, and of two antiviral therapies (poly I:C and remdesivir). In summary, we describe a murine model of broad and immediate utility to investigate COVID-19 pathogenesis and to evaluate new therapies and vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Transdução Genética , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4425-4444, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with metastasized melanoma have limited treatment options and poor diagnosis. Therefore, the development of treatments requires a new therapeutic approach, of which gene therapy using rAAV vectors can be proposed. The aim of the study was to examine the efficiency of the rAAV vector to transduce mouse melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different rAAV serotypes encoding GFP under the control of both chicken beta-actin and cytomegalovirus promoters were used in the experiments. Intranasal, intraperitoneal, intravenous and intratumoral pathways of administration of rAAV vectors were tested using quantitative-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The highest transduction efficiency in metastatic cells in vivo was observed 7 days after intranasal administration of a 1010 gc/0.03 ml dose of rAAV/DJ-CAG. CONCLUSION: Melanoma gene therapy based on rAAV vectors is a possible treatment option.


Assuntos
Dependovirus/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transdução Genética , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628158

RESUMO

Measuring the intracellular oxidation/reduction balance provides an overview of the physiological and/or pathophysiological redox status of an organism. Thiols are especially important for illuminating the redox status of cells via their reduced dithiol and oxidized disulfide ratios. Engineered cysteine-containing fluorescent proteins open a new era for redox-sensitive biosensors. One of them, redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP), can easily be introduced into cells with adenoviral transduction, allowing the redox status of subcellular compartments to be evaluated without disrupting cellular processes. Reduced cysteines and oxidized cystines of roGFP have excitation maxima at 488 nm and 405 nm, respectively, with emission at 525 nm. Assessing the ratios of these reduced and oxidized forms allows the convenient calculation of redox balance within the cell. In this method article, immortalized human triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were used to assess redox status within the living cell. The protocol steps include MDA-MB-231 cell line transduction with adenovirus to express cytosolic roGFP, treatment with H2O2, and assessment of cysteine and cystine ratio with both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.


Assuntos
Compartimento Celular , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisteína/metabolismo , Cistina/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oxirredução , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Transdução Genética
12.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597836

RESUMO

Since the initial description of protein transduction domains, also known as cell penetrating peptides, over 25 years ago, there has been intense interest in developing these peptides, especially cell-specific ones, as novel vectors for delivering diagnostic and therapeutic materials. Our past work involving phage display identified a novel, nonnaturally occurring, 12 amino acid-long peptide that we named cardiac targeting peptide (CTP) due to its ability to transduce normal heart tissue in vivo with peak uptake seen in as little as 15 min after an intravenous injection. We have undertaken detailed biodistribution studies by injecting CTP labeled with fluorophore cyanine5.5, allowing it to circulate for various periods of time, and euthanizing, fixing, and sectioning multiple organs followed by fluorescent microscopy imaging. In this publication, we describe these processes as well as ex vivo imaging of harvested organs using an in vivo imaging system in detail. We provide detailed methodologies and practices for undertaking transduction as well as biodistribution studies using CTP as an example.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução Genética , Animais , Fluorescência , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Camundongos , Imagem Óptica , Especificidade de Órgãos , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Tecidual
13.
Cell ; 182(3): 744-753.e4, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553273

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic with millions of human infections. One limitation to the evaluation of potential therapies and vaccines to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and ameliorate disease is the lack of susceptible small animals in large numbers. Commercially available laboratory strains of mice are not readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 because of species-specific differences in their angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Here, we transduced replication-defective adenoviruses encoding human ACE2 via intranasal administration into BALB/c mice and established receptor expression in lung tissues. hACE2-transduced mice were productively infected with SARS-CoV-2, and this resulted in high viral titers in the lung, lung pathology, and weight loss. Passive transfer of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduced viral burden in the lung and mitigated inflammation and weight loss. The development of an accessible mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis will expedite the testing and deployment of therapeutics and vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Knockout , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução Genética , Células Vero , Carga Viral/imunologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2573, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444794

RESUMO

Numerous nontruncating missense variants of the BRCA2 gene have been identified, but there is a lack of convincing evidence, such as familial data, demonstrating their clinical relevance and they thus remain unactionable. To assess the pathogenicity of variants of unknown significance (VUSs) within BRCA2, here we develop a method, the MANO-B method, for high-throughput functional evaluation utilizing BRCA2-deficient cells and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. The estimated sensitivity and specificity of this assay compared to those of the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification system is 95% and 95% (95% confidence intervals: 77-100% and 82-99%), respectively. We classify the functional impact of 186 BRCA2 VUSs with our computational pipeline, resulting in the classification of 126 variants as normal/likely normal, 23 as intermediate, and 37 as abnormal/likely abnormal. We further describe a simplified, on-demand annotation system that could be used as a companion diagnostic for PARP inhibitors in patients with unknown BRCA2 VUSs.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Transdução Genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2102, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355221

RESUMO

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are typically single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) encapsulated within 25-nm protein capsids. Recently, tissue-specific AAV capsids (e.g. PHP.eB) have been shown to enhance brain delivery in rodents via the LY6A receptor on brain endothelial cells. Here, we create a non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) methodology to track viruses. To provide the sensitivity required to track AAVs injected at picomolar levels, a unique multichelator construct labeled with a positron emitter (Cu-64, t1/2 = 12.7 h) is coupled to the viral capsid. We find that brain accumulation of the PHP.eB capsid 1) exceeds that reported in any previous PET study of brain uptake of targeted therapies and 2) is correlated with optical reporter gene transduction of the brain. The PHP.eB capsid brain endothelial receptor affinity is nearly 20-fold greater than that of AAV9. The results suggest that novel PET imaging techniques can be applied to inform and optimize capsid design.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dependovirus/isolamento & purificação , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Animais , Capsídeo , Quelantes/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Cobre/farmacocinética , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução Genética
16.
Exp Hematol ; 86: 28-42.e3, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473295

RESUMO

As important vectors for ectopic protein expression, gene silencing, and progenitor cell barcoding, lentiviruses continue to emerge as versatile research and clinical tools. For studies employing cell types that are relatively resistant to transduction, high-titer lentivirus preparations with low cytotoxicity are required. During lentivirus production, carryover plasmid DNA endotoxins, transfection reagents, damaged packaging cells, and virus concentration procedures are potential sources of cytotoxicity. As an often unevaluated property of lentivirus preparations, cytotoxicity can unwittingly skew estimates of functional titers and complicate interpretations of transduced cell phenotypes. By employing hematopoietic UT7epo cells cultured in erythropoietin (EPO) below maximal dosing, we first define a sensitive flow cytometric bioassay for critically assessing the cytotoxicity (and titers) of lentivirus preparations. Bioassay of custom preparations of research-grade lentiviruses from six commercial sources unexpectedly revealed substantial cytotoxicity (with certain preparations additionally registering titers several log below designated values). To overcome such limiting properties, we further report on unique, efficient workflows for reproducibly preparing and processing high-titer, low-cytotoxicity (HTLC) lentiviruses at research scale. These HTLC lentiviruses reliably transduce peripheral blood hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (PB-HSPCs) at frequencies ≥40%, with low cytotoxicity. In addition, by employing cyclosporin H (to inhibit IFITM3), PB-HSPCs can be transduced at heightened efficiency with nominal cytotoxicity. Overall, this work provides straightforward approaches to (1) critical assessment of the cytotoxicity of lentivirus preparations; (2) reproducible generation (and concentration) of high-quality lentiviruses via a streamlined workflow; and (3) transduction of PB-HSPCs at benchmark levels with nominal cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Eritropoetina , Vetores Genéticos , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Lentivirus , Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/metabolismo , Transdução Genética , Linhagem Celular , Eritropoetina/biossíntese , Eritropoetina/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/citologia
17.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250358

RESUMO

Emerging immunotherapies to treat infectious diseases and cancers often involve transduction of cellular populations with genes encoding disease-targeting proteins. For example, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells to treat cancers and viral infections involve the transduction of T cells with synthetic genes encoding CAR molecules. The CAR molecules make the T cells specifically recognize and kill cancer or virally infected cells. Cells can also be co-transduced with other genes of interest. For example, cells can be co-transduced with genes encoding proteins that target cells to specific locations. Here, we present a protocol to transduce primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with genes encoding a virus-specific CAR and the B cell follicle homing molecule chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5). This procedure takes nine days and results in transduced T cell populations that maintain a central memory phenotype. Maintenance of a central memory or less differentiated phenotype has been shown to associate with persistence of cells post-infusion. Furthermore, cells produced with this method show high levels of viability, high levels of co-expression of the two transduced genes, and large enough quantities of cells for immunotherapeutic infusion. This nine-day protocol may be broadly used for CAR-T cell and other T cell immunotherapy approaches. The methods described here are based on studies presented in our previous publications.


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR5/genética , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução Genética
18.
Inflamm Res ; 69(7): 631-633, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: CHRFAM7A is a unique human gene that encodes a dominant negative inhibitor of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have recently shown that CHRFAM7A is expressed in human leukocytes, increases cel-cell adhesion, and regulates the expression of genes associated with leukocyte migration. MATERIAL: Human THP-1, RAW264.7 and HEK293 cells. METHODS: Cell migration, cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar to compare the biological activity of vector vs. CHRFAM7A-transduced cells. RESULTS: We show that gene delivery of CHRFAM7A into the THP-1 human monocytic cell line reduces cell migration, reduces chemotaxis to monocyte chemoattractant protein, and reduces colony formation in soft agar. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the findings demonstrate that CHRFAM7A regulates the biological activity of monocytes/macrophages to migrate and undergo anchorage-independent growth in vitro.


Assuntos
Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Leucócitos , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/fisiologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Células THP-1 , Transdução Genética , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/genética , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/fisiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4544, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161326

RESUMO

Ex-vivo gene therapy using stem cells or T cells transduced by retroviral or lentiviral vectors has shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of immunodeficiencies and cancer. However, the process is expensive, technically challenging, and not readily scalable to large patient populations, particularly in underdeveloped parts of the world. Direct in vivo gene therapy would avoid these issues, and such approaches with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been shown to be safe and efficacious in clinical trials for diseases affecting differentiated tissues such as the liver and CNS. However, the ability to transduce lymphocytes with AAV in vivo after systemic delivery has not been carefully explored. Here, we show that both standard and exosome-associated preparations of AAV8 vectors can effectively transduce a variety of immune cell populations including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells after systemic delivery in mice. We provide direct evidence of T cell transduction through the detection of AAV genomes and transgene mRNA, and show that intracellular and transmembrane proteins can be expressed. These findings establish the feasibility of AAV-mediated in vivo gene delivery to immune cells which will facilitate both basic and applied research towards the goal of direct in vivo gene immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Dependovirus/genética , Exossomos/genética , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Transdução Genética , Transgenes
20.
Cytotherapy ; 22(4): 180-192, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139242

RESUMO

Perinatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is defined as lung injury in preterm infants caused by various factors, resulting in serious respiratory dysfunction and high mortality. The administration of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) to treat/prevent BPD has proven to have certain therapeutic effects. However, MSCs can only weakly regulate macrophage function, which is strongly involved in the development of BPD. 7ND-MSCs are MSCs transfected with 7ND, a truncated version of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) that promotes macrophage activation, using a lentiviral vector. In the present study, we show in a BPD rat model that 7ND-MSC administration, but not MSCs alone, ameliorated the impaired alveolarization evaluated by volume density and surface area in the lung tissue, as well as pulmonary artery remodeling and pulmonary hypertension induced by BPD. In addition, 7ND-MSCs, but not MSCs alone, reduced M1 macrophages and the messenger RNA expressions of interleukin-6 and CCL2 in the lung tissue. Thus, the present study showed the treatment effect of 7ND-MSCs in a BPD rat model, which was more effective than that of MSCs alone.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Quimiocina CCL2/antagonistas & inibidores , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Transdução Genética , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores CCR2/antagonistas & inibidores , Transfecção , Remodelação Vascular/genética
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