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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 213-220, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Kisspeptin produced from the KISS1 gene is secreted from the living cells, binds to endogenous receptor KISS1R (also called G protein-coupled receptor 54, GPR54), and has various functions in normal physiological conditions. Although an anti-metastatic role of kisspeptin in cancer is well known in several cancer types, its role in brain tumors is not yet understood. Herein, we investigated a the role of kisspeptin in glioblastoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glioblastoma cells were treated with kisspeptin and subjected to proliferation, migration, and invasion assays. KISS1R dependency was tested by KISS1R silencing with KISS1R siRNAs. RESULTS: Kisspeptin inhibited migratory and invasive abilities of U87-MG, U-251-MG and U373-MG glioblastoma cells with no effect on cell viability. KISS1R gene silencing with KISS1R siRNAs blocked kisspeptin-induced glioblastoma cell invasiveness. Moreover, chemical inhibitors against Gq, PLC or PKC blocked kisspeptin-induced glioblastoma cell invasiveness. CONCLUSION: Kisspeptin induces glioblastoma cell invasiveness via the KISS1R-Gq-PLC-PKC signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfolipases Tipo C/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica
2.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 14-21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246335

RESUMO

Manipulating an exogenous or endogenous gene of interest at a defined level is critical for a wide variety of experiments. The Gal4/UAS system has been widely used to direct gene expression for studying complex genetic and biological problems in Drosophila melanogaster and other model organisms. Driven by a given tissue-specific Gal4, expressing UAS-transgene or UAS-RNAi (RNA interference) could be used to up- or down-regulate target gene expression, respectively. However, the efficiency of the Gal4/UAS system is roughly predefined by properties of transposon vector constructs and the insertion site in the transgenic stock. Here, we describe a simple way to modulate optomotor blind (omb) expression levels in its endogenous expression region of the wing disc. We co-expressed UAS-omb and UAS-omb-RNAi together under the control of dpp-Gal4 driver which is expressed in the omb expression region of the wing pouch. The repression effect is more sensitive to temperature than that of overexpression. At low temperature, overexpression plays a dominant role but the efficiency is attenuated by UAS-omb-RNAi. In contrast, at high temperature RNAi predominates in gene expression regulation. By this strategy, we could manipulate omb expression levels at a moderate level. It allows us to manipulate omb expression levels in the same tissue between overexpression and repression at different stages by temperature control.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134296, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683218

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an air pollutant, has toxic effects on respiratory tract. However, the underlying mechanisms of H2S induced respiratory toxicity and the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) in this process remain poorly understood. To clear this, we investigated the change of tracheal tissue ultrastructure and the expression profiles of lncRNAs and miRNAs of chicken trachea exposed to H2S for 42 days. Results showed that H2S exposure triggered apoptosis, necroptosis, and differential expression of 16 lncRNAs and 18 miRNAs in broiler tracheas. The results of LMH cells stimulated by NaHS in vitro also showed the occurrence of apoptosis and necroptosis. LncRNA3037 is down-regulated and miR-15a is up-regulated in tracheal tissue and LMH cells under H2S exposure. Bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter system showed lncRNA3037 bound directly to miR-15a and negatively regulates each other. A20 and BCL2 are the target genes of miR-15a and negatively regulated by it. Overexpression of miR-15a caused apoptosis and necroptosis and its inhibition partially reversed apoptosis and necroptosis of LMH cells caused by NaHS stimulation and lncRNA3037 knockdown. Taken together, we concluded that H2S exposure mediates apoptosis and necroptosis through lncRNA3037/miR-15/A20-BCL2. These results provide new insights for unveiling the biological effects of H2S in vivo and in vitro.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Galinhas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Transdução de Sinais , Testes de Toxicidade , Traqueia
4.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 131: 107369, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706114

RESUMO

High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) is an emerging electroporation-based therapy used to ablate cancerous tissue. Treatment consists of delivering short, bipolar pulses (1-10µs) in a series of 80-100 bursts (1 burst/s, 100µs on-time). Reducing pulse duration leads to reduced treatment volumes compared to traditional IRE, therefore larger voltages must be applied to generate ablations comparable in size. We show that adjuvant calcium enhances ablation area in vitro for H-FIRE treatments of several pulse durations (1, 2, 5, 10µs). Furthermore, H-FIRE treatment using 10µs pulses delivered with 1mM CaCl2 results in cell death thresholds (771±129V/cm) comparable to IRE thresholds without calcium (698±103V/cm). Quantifying the reversible electroporation threshold revealed that CaCl2 enhances the permeabilization of cells compared to a NaCl control. Gene expression analysis determined that CaCl2 upregulates expression of eIFB5 and 60S ribosomal subunit genes while downregulating NOX1/4, leading to increased signaling in pathways that may cause necroptosis. The opposite was found for control treatment without CaCl2 suggesting cells experience an increase in pro survival signaling. Our study is the first to identify key genes and signaling pathways responsible for differences in cell response to H-FIRE treatment with and without calcium.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroporação/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hidrogéis , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Gut ; 69(1): 158-167, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a circular RNA virus coinfecting hepatocytes with hepatitis B virus. Chronic hepatitis D results in severe liver disease and an increased risk of liver cancer. Efficient therapeutic approaches against HDV are absent. DESIGN: Here, we combined an RNAi loss-of-function and small molecule screen to uncover host-dependency factors for HDV infection. RESULTS: Functional screening unravelled the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-signalling and insulin-resistance pathways, RNA polymerase II, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and the pyrimidine metabolism as virus-hepatocyte dependency networks. Validation studies in primary human hepatocytes identified the carbamoyl-phosphatesynthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase and dihydroorotase (CAD) enzyme and estrogen receptor alpha (encoded by ESR1) as key host factors for HDV life cycle. Mechanistic studies revealed that the two host factors are required for viral replication. Inhibition studies using N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-aspartic acid and fulvestrant, specific CAD and ESR1 inhibitors, respectively, uncovered their impact as antiviral targets. CONCLUSION: The discovery of HDV host-dependency factors elucidates the pathogenesis of viral disease biology and opens therapeutic strategies for HDV cure.


Assuntos
Aspartato Carbamoiltransferase/genética , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Carbamoil Fosfato Sintase (Glutamina-Hidrolizante)/genética , Di-Hidro-Orotase/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Fulvestranto/farmacologia , Hepatite D Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Fosfonoacéticos/análogos & derivados , Pirimidinas/biossíntese , Antivirais/farmacologia , Aspartato Carbamoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Aspartato Carbamoiltransferase/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/farmacologia , Carbamoil Fosfato Sintase (Glutamina-Hidrolizante)/antagonistas & inibidores , Carbamoil Fosfato Sintase (Glutamina-Hidrolizante)/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Di-Hidro-Orotase/antagonistas & inibidores , Di-Hidro-Orotase/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Receptor de Estrogênio/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Inativação Gênica , Hepatite D Crônica/genética , Hepatite D Crônica/metabolismo , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/fisiologia , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mutação com Perda de Função , Ácido Fosfonoacéticos/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Replicação Viral
6.
Gut ; 69(1): 146-157, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We explored the hypothesis that TGR5, the bile acid (BA) G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in biliary epithelial cells, protects the liver against BA overload through the regulation of biliary epithelium permeability. DESIGN: Experiments were performed under basal and TGR5 agonist treatment. In vitro transepithelial electric resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran diffusion were measured in different cell lines. In vivo FITC-dextran was injected in the gallbladder (GB) lumen and traced in plasma. Tight junction proteins and TGR5-induced signalling were investigated in vitro and in vivo (wild-type [WT] and TGR5-KO livers and GB). WT and TGR5-KO mice were submitted to bile duct ligation or alpha-naphtylisothiocyanate intoxication under vehicle or TGR5 agonist treatment, and liver injury was studied. RESULTS: In vitro TGR5 stimulation increased TER and reduced paracellular permeability for dextran. In vivo dextran diffusion after GB injection was increased in TGR5-knock-out (KO) as compared with WT mice and decreased on TGR5 stimulation. In TGR5-KO bile ducts and GB, junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) was hypophosphorylated and selectively downregulated among TJP analysed. TGR5 stimulation induced JAM-A phosphorylation and stabilisation both in vitro and in vivo, associated with protein kinase C-ζ activation. TGR5 agonist-induced TER increase as well as JAM-A protein stabilisation was dependent on JAM-A Ser285 phosphorylation. TGR5 agonist-treated mice were protected from cholestasis-induced liver injury, and this protection was significantly impaired in JAM-A-KO mice. CONCLUSION: The BA receptor TGR5 regulates biliary epithelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo through an impact on JAM-A expression and phosphorylation, thereby protecting liver parenchyma against bile leakage.


Assuntos
Sistema Biliar/fisiopatologia , Colestase Intra-Hepática/prevenção & controle , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/fisiologia , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Colestase Intra-Hepática/metabolismo , Impedância Elétrica , Epitélio/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Isonipecóticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Isonipecóticos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Oximas/farmacologia , Oximas/uso terapêutico , Permeabilidade , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
7.
Gut ; 69(1): 122-132, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated how pancreatic cancer developed resistance to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibition over time. DESIGN: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumours from KPC mice (p48-CRE; LSL-KRasG12D/wt; p53flox/wt) treated with FAK inhibitor were analysed for the activation of a compensatory survival pathway in resistant tumours. We identified pathways involved in the regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling on FAK inhibition by gene set enrichment analysis and verified these outcomes by RNA interference studies. We also tested combinatorial approaches targeting FAK and STAT3 in syngeneic transplantable mouse models of PDAC and KPC mice. RESULTS: In KPC mice, the expression levels of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) were increased in PDAC cells as they progressed on FAK inhibitor therapy. This progression corresponded to decreased collagen density, lowered numbers of SMA+ fibroblasts and downregulation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)/SMAD signalling pathway in FAK inhibitor-treated PDAC tumours. Furthermore, TGF-ß production by fibroblasts in vitro drives repression of STAT3 signalling and enhanced responsiveness to FAK inhibitor therapy. Knockdown of SMAD3 in pancreatic cancer cells abolished the inhibitory effects of TGF-ß on pSTAT3. We further found that tumour-intrinsic STAT3 regulates the durability of the antiproliferative activity of FAK inhibitor, and combinatorial targeting of FAK and Janus kinase/STAT3 act synergistically to suppress pancreatic cancer progression in mouse models. CONCLUSION: Stromal depletion by FAK inhibitor therapy leads to eventual treatment resistance through the activation of STAT3 signalling. These data suggest that, similar to tumour-targeted therapies, resistance mechanisms to therapies targeting stromal desmoplasia may be critical to treatment durability.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/enzimologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Gene ; 725: 144143, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629816

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a common cardiovascular disorder and is characterized by damage of endothelial cells, cell inflammation, hyper-proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the accumulation of extracellular lipids and fibrous tissues. In this study, we firstly examined the expression level of long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, regulator of reprogramming (linc-ROR) in homocysteine (Hcy)-stimulated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), and then looked into the potential molecular signaling axis of linc-ROR in regulating the proliferation and migration of HASMCs. Hcy promoted HASMC proliferation and up-regulated linc-ROR expression. Functional studies showed that linc-ROR exerted enhanced actions on the proliferation and migration of HASMCs. In addition, linc-ROR acted as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-195-5p and repressed the miR-195-5p expression in HASMCs. Linc-ROR was up-regulated the miR-195-3p was down-regulated in the plasma from CAD patients when compared to normal controls. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was identified as a target of miR-195-5p and was negatively regulated by miR-195-5p in HASMCs. The rescue experiments revealed that linc-ROR-mediated HASMC proliferation and migration may be via regulating miR-195-5p/FGF2 axis. Linc-ROR inhibition blocked the miR-195-5p/FGF2 signaling in Hcy-treated HASMCs, and this effect may also involve in the miR-195-5p/FGF2 axis. To summarize, the data of the present study identified the up-regulation of linc-ROR in Hcy-stimulated HASMCs, and further mechanistic functional studies revealed that linc-ROR promoted HASMC proliferation and migration via regulating miR-195-5p/FGF2 axis. The present study provided the novel actions of linc-ROR in regulating HASMC proliferation and migration, which may be related to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Aorta/citologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Homocisteína/farmacologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Gene ; 725: 144159, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629818

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide due to its frequent metastasis, tumor recurrence, and lack of curative treatment. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in HCC progression remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the global gene expression of spontaneous liver tumor tissue from CBA/CaJ mice by RNA-Seq and identified 10,706 and 10,374 genes in the normal and liver tumor groups, respectively. Only 9793 genes were expressed in both, 913 genes were identified in only the liver tumor group, and 581 genes were found in normal liver tissues. There were 2054 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 975 down-regulated genes and 1079 up-regulated genes. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis showed that 43 up-regulated genes were significantly associated with cell cycle regulation and hundreds of up-regulated genes were related to cell migration, adhesion, or metabolic processes. KEGG pathway enrichment also demonstrated that some DEGs were tightly associated with the cell cycle, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions, as well as protein digestion and absorption pathways, indicating that the activation of these oncogenic cascades was closely related to tumor liver progression in CBA/CaJ mice. Ninety-three genes with elevated expression levels preferentially localized in microtubules, kinetochores, and spindles play an important role during mitosis and meiosis and are associated with the reorganization of the cytoskeleton in cancer cells during migration and invasion. Some ECM-related genes were significantly different in the tumor group, including collagen types I, III, IV, V, and VI, non-collagenous glycoproteins, laminin, and fibronectin. We further validated the functions of upregulated genes, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), with regards to cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and proliferation in normal human liver or liver tumor-derived cell lines. Our results indicated that the cell cycle dysregulation, ECM-receptor interaction, and cytoskeleton-associated genes in mouse livers may promote HCC progression and deciphering the function of the genes will help investigators understand the underlying molecular mechanism of HCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Proteína Quinase CDC2/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(1): e21640, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667893

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that have immune responses to various stimuli have been identified in some insects. One type of pathogen-associated molecular pattern, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), can trigger the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and immune response. Interestingly, there has been no research into characterizing the relationship between lncRNA and dsRNA-induced RNAi pathways. In this study, dsRNA-induced lncRNAs were investigated in two species of lepidopteran insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, and one species of coleopteran insects, Tribolium castaneum. Between untreated group and dsRNA-induced group; 3,463 H. armigera, 6,245 P. xylostella, and 3,067 T. castaneum differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified while 156 H. armigera, 247 P. xylostella, 415 T. castaneum lncRNAs and their putative target genes showed consistent changes in gene expression. In T. castaneum, most target genes of the differentially expressed lncRNAs are enriched in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway, ABC transporters, and Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of the transcription signaling pathway. Conversely, in H. armigera and P. xylostella, the differentially expressed lncRNAs were mainly enriched in the metabolic, digestive, and synthetic signaling pathways. This result indicates that dsRNA-induced lncRNA is species-dependent. We also found that both Dicer-2 and the lncRNA that targets Dicer-2 were significantly upregulated after dsRNA treatment in P. xylostella, indicating that some lncRNAs may be involved in the regulation of the core RNAi pathway in insects. Our results are the first to identify a relationship between lncRNAs and dsRNA in various insect species with different RNAi efficiencies. These results provide a reference for future study of the dsRNA-induced RNAi pathway and different RNAi efficiencies among insect species.


Assuntos
Mariposas/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/farmacologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Tribolium/genética , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Mariposas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Tribolium/metabolismo
11.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124602, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545211

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been known to exhibit neurotoxicity in rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown and there is no available intervention. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex and primary neurons in rats following the BDE-153 treatment. Compared to the untreated group, BDE-153 treatment significantly induced the neurotoxic effects in rats, as manifested by the increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and cell apoptosis rates, and the decreased neurotrophic factor contents and cholinergic enzyme activities in rats' cerebral cortices and primary neurons. When compared to the untreated group, the oxidative and nitrosative stress had occurred in the cerebral cortex or primary neurons in rats following the BDE-153 treatment, as manifested by the increments in levels of reactive oxygenspecies (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA and protein expressions, along with the decline in levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, and peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and Prx II mRNA and protein expressions. In addition, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or NO scavenger NG-Nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA) significantly rescued the LDH leakage and cell survival, reversed the neurotrophin contents and cholinergic enzymes, mainly via regaining balance between oxidation/nitrosation and antioxidation. Overall, our findings suggested that oxidative and nitrosative stresses are involved in the neurotoxicity induced by BDE-153, and that the antioxidation is a potential targeted intervention.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Estresse Nitrosativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotrofina 3/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Estresse Nitrosativo/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
APMIS ; 128(1): 10-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642122

RESUMO

Atherogenesis is associated with chronic gut infections; however, the mechanisms are not clear. The aim of the study was to determine whether lipopolysaccharide of E. coli (E. coli LPS) may affect endothelial barrier and modify IL-10 expression in dendritic cells (DCs). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and monocyte-derived DCs were treated with E. coli LPS, apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-kCH) - harmful oxidized form of cholesterol. The effect of E. coli LPS, 7-kCH and ApoB100 on the barrier functions of HUVECs in real-time cell electric impedance sensing system (RTCA-DP) was assessed. Furthermore, the effect of 7-kCH and ApoB100 on barrier functions of HUVECs co-cultured with DCs previously treated with LPS was analyzed. Both E. coli LPS and 7-kCH decreased barrier functions of HUVECs and reduced tight junction protein mRNA expression, whereas ApoB100 increased endothelial barrier. In DCs, ApoB100 and E. coli LPS decreased IL-10 mRNA expression. In HUVECs co-cultured with DCs treated with LPS and subsequently pulsed with ApoB100 or 7-kCH, IL-10 mRNA expression was lower. E. coli LPS-exposed DCs diminished the protective effect of ApoB100 on endothelial integrity and led to the decrease in occludin mRNA expression. LPS potentially derived from gut microflora may destabilize endothelial barrier together with oxidized cholesterol and intensify the immunogenicity of ApoB100.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-10/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Apolipoproteína B-100/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Escherichia coli/química , Humanos , Cetocolesteróis/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ocludina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
13.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(S1): 52-62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854954

RESUMO

Kv1.3 is a voltage gated potassium channel located in the plasma membrane, as well as at intracellular levels, such as mitochondria (mitoKv1.3), nucleus and Golgi apparatus. The plasma membrane channel has been shown to be important for cell proliferation, while the mitochondrial counterpart has been related to modulation of cell death. Moreover, altered expression of Kv1.3 was observed in various tumors and Kv1.3 seems to be involved in development and progression of various cancerous forms. Recent experimental evidences have proved that pharmacological inhibition of the mitoKv1.3 succeeded in reducing up to 90% of tumor volume in vivo in orthotopic mouse model. Furthermore, mitoKv1.3 modulation could impact on cell proliferation as well as on regulation of intracellular signaling pathways. Indeed, the treatment with sub-lethal doses of mitoKv1.3 inhibitors can downregulate Wnt-ß catenin signaling by reducing mitochondrial ATP production and triggering ER-stress. In this review, we describe the role of the mitoKv1.3 in cell death, cancer and intracellular signaling. We will discuss how pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial potassium fluxes impact on mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production and ATP synthesis. All these changes in mitochondrial fitness are related to cell proliferation as well as to cell death and finally on cancer development and progression, so Kv1.3 (and mitoKv1.3) could be now considered a new oncological target.


Assuntos
Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/antagonistas & inibidores , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Interferência de RNA , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(10): 1174-1178, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857513

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis is an intestinal inflammatory disease characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain and purulent stool. Uncontrolled inflammation caused by macrophage hyper-activation is an important cause of ulcerative colitis. Therefore, inhibiting macrophage hyper-activation is an effective way to treat ulcerative colitis. Notch signaling pathway is involved in regulating the immune response of macrophages and promoting inflammation. NF-κB signaling pathway is the "star pathway" involved in inflammation. NLRP3 inflammatory body is involved in the activation of macrophages. Notch, NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammatory bodies constitute the upstream and downstream signal pathways in the existing immune inflammatory diseases. Notch signal pathway can regulate the activation of macrophage via NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammatory body signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Citocinas , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , NF-kappa B , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Receptores Notch , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 4905-4911, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872599

RESUMO

The study aimed to illuminate the role of G protein coupled estrogen receptor( GPER) and its mediated PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway in cryptotanshinone( CPT) induced apoptosis of breast cancer SKBR-3 cells,which is GPER positive and ER negative.The apoptosis rate of SKBR-3 cells was tested by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and apoptosis effector caspase-3 was determined by Western blot. The key proteins in PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway mediated by GPER were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence technique. Meanwhile,the agonist G1 and antagonist G15 of GPER and antagonist LY294002 of PI3 K were employed in the test to further clarify the effect of GPER and PI3 K/AKT pathway. The results indicated that the apoptosis rate was increased from 4. 7% to46. 1% and 69. 0% after treatment with 0,5,10 µmol·L~(-1) CPT for 48 h( P<0. 01). The expression of PI3 K,AKT and p-AKT were inhibited( P<0. 05 or P<0. 01),while caspase-3 level increased obviously after treatment with CPT( P<0. 01). Importantly,inhibitory effect of PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway by CPT was further enhanced by G1 and attenuated by G15. LY294002 also induced a further inhibition of expression of AKT and p-AKT. The mean fluorescence intensity of AKT and p-AKT could be decreased by CPT. Furthermore,CPT could downregulate GPER expression in SKBR-3 cells( P<0. 01),which could be inhibited by G1 and enhanced by G15.In conclusion,CPT could induce the apoptosis of ER negative and GPER positive breast cancer SKBR-3 cells and the molecular mechanism is related to its regulatory effect of GPER and its mediated PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Receptores Estrogênicos , Apoptose , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 4912-4917, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872600

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the effect of triptolide( TP) on cardiovascular function and its possible mechanism by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in rats with endotoxemia. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided intonormal group( NC group),endotoxemia model group( LPS group),TP low concentration intervention group( LPS + TP-L group,25 µg·kg~(-1)),TP middle concentration intervention group( LPS+TP-M group,50 µg·kg~(-1)),TP high concentration intervention group( LPS+TP-H group,100 µg·kg~(-1)) and polymyxin B group( LPS+PMX-B group,0. 2 mg·kg~(-1)). 10 mg·kg~(-1) LPS was injected intraperitoneally for 6 h to replicate the endotoxemia rat model. The rats in TP intervention groups were pre-treated 15 min before intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Rats in each group underwent total arterial intubation to measure hemodynamic parameters: heart rate( HR),left ventricular diastolic pressure( LVDP),the maximum rate of the increase/decrease of left ventricular pressure( ±dp/dtmax). The levels of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum and levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma were detected by ELISA. The contents of p65 protein in myocardium and contents of p65,TLR4,i NOS and e NOS protein in thoracic aorta were detected by Western blot. As compared with NC group,the hemodynamic indexes in LPS group were significantly decreased; the contents of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum,TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma,p65 in myocardium,i NOS,e NOS,TLR4 and p65 in vascular tissues were significantly increased. As compared with LPS group,the hemodynamic indexes were significantly improved in LPS+TP-M group,LPS+TP-H group and LPS+PMX-B group; the contents of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum,TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma,p65 in myocardium,i NOS,e NOS,TLR4 and p65 in vascular tissues were significantly decreased in each treatment group. Triptolide has a protective effect on cardiovascular damage in a dose-dependent manner in endotoxemia rats,probably through TLR4/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway to improve endothelial function.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Endotoxemia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Endotélio , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , NF-kappa B , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
18.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(12): 2238-2256, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880133

RESUMO

Dynamic variations of the cell microenvironment can affect cell differentiation, cell signaling pathways, individual growth, and disease. Optogenetics combines gene-encoded protein expression with optical controlling, and offers a novel, reversible, non-invasive and spatiotemporal-specific research tool to dynamically or reversibly regulate cell signaling pathways, subcellular localization and gene expression. This review summarizes the types of optogenetic components and the involved cellular signaling pathways, and explores the application and future prospects of the light-controlled cell signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Optogenética , Diferenciação Celular , Luz , Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111657, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706085

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a general neurodegenerative disorder which largely has an effect on the society of the aged populations. PD is distinguishedwith loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The exceptional properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have fascinated great attention in biomedical applications. In this present study, we explored theprospective beneficial effects of AuNPs synthesized from Cinnamomum verum on PD. PD rat models were established through MPTP injection treatment and AuNPs was administered. Administration of AuNPs reduces effect of MPTP-induced oxidative stress and motor abnormalities observed in PD rats. In addition ELISA analysis demonstrated that AuNPs treatment significantly attenuates Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression levels. Consequently, we investigated TLR/NF-κB pathway to examine the function of AuNPs on MPTP- induced PD rats. We found that AuNPs suppressed the alterations in the pathway of TLR/NF-κB associated molecules in MPTP stimulated PD rats. Hence, our results suggest that AuNPs attenuates MPTP introduced motor disorders, oxidative stress, activated inflammatory cytokines and activated TLR/NF-κB signaling in PD rats. In conclusion, AuNPs ease PD symptoms by the inhibition of TLR/NF-κB signaling pathway and recommend promise approach in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Ouro/química , Intoxicação por MPTP/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Intoxicação por MPTP/patologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1163: 25-43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707698

RESUMO

Allostery is largely associated with conformational and functional transitions in individual proteins. All dynamic proteins are allosteric. This concept can be extended to consider the impact of conformational perturbations on cellular function and disease states. In this section, we will illuminate how allostery can control physiological activities and cause disease, aiming to increase the awareness of the linkage between disease symptoms on the cellular level and specific aberrant allosteric actions on the molecular level.


Assuntos
Doença , Proteínas , Regulação Alostérica , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas/química , Transdução de Sinais
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