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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 331, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471099

RESUMO

The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of ongoing global pandemic of COVID-19, may trigger immunosuppression in the early stage and overactive immune response in the late stage of infection; However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein dually regulated innate immune responses, i.e., the low-dose N protein suppressed type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and inflammatory cytokines, whereas high-dose N protein promoted IFN-I signaling and inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistically, the SARS-CoV-2 N protein dually regulated the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3, STAT1, and STAT2. Additionally, low-dose N protein combined with TRIM25 could suppress the ubiquitination and activation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Our findings revealed a regulatory mechanism of innate immune responses by the SARS-CoV-2 N protein, which would contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and other SARS-like coronaviruses, and development of more effective strategies for controlling COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células A549 , COVID-19/patologia , Células CACO-2 , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502105

RESUMO

The human brain and central nervous system (CNS) harbor a select sub-group of potentially pathogenic microRNAs (miRNAs), including a well-characterized NF-kB-sensitive Homo sapiens microRNA hsa-miRNA-146a-5p (miRNA-146a). miRNA-146a is significantly over-expressed in progressive and often lethal viral- and prion-mediated and related neurological syndromes associated with progressive inflammatory neurodegeneration. These include ~18 different viral-induced encephalopathies for which data are available, at least ~10 known prion diseases (PrD) of animals and humans, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other sporadic and progressive age-related neurological disorders. Despite the apparent lack of nucleic acids in prions, both DNA- and RNA-containing viruses along with prions significantly induce miRNA-146a in the infected host, but whether this represents part of the host's adaptive immunity, innate-immune response or a mechanism to enable the invading prion or virus a successful infection is not well understood. Current findings suggest an early and highly interactive role for miRNA-146a: (i) as a major small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) regulator of innate-immune responses and inflammatory signaling in cells of the human brain and CNS; (ii) as a critical component of the complement system and immune-related neurological dysfunction; (iii) as an inducible sncRNA of the brain and CNS that lies at a critical intersection of several important neurobiological adaptive immune response processes with highly interactive associations involving complement factor H (CFH), Toll-like receptor pathways, the innate-immunity, cytokine production, apoptosis and neural cell decline; and (iv) as a potential biomarker for viral infection, TSE and AD and other neurological diseases in both animals and humans. In this report, we review the recent data supporting the idea that miRNA-146a may represent a novel and unique sncRNA-based biomarker for inflammatory neurodegeneration in multiple species. This paper further reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and mechanism of miRNA-146a in viral and prion infection of the human brain and CNS with reference to AD wherever possible.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/imunologia , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Fator H do Complemento/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/análise , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Priônicas/genética , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
3.
J Immunol ; 207(4): 1150-1164, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341167

RESUMO

CARD11 is a multidomain scaffold protein required for normal activation of NF-κB, JNK, and mTOR during Ag receptor signaling. Germline CARD11 mutations cause at least three types of primary immunodeficiency including CARD11 deficiency, B cell expansion with NF-κB and T cell anergy (BENTA), and CARD11-associated atopy with dominant interference of NF-κB signaling (CADINS). CADINS is uniquely caused by heterozygous loss-of-function CARD11 alleles that act as dominant negatives. CADINS patients present with frequent respiratory and skin infections, asthma, allergies, and atopic dermatitis. However, precisely how a heterozygous dominant negative CARD11 allele leads to the development of this CADINS-specific cluster of symptoms remains poorly understood. To address this, we generated mice expressing the CARD11 R30W allele originally identified in patients. We find that CARD11R30W/+ mice exhibit impaired signaling downstream of CARD11 that leads to defects in T, B, and NK cell function and immunodeficiency. CARD11R30W/+ mice develop elevated serum IgE levels with 50% penetrance that becomes more pronounced with age, but do not develop spontaneous atopic dermatitis. CARD11R30W/+ mice display reduced regulatory T cell numbers, but not the Th2 expansion observed in other mice with diminished CARD11 activity. Interestingly, the presence of mixed CARD11 oligomers in CARD11R30W/+ mice causes more severe signaling defects in T cells than in B cells, and specifically impacts IFN-γ production by NK cells, but not NK cell cytotoxicity. Our findings help explain the high susceptibility of CADINS patients to infection and suggest that the development of high serum IgE is not sufficient to induce overt atopic symptoms.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Alelos , Animais , Heterozigoto , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356615

RESUMO

The gut epithelial barrier provides the first line of defense protecting the internal milieu from the environment. To circumvent the exposure to constant challenges such as pathogenic infections and commensal bacteria, epithelial and immune cells at the gut barrier require rapid and efficient means to dynamically sense and respond to stimuli. Numerous studies have highlighted the importance of proteolysis in maintaining homeostasis and adapting to the dynamic changes of the conditions in the gut environment. Primarily, proteolytic activities that are involved in immune regulation and inflammation have been examined in the context of the lysosome and inflammasome activation. Yet, the key to cellular and tissue proteostasis is the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which tightly regulates fundamental aspects of inflammatory signaling and protein quality control to provide rapid responses and protect from the accumulation of proteotoxic damage. In this review, we discuss proteasome-dependent regulation of the gut and highlight the pathophysiological consequences of the disarray of proteasomal control in the gut, in the context of aberrant inflammatory disorders and tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Ativação Enzimática/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Lisossomos/imunologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/imunologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo
5.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1140-1151, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426691

RESUMO

Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells are non-recirculating cells that exist throughout the body. Although TRM cells in various organs rely on common transcriptional networks to establish tissue residency, location-specific factors adapt these cells to their tissue of lodgment. Here we analyze TRM cell heterogeneity between organs and find that the different environments in which these cells differentiate dictate TRM cell function, durability and malleability. We find that unequal responsiveness to TGFß is a major driver of this diversity. Notably, dampened TGFß signaling results in CD103- TRM cells with increased proliferative potential, enhanced function and reduced longevity compared with their TGFß-responsive CD103+ TRM counterparts. Furthermore, whereas CD103- TRM cells readily modified their phenotype upon relocation, CD103+ TRM cells were comparatively resistant to transdifferentiation. Thus, despite common requirements for TRM cell development, tissue adaptation of these cells confers discrete functional properties such that TRM cells exist along a spectrum of differentiation potential that is governed by their local tissue microenvironment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Microambiente Celular/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Feminino , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
6.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1175-1185, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429546

RESUMO

Systematic characterizations of adipose regulatory T (Treg) cell subsets and their phenotypes remain uncommon. Using single-cell ATAC-sequencing and paired single-cell RNA and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing to map mouse adipose Treg cells, we identified CD73hiST2lo and CD73loST2hi subsets with distinct clonal expansion patterns. Analysis of TCR-sharing data implied a state transition between CD73hiST2lo and CD73loST2hi subsets. Mechanistically, we revealed that insulin signaling occurs through a HIF-1α-Med23-PPAR-γ axis to drive the transition of CD73hiST2lo into a CD73loST2hi adipose Treg cell subset. Treg cells deficient in insulin receptor, HIF-1α or Med23 have decreased PPAR-γ expression that in turn promotes accumulation of CD73hiST2lo adipose Treg cells and physiological adenosine production to activate beige fat biogenesis. We therefore unveiled a developmental trajectory of adipose Treg cells and its dependence on insulin signaling. Our findings have implications for understanding the dynamics of adipose Treg cell subsets in aged and obese contexts.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Resistência à Insulina/imunologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/genética , 5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Masculino , Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/imunologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360720

RESUMO

Monocytes (Mos) and macrophages (Mφs) are key players in the innate immune system and are critical in coordinating the initiation, expansion, and regression of many autoimmune diseases. In addition, they display immunoregulatory effects that impact inflammation and are essential in tissue repair and regeneration. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an umbrella term describing inflammatory joint diseases in children. Accumulated evidence suggests a link between Mo and Mφ activation and JIA pathogenesis. Accordingly, topics regarding the signals and mechanisms regulating Mo and Mφ activation leading to pathologies in patients with JIA are of great interest. In this review, we critically summarize recent advances in the understanding of how Mo and Mφ activation is involved in JIA pathogenesis and focus on the signaling pathways and mechanisms participating in the related cell activation processes.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Artrite Juvenil/patologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Monócitos/patologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360779

RESUMO

Pro-inflammatory cytokines promote cellular iron-import through enhanced divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in pancreatic ß-cells, consequently cell death. Inhibition of ß-cell iron-import by DMT1 silencing protects against apoptosis in animal models of diabetes. However, how alterations of signaling networks contribute to the protective action of DMT1 knock-down is unknown. Here, we performed phosphoproteomics using our sequential enrichment strategy of mRNA, protein, and phosphopeptides, which enabled us to explore the concurrent molecular events in the same set of wildtype and DMT1-silenced ß-cells during IL-1ß exposure. Our findings reveal new phosphosites in the IL-1ß-induced proteins that are clearly reverted by DMT1 silencing towards their steady-state levels. We validated the levels of five novel phosphosites of the potential protective proteins using parallel reaction monitoring. We also confirmed the inactivation of autophagic flux that may be relevant for cell survival induced by DMT1 silencing during IL-1ß exposure. Additionally, the potential protective proteins induced by DMT1 silencing were related to insulin secretion that may lead to improving ß-cell functions upon exposure to IL-1ß. This global profiling has shed light on the signal transduction pathways driving the protection against inflammation-induced cell death in ß-cells after DMT1 silencing.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células Secretoras de Insulina/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408749

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has high incidence rates with rapid rate of transmission, is a pandemic that spread across the world, resulting in more than 3,000,000 deaths globally. Currently, several drugs have been used for the clinical treatment of COVID-19, such as antivirals (radecivir, baritinib), monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), and glucocorticoids (dexamethasone). Accumulating evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are essential regulators of virus infections and antiviral immune responses including biological processes that are involved in the regulation of COVID-19 and subsequent disease states. Upon viral infections, cellular lncRNAs directly regulate viral genes and influence viral replication and pathology through virus-mediated changes in the host transcriptome. Additionally, several host lncRNAs could help the occurrence of viral immune escape by inhibiting type I interferons (IFN-1), while others could up-regulate IFN-1 production to play an antiviral role. Consequently, understanding the expression and function of lncRNAs during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection will provide insights into the development of lncRNA-based methods. In this review, we summarized the current findings of lncRNAs in the regulation of the strong inflammatory response, immune dysfunction and thrombosis induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, discussed the underlying mechanisms, and highlighted the therapeutic challenges of COVID-19 treatment and its future research directions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Trombose/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/genética , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Trombose/genética , Trombose/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445235

RESUMO

Chemokines are a small family of cytokines that were first discovered as chemotactic factors in leukocytes during inflammation, and reports on the relationship between chemokines and cancer progression have recently been increasing. The CCL2-CCR2 axis is one of the major chemokine signaling pathways, and has various functions in tumor progression, such as increasing tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness, and creating a tumor microenvironment through increased angiogenesis and recruitment of immunosuppressive cells. This review discusses the roles of the CCL2-CCR2 axis and the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression and their future roles in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores CCR2/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445252

RESUMO

Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a persistent chronic neuroinflammatory illness exacerbated by external stressors and characterized by fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, cognitive, and neurological problems linked to underlying immunological dysfunction for which there is no known treatment. As the immune system and the brain communicate through several signaling pathways, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, it underlies many of the behavioral and physiological responses to stressors via blood-borne mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, and hormones. Signaling by these molecules is mediated by the semipermeable blood-brain barrier (BBB) made up of a monocellular layer forming an integral part of the neuroimmune axis. BBB permeability can be altered and even diminished by both external factors (e.g., chemical agents) and internal conditions (e.g., acute or chronic stress, or cross-signaling from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis). Such a complex network of regulatory interactions that possess feed-forward and feedback connections can have multiple response dynamics that may include several stable homeostatic states beyond normal health. Here we compare immune and hormone measures in the blood of human clinical samples and mouse models of Gulf War Illness (GWI) subtyped by exposure to traumatic stress for subtyping this complex illness. We do this via constructing a detailed logic model of HPA-HPG-Immune regulatory behavior that also considers signaling pathways across the BBB to neuronal-glial interactions within the brain. We apply conditional interactions to model the effects of changes in BBB permeability. Several stable states are identified in the system beyond typical health. Following alignment of the human and mouse blood profiles in the context of the model, mouse brain sample measures were used to infer the neuroinflammatory state in human GWI and perform treatment simulations using a genetic algorithm to optimize the Monte Carlo simulations of the putative treatment strategies aimed at returning the ill system back to health. We identify several ideal multi-intervention strategies and potential drug candidates that may be used to treat chronic neuroinflammation in GWI.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Modelos Neurológicos , Neuroimunomodulação , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445801

RESUMO

The cytoplasmic retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) initiate interferon (IFN) production and antiviral gene expression in response to RNA virus infection. Consequently, RLR signalling is tightly regulated by both host and viral factors. Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) is an E3 ligase that ubiquitinates multiple substrates within the RLR signalling cascade, playing both ubiquitination-dependent and -independent roles in RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. However, additional regulatory roles are emerging. Here, we show a novel interaction between TRIM25 and another protein in the RLR pathway that is essential for type I IFN induction, DEAD-box helicase 3X (DDX3X). In vitro assays and knockdown studies reveal that TRIM25 ubiquitinates DDX3X at lysine 55 (K55) and that TRIM25 and DDX3X cooperatively enhance IFNB1 induction following RIG-I activation, but the latter is independent of TRIM25's catalytic activity. Furthermore, we found that the influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) disrupts the TRIM25:DDX3X interaction, abrogating both TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination of DDX3X and cooperative activation of the IFNB1 promoter. Thus, our results reveal a new interplay between two RLR-host proteins that cooperatively enhance IFN-ß production. We also uncover a new and further mechanism by which influenza A virus NS1 suppresses host antiviral defence.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/imunologia , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/imunologia , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Ubiquitinação/imunologia
13.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21783, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403510

RESUMO

Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule with a variety of biological functions, which include its immunoregulatory action in mammals. Brucellosis is a worldwide endemic zoonotic disease caused by the Brucella, which not only causes huge economic losses for the livestock industry but also impacts human health. To target this problem, in current study, two marker-free transgenic sheep overexpressing melatonin synthetic enzyme ASMT (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase) gene were generated and these melatonin enrich transgenic sheep were challenged by Brucella infection. The results showed that the serum melatonin concentration was significantly higher in transgenic sheep than that of wild type (726.92 ± 70.6074 vs 263.10 ± 34.60 pg/mL, P < .05). Brucella challenge test showed that two thirds (4/6) of the wild-type sheep had brucellosis, while none of the transgenic sheep were infected. Whole-blood RNA-seq results showed that differential expression genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, phagosome, antigen processing, and presentation signaling pathways in overexpression sheep. The DEGs of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) families were verified by qPCR and it showed that TLR1, TLR2, TLR7, CD14, NAIP, and CXCL8 expression levels in overexpression sheep were significantly higher and NLRP1, NLRP3, and TNF expression levels were significantly lower than those of wild type. The rectal feces were subjected to 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing, and the microbial functional analysis showed that the transgenic sheep had significantly lower abundance of microbial genes related to infectious diseases compared to the wild type, indicating overexpression animals are likely more resistant to infectious diseases than wild type. Furthermore, exogenous melatonin treatment relieved brucellosis inflammation by upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and downregulating pro-inflammatory IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ. Our preliminary results provide an informative reference for the study of the relationship between melatonin and brucellosis.


Assuntos
Acetilserotonina O-Metiltransferasa/genética , Brucelose/genética , Brucelose/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Acetilserotonina O-Metiltransferasa/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Ovinos/imunologia
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 695972, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341659

RESUMO

COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic in 35% of cases to severe in 20% of patients. Differences in the type and degree of inflammation appear to determine the severity of the disease. Recent reports show an increase in circulating monocytic-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC) in severe COVID 19 that deplete arginine but are not associated with respiratory complications. Our data shows that differences in the type, function and transcriptome of granulocytic-MDSC (G-MDSC) may in part explain the severity COVID-19, in particular the association with pulmonary complications. Large infiltrates by Arginase 1+ G-MDSC (Arg+G-MDSC), expressing NOX-1 and NOX-2 (important for production of reactive oxygen species) were found in the lungs of patients who died from COVID-19 complications. Increased circulating Arg+G-MDSC depleted arginine, which impaired T cell receptor and endothelial cell function. Transcriptomic signatures of G-MDSC from patients with different stages of COVID-19, revealed that asymptomatic patients had increased expression of pathways and genes associated with type I interferon (IFN), while patients with severe COVID-19 had increased expression of genes associated with arginase production, and granulocyte degranulation and function. These results suggest that asymptomatic patients develop a protective type I IFN response, while patients with severe COVID-19 have an increased inflammatory response that depletes arginine, impairs T cell and endothelial cell function, and causes extensive pulmonary damage. Therefore, inhibition of arginase-1 and/or replenishment of arginine may be important in preventing/treating severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Granulócitos/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Arginase/metabolismo , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Arginina/sangue , Arginina/metabolismo , Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209132

RESUMO

The metabolic requirements and functions of cancer and normal tissues are vastly different. Due to the rapid growth of cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment, distorted vasculature is commonly observed, which creates harsh environments that require rigorous and constantly evolving cellular adaption. A common hallmark of aggressive and therapeutically resistant tumors is hypoxia and hypoxia-induced stress markers. However, recent studies have identified alterations in a wide spectrum of metabolic pathways that dictate tumor behavior and response to therapy. Accordingly, it is becoming clear that metabolic processes are not uniform throughout the tumor microenvironment. Metabolic processes differ and are cell type specific where various factors promote metabolic heterogeneity within the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, within the tumor, these metabolically distinct cell types can organize to form cellular neighborhoods that serve to establish a pro-tumor milieu in which distant and spatially distinct cellular neighborhoods can communicate via signaling metabolites from stroma, immune and tumor cells. In this review, we will discuss how biochemical interactions of various metabolic pathways influence cancer and immune microenvironments, as well as associated mechanisms that lead to good or poor clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia
16.
Life Sci ; 282: 119826, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265363

RESUMO

The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment has been implicated in attenuating anti-tumoral immune responses and tumor growth in various cancers. Inhibitory immune checkpoints have been introduced as the primary culprits for developing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Therefore, a better understanding of the cross-talk between inhibitory immune checkpoints in the tumor microenvironment can pave the way for introducing novel approaches for treating affected patients. Growing evidence indicates that CD39 and CD73, as novel checkpoints, can transform adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-mediated pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment into an adenosine-mediated immunosuppressive one via the purinergic signaling pathway. Indeed, enzymatic processes of CD39 and CD73 have crucial roles in adjusting the extent, intensity, and chemical properties of purinergic signals. This study aims to review the biological function of CD39 and CD73 and shed light on their significance in regulating anti-tumoral immune responses in various cancers.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/imunologia , Apirase/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Humanos
17.
Life Sci ; 282: 119848, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293398

RESUMO

AIMS: The crosstalk between cancer cells and nerves plays an important role in tumor biology. However, the correlation between the neurotrophin signaling (NS) and anti-tumor immunity and immunotherapy response in cancer remains unexplored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed associations of NS with anti-tumor immune signatures, tumor immunity-related molecular and genomic features, and clinical features in 33 TCGA cancer types. We also explored the association between NS and the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in four cancer cohorts. KEY FINDINGS: NS scores had significant positive correlations with the enrichment scores of anti-tumor immune signatures, including CD8+ T cells, interferon response, natural killer cells, Toll-like receptor and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways in most cancer types. NS scores were inversely correlated with the scores of DNA damage repair pathways, tumor mutation burden, copy number alterations, intra-tumor heterogeneity, and tumor stemness in diverse cancers. In contrast, NS scores were significantly and positively correlated with the apoptosis pathway's scores in 32 of the 33 cancer types. NS scores were significantly lower in early-stage versus late-stage and in primary versus metastatic tumors in diverse cancers. Higher NS scores were correlated with better survival in pan-cancer and in eight individual cancer types. Moreover, the response rate to ICIs was higher in higher-NS-score than in lower-NS-score tumors in four cancer cohorts. Elevated NS was correlated with increased drug sensitivity for numerous anti-tumor targeted drugs. SIGNIFICANCE: NS is a positive biomarker for anti-tumor immune response, prognosis, and the response to targeted and immunotherapeutic drugs in cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Imunoterapia , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Transdução de Sinais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15107, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302024

RESUMO

COVID-19 outbreak brings intense pressure on healthcare systems, with an urgent demand for effective diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic procedures. Here, we employed Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) to analyze three publicly available high throughput COVID-19 datasets, including proteomic, metabolomic and transcriptomic measurements. Pathway analysis of the selected features was also performed. Analysis of a combined proteomic and metabolomic dataset led to 10 equivalent signatures of two features each, with AUC 0.840 (CI 0.723-0.941) in discriminating severe from non-severe COVID-19 patients. A transcriptomic dataset led to two equivalent signatures of eight features each, with AUC 0.914 (CI 0.865-0.955) in identifying COVID-19 patients from those with a different acute respiratory illness. Another transcriptomic dataset led to two equivalent signatures of nine features each, with AUC 0.967 (CI 0.899-0.996) in identifying COVID-19 patients from virus-free individuals. Signature predictive performance remained high upon validation. Multiple new features emerged and pathway analysis revealed biological relevance by implication in Viral mRNA Translation, Interferon gamma signaling and Innate Immune System pathways. In conclusion, AutoML analysis led to multiple biosignatures of high predictive performance, with reduced features and large choice of alternative predictors. These favorable characteristics are eminent for development of cost-effective assays to contribute to better disease management.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Interferon gama/sangue , Metabolômica , Prognóstico , Proteômica , Curva ROC , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Software
19.
Life Sci ; 282: 119813, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256042

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade has displayed substantial anti-tumor resistance in a variety of forms of cancer, but the fundamental regulation role remains unclear, and several questions continue to be addressed. PD-1/PD-L1 has been recognized as an anti-cancer drug target for several years, and through targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway, many monoclonal antibodies have thus far produced promising results in cancer therapy. The discovery of small-molecule inhibitors focused on the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway is steadily reviving over decades, owing to the intrinsic shortcomings of the antibodies. PD-1 function and its PD-L1 or PD-L2 ligands are essential for the activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic secretion of T-cells in cancer to degenerate anti-tumor immune response. The axis PD-1/PD-L1 is important for the immune escape of cancer which has an immense impact on cancer treatment. In this review, we summarize the function of PD-1 and PD-L1 in cancer and aiming to enhance cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
J Immunol ; 207(4): 1018-1032, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330755

RESUMO

Germinal center reactions are established during a thymus-dependent immune response. Germinal center (GC) B cells are rapidly proliferating and undergo somatic hypermutation in Ab genes. This results in the production of high-affinity Abs and establishment of long-lived memory cells. GC B cells show lower BCR-induced signaling when compared with naive B cells, but the functional relevance is not clear. CD22 is a member of the Siglec family and functions as an inhibitory coreceptor on B cells. Interestingly, GC B cells downregulate sialic acid forms that serve as high-affinity ligands for CD22, indicating a role for CD22 ligand binding during GC responses. We studied the role of CD22 in the GC with mixed bone marrow chimeric mice and found a disadvantage of CD22-/- GC B cells during the GC reaction. Mechanistic investigations ruled out defects in dark zone/light zone distribution and affinity maturation. Rather, an increased rate of apoptosis in CD22-/- GC B cells was responsible for the disadvantage, also leading to a lower GC output in plasma cells and memory B cells. CD22-/- GC B cells showed a clearly increased calcium response upon BCR stimulation, which was almost absent in wild-type GC B cells. We conclude that the differential expression of the low-affinity cis CD22 ligands in the GC normally results in a strong attenuation of BCR signaling in GC B cells, probably due to higher CD22-BCR interactions. Therefore, attenuation of BCR signaling by CD22 is involved in GC output and B cell fate.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Lectina 2 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Ligantes , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/imunologia , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/imunologia
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