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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 221, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024073
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4909, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999291

RESUMO

Effectively activating macrophages against cancer is promising but challenging. In particular, cancer cells express CD47, a 'don't eat me' signal that interacts with signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) on macrophages to prevent phagocytosis. Also, cancer cells secrete stimulating factors, which polarize tumor-associated macrophages from an antitumor M1 phenotype to a tumorigenic M2 phenotype. Here, we report that hybrid cell membrane nanovesicles (known as hNVs) displaying SIRPα variants with significantly increased affinity to CD47 and containing M2-to-M1 repolarization signals can disable both mechanisms. The hNVs block CD47-SIRPα signaling axis while promoting M2-to-M1 repolarization within tumor microenvironment, significantly preventing both local recurrence and distant metastasis in malignant melanoma models. Furthermore, by loading a stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist, hNVs lead to potent tumor inhibition in a poorly immunogenic triple negative breast cancer model. hNVs are safe, stable, drug loadable, and suitable for genetic editing. These properties, combined with the capabilities inherited from source cells, make hNVs an attractive immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Animais , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/secundário , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
3.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 631-641, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876900

RESUMO

A subset of patients with coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) experience neurological complications. These complications include loss of sense of taste and smell, stroke, delirium, and neuromuscular signs and symptoms. The etiological agent of COVID-19 is SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), an RNA virus with a glycoprotein-studded viral envelope that uses ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) as a functional receptor for infecting the host cells. Thus, the interaction of the envelope spike proteins with ACE2 on host cells determines the tropism and virulence of SARS-CoV-2. Loss of sense of taste and smell is an initial symptom of COVID-19 because the virus enters the nasal and oral cavities first and the epithelial cells are the receptors for these senses. Stroke in COVID-19 patients is likely a consequence of coagulopathy and injury to cerebral vascular endothelial cells that cause thrombo-embolism and stroke. Delirium and encephalopathy in acute and post COVID-19 patients are likely multifactorial and secondary to hypoxia, metabolic abnormalities, and immunological abnormalities. Thus far, there is no clear evidence that coronaviruses cause inflammatory neuromuscular diseases via direct invasion of peripheral nerves or muscles or via molecular mimicry. It appears that most of neurologic complications in COVID-19 patients are indirect and as a result of a bystander injury to neurons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encefalopatias/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Efeito Espectador , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/imunologia , Transtornos do Olfato/patologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/imunologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4454, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901001

RESUMO

Chronic viral infections are often associated with impaired CD8+ T cell function, referred to as exhaustion. Although the molecular and cellular circuits involved in CD8+ T cell exhaustion are well defined, with sustained presence of antigen being one important parameter, how much T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is actually ongoing in vivo during established chronic infection is unclear. Here, we characterize the in vivo TCR signaling of virus-specific exhausted CD8+ T cells in a mouse model, leveraging TCR signaling reporter mice in combination with transcriptomics. In vivo signaling in exhausted cells is low, in contrast to their in vitro signaling potential, and despite antigen being abundantly present. Both checkpoint blockade and adoptive transfer of naïve target cells increase TCR signaling, demonstrating that engagement of co-inhibitory receptors curtails CD8+ T cell signaling and function in vivo.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Doença Crônica , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunidade Celular , Técnicas In Vitro , Ativação Linfocitária , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/genética , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4498, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908142

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) is the master regulator of prostate cancer (PCa) development, and inhibition of AR signalling is the most effective PCa treatment. AR is expressed in PCa cells and also in the PCa-associated stroma, including infiltrating macrophages. Macrophages have a decisive function in PCa initiation and progression, but the role of AR in macrophages remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that AR signalling in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line supports PCa cell line migration and invasion in culture via increased Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) signalling and expression of its downstream cytokines. Moreover, AR signalling in THP-1 and monocyte-derived macrophages upregulates IL-10 and markers of tissue residency. In conclusion, our data suggest that AR signalling in macrophages may support PCa invasiveness, and blocking this process may constitute one mechanism of anti-androgen therapy.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Anilidas/farmacologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Buffy Coat/citologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Técnicas de Cocultura , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Invasividade Neoplásica/imunologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Células THP-1 , Compostos de Tosil/farmacologia , Compostos de Tosil/uso terapêutico
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000783, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925907

RESUMO

Plant nucleotide-binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor (NLR) proteins function as intracellular immune receptors that perceive the presence of pathogen-derived virulence proteins (effectors) to induce immune responses. The 2 major types of plant NLRs that "sense" pathogen effectors differ in their N-terminal domains: these are Toll/interleukin-1 receptor resistance (TIR) domain-containing NLRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil (CC) domain-containing NLRs (CNLs). In many angiosperms, the RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8 (RPW8)-CC domain containing NLR (RNL) subclass of CNLs is encoded by 2 gene families, ACTIVATED DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (ADR1) and N REQUIREMENT GENE 1 (NRG1), that act as "helper" NLRs during multiple sensor NLR-mediated immune responses. Despite their important role in sensor NLR-mediated immunity, knowledge of the specific, redundant, and synergistic functions of helper RNLs is limited. We demonstrate that the ADR1 and NRG1 families act in an unequally redundant manner in basal resistance, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and regulation of defense gene expression. We define RNL redundancy in ETI conferred by some TNLs and in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. We demonstrate that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, the 2 RNL families contribute specific functions in ETI initiated by specific CNLs and TNLs. Time-resolved whole genome expression profiling revealed that RNLs and "classical" CNLs trigger similar transcriptome changes, suggesting that RNLs act like other CNLs to mediate ETI downstream of sensor NLR activation. Together, our genetic data confirm that RNLs contribute to basal resistance, are fully required for TNL signaling, and can also support defense activation during CNL-mediated ETI.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas NLR/fisiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Família Multigênica/genética , Família Multigênica/fisiologia , Proteínas NLR/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Transcriptoma
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733448

RESUMO

Autophagy is a cellular recycling system found in almost all types of eukaryotic organisms. The system is made up of a variety of proteins which function to deliver intracellular cargo to lysosomes for formation of autophagosomes in which the contents are degraded. The maintenance of cellular homeostasis is key in the survival and function of a variety of human cell populations. The interconnection between metabolism and autophagy is extensive, therefore it has a role in a variety of different cell functions. The disruption or dysfunction of autophagy in these cell types have been implicated in the development of a variety of inflammatory diseases including asthma. The role of autophagy in non-immune and immune cells both lead to the pathogenesis of lung inflammation. Autophagy in pulmonary non-immune cells leads to tissue remodeling which can develop into chronic asthma cases with long term effects. The role autophagy in the lymphoid and myeloid lineages in the pathology of asthma differ in their functions. Impaired autophagy in lymphoid populations have been shown, in general, to decrease inflammation in both asthma and inflammatory disease models. Many lymphoid cells rely on autophagy for effector function and maintained inflammation. In stark contrast, autophagy deficient antigen presenting cells have been shown to have an activated inflammasome. This is largely characterized by a TH17 response that is accompanied with a much worse prognosis including granulocyte mediated inflammation and steroid resistance. The cell specificity associated with changes in autophagic flux complicates its targeting for amelioration of asthmatic symptoms. Differing asthmatic phenotypes between TH2 and TH17 mediated disease may require different autophagic modulations. Therefore, treatments call for a more cell specific and personalized approach when looking at chronic asthma cases. Viral-induced lung inflammation, such as that caused by SARS-CoV-2, also may involve autophagic modulation leading to inflammation mediated by lung resident cells. In this review, we will be discussing the role of autophagy in non-immune cells, myeloid cells, and lymphoid cells for their implications into lung inflammation and asthma. Finally, we will discuss autophagy's role viral pathogenesis, immunometabolism, and asthma with insights into autophagic modulators for amelioration of lung inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Asma/patologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108785, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768229

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting and mortality in nursing piglets. Type III interferons (IFN-λs) are the major antiviral cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells, the target cells in vivo for PDCoV. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection remarkably inhibited Sendai virus-induced IFN-λ1 production by suppressing transcription factors IRF and NF-κB in IPI-2I cells, a line of porcine intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. We also confirmed that PDCoV infection impeded the activation of IFN-λ1 promoter stimulated by RIG-I, MDA5 and MAVS, but not by TBK1 and IRF1. Although the expression levels of IRF1 and MAVS were not changed, PDCoV infection resulted in reduction of the number of peroxisomes, the platform for MAVS to activate IRF1, and subsequent type III IFN production. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PDCoV suppresses type III IFN responses to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/virologia , Rim/citologia , Rim/virologia , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
9.
Nat Immunol ; 21(10): 1146-1151, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855555
10.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100739, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773105

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has put a serious strain on health treatments as well at the economies of many nations. Unfortunately, there is not currently available vaccine for SARS-Cov-2/COVID-19. Various types of patients have delayed treatment or even routine check-ups and we are adapting to a virtual world. In many cases, surgeries are delayed unless they are essential. This is also true with regards to cancer treatments and screening. Interestingly, some existing drugs and nutraceuticals have been screened for their effects on COVID-19. Certain FDA approved drugs, vitamin, natural products and trace minerals may be repurposed to treat or improve the prevention of COVID-19 infections and disease progression. This review article will summarize how the treatments of various cancer patients has changed during the COVID-19 era as well as discuss the promise of some existing drugs and other agents to be repurposed to treat this disease.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
11.
Immunity ; 53(3): 685-696.e3, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783921

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a current world-wide public health threat. However, little is known about its hallmarks compared to other infectious diseases. Here, we report the single-cell transcriptional landscape of longitudinally collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in both COVID-19- and influenza A virus (IAV)-infected patients. We observed increase of plasma cells in both COVID-19 and IAV patients and XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and FAS-induced T cell apoptosis in COVID-19 patients. Further analyses revealed distinct signaling pathways activated in COVID-19 (STAT1 and IRF3) versus IAV (STAT3 and NFκB) patients and substantial differences in the expression of key factors. These factors include relatively increase of interleukin (IL)6R and IL6ST expression in COVID-19 patients but similarly increased IL-6 concentrations compared to IAV patients, supporting the clinical observations of increased proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients. Thus, we provide the landscape of PBMCs and unveil distinct immune response pathways in COVID-19 and IAV patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Pandemias
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804985

RESUMO

A strain of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 (KW3110), activates M2 macrophages with anti-inflammatory reactions and mitigates aging-related chronic inflammation and blue-light exposure-induced retinal inflammation in mice. However, the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of KW3110 remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of KW3110 using both mouse and human immune cells and evaluated the suppressive effect of KW3110 on the inflammatory reactions of the cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (LPS/ATP). KW3110 treatment induced anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production in the supernatants of murine macrophage-like cells, J774A.1, and suppressed IL-1ß production in the supernatants of LPS/ATP-stimulated cells. The influence of KW3110 on the production of these cytokines was inhibited by pre-treatment with phagocytosis blocker or transfection with siRNAs for IL-10 signaling components. KW3110 treatment also suppressed activation of caspase-1, an active component of inflammasome complexes, in LPS/ATP-stimulated J774A.1 cells, and its effect was inhibited by transfection with siRNAs for IL-10 signaling components. In addition to the effects of KW3110 on J774A.1 cells, KW3110 treatment induced IL-10 production in the supernatants of human monocytes, and KW3110 or IL-10 treatment suppressed caspase-1 activation and IL-1ß production in the supernatants of LPS/ATP-stimulated cells. These results suggest that KW3110 suppresses LPS/ATP stimulation-induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1ß production by promoting IL-10 production in mouse and human immune cells. Our findings reveal a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of LAB and the effect of KW3110 on caspase-1 activation is expected to contribute to constructing future preventive strategies for inflammation-related disorders using food ingredients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/terapia , Lactobacillus paracasei/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
13.
J Immunol ; 205(4): 892-898, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651218

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, has infected millions and has caused hundreds of thousands of fatalities. Risk factors for critical illness from SARS-CoV-2 infection include male gender, obesity, diabetes, and age >65. The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to critical illness are poorly understood. Of interest, these comorbidities have previously been associated with increased signaling of Th17 cells. Th17 cells secrete IL-17A and are important for clearing extracellular pathogens, but inappropriate signaling has been linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Currently there are few treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 infections. This review describes evidence linking risk factors for critical illness in COVID-19 with increased Th17 cell activation and IL-17 signaling that may lead to increased likelihood for lung injury and respiratory failure. These findings provide a basis for testing the potential use of therapies directed at modulation of Th17 cells and IL-17A signaling in the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719685

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a clinical syndrome ranging from mild symptoms to severe pneumonia that often leads to respiratory failure, need for mechanical ventilation, and death. Most of the lung damage is driven by a surge in inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and granulocyte-monocyte stimulating factor (GM-CSF)]. Blunting this hyperinflammation with immunomodulation may lead to clinical improvement. GM-CSF is produced by many cells, including macrophages and T-cells. GM-CSF-derived signals are involved in differentiation of macrophages, including alveolar macrophages (AMs). In animal models of respiratory infections, the intranasal administration of GM-CSF increased the proliferation of AMs and improved outcomes. Increased levels of GM-CSF have been recently described in patients with COVID-19 compared to healthy controls. While GM-CSF might be beneficial in some circumstances as an appropriate response, in this case the inflammatory response is maladaptive by virtue of being later and disproportionate. The inhibition of GM-CSF signaling may be beneficial in improving the hyperinflammation-related lung damage in the most severe cases of COVID-19. This blockade can be achieved through antagonism of the GM-CSF receptor or the direct binding of circulating GM-CSF. Initial findings from patients with COVID-19 treated with a single intravenous dose of mavrilimumab, a monoclonal antibody binding GM-CSF receptor α, showed oxygenation improvement and shorter hospitalization. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are ongoing. Anti-GM-CSF monoclonal antibodies, TJ003234 and gimsilumab, will be tested in clinical trials in patients with COVID-19, while lenzilumab received FDA approval for compassionate use. These trials will help inform whether blunting the inflammatory signaling provided by the GM-CSF axis in COVID-19 is beneficial.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
15.
Cells ; 9(8)2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707842

RESUMO

The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 regulate immune responses by balancing extracellular ATP and adenosine in inflammation and are likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Here, we analyzed CD39 and CD73 on different lymphocyte populations in a small cohort of COVID-19 patients and in healthy individuals. We describe a significantly lower level of expression of CD73 on cytotoxic lymphocyte populations, including CD8+ T, natural killer T (NKT), and natural killer (NK) cells, during COVID-19. Interestingly, the decrease of CD73 on CD8+ T cells and NKT cells correlated with serum ferritin levels. Furthermore, we observed distinct functional differences between the CD73+ and CD73- subsets of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells with regard to cytokine/toxin secretion. In COVID-19 patients, the majority of the CD73-CD8+ T cells were capable of secreting granzyme B, perforin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). To conclude, in this first study of CD39 and CD73 expression of lymphocytes in COVID-19, we show that CD8+ T cells and NKT cells lacking CD73 possess a significantly higher cytotoxic effector functionality compared to their CD73+ counterparts. Future studies should investigate differences of cellular CD39 and CD73 expression in patients at different disease stages and their potential as prognostic markers or targets for immunomodulatory therapies.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Perforina/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 86: 106749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645632

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) suddenly broke out in China and rapidly spread all over the world. Recently, a cell surface protein, known as angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), has been identified to be involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis for SARS-CoV-2 entry to the cells. Many studies have reported the clinical characteristics of COVID-19: sudden deterioration of disease around 1-2 weeks after onset; much lower level of lymphocytes, especially natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood; extremely high pro-inflammatory cytokines and C reactive protein (CRP). About 15.7% of patients develop severe pneumonia, and cytokine storm is an important factor leading to rapid disease progression. Currently, there are no specific drugs for COVID-19 and the cytokine storm it causes. Baricitinib intracellularly inhibits the proinflammatory signal of several cytokines by suppressing Janus kinase (JAK) JAK1/JAK2. It has been demonstrated clinical benefits for the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), active systemic lupus erythematosus and atopic dermatitis with good efficacy and safety records. Baricitinib is expected to interrupt the passage and intracellular assembly of SARS-CoV-2 into the target cells mediated by ACE2 receptor, and treat cytokine storm caused by COVID-19. Several clinical trials are currently investigating the drug, and one of which has been completed with encouraging results. In this paper, we will elaborate the role of cytokine storm mediated by JAK-STAT pathway in severe COVID-19, the possible mechanisms of baricitinib on reducing the viral entry into the target cells and cytokine storm, the key points of pharmaceutical care based on the latest research reports, clinical trials progress and drug instruction from the US FDA, so as to provide reference for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Montagem de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Biosci ; 452020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661214

RESUMO

The current global pandemic COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has already inflicted insurmountable damage both to the human lives and global economy. There is an immediate need for identification of effective drugs to contain the disastrous virus outbreak. Global efforts are already underway at a war footing to identify the best drug combination to address the disease. In this review, an attempt has been made to understand the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, and based on this information potential druggable targets against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized. Also, the strategies for ongoing and future drug discovery against the SARSCoV- 2 virus are outlined. Given the urgency to find a definitive cure, ongoing drug repurposing efforts being carried out by various organizations are also described. The unprecedented crisis requires extraordinary efforts from the scientific community to effectively address the issue and prevent further loss of human lives and health.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Descoberta de Drogas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111006, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684520

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni) is a widely distributed metal in the environment and an important pollutant because of its many industrial applications. With increasing incidences of Ni contamination, Ni toxicity has become a global public health concern and recent evidence suggests that Ni adversely affects the immune system. Hence, this paper reviews the literature on immune-related effects of Ni exposure, the immunotoxicological effects of Ni, and the underlying mechanism of Ni immunotoxicity. The main focus was on the effect of Ni on the development of organs of immune system, lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokines, immunoglobulins, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages. Moreover, Ni toxicity also induces inflammation and several studies demonstrated that Ni could induce immunotoxicity. Excessive Ni exposure can inhibit the development of immune organs by excessively inducing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Furthermore, Ni can decrease T and B lymphocytes, the specific mechanism of which requires further research. The effects of Ni on immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM remain unknown and while Ni inhibited IgA, IgG, and IgM levels in an animal experiment, the opposite result was found in research on humans. Ni inhibits the production of cytokines in non-inflammatory responses. Cytokine levels increased in Ni-induced inflammation responses, and Ni activates inflammation through toll like (TL)4-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transduction cascades mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Ni has been indicated to inactivate NK cells and macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the Ni-induced immunotoxicity may help to explain the growing risk of infections and cancers in human populations that have been exposed to Ni for a long time. Such knowledge may also help to prevent and treat Ni-related carcinogenicity and toxicology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
19.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(9): 1810-1817, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647360

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and lung disease. These diseases are the most commonly reported health conditions that predispose individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection to require hospitalization including intensive care unit admissions. The innate immune response is the host's first line of defense against a human coronavirus infection. However, most coronaviruses are armed with one strategy or another to overcome host antiviral defense, and the pathogenicity of the virus is related to its capacity to suppress host immunity. The multifaceted nature of obesity including its effects on immunity can fundamentally alter the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia, which are the major causes of death due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Elevated circulating leptin concentrations are a hallmark of obesity, which is associated with a leptin-resistant state. Leptin is secreted by adipocytes in proportion to body fat and regulates appetite and metabolism through signaling in the hypothalamus. However, leptin also signals through the Jak/STAT and Akt pathways, among others, to modulate T cell number and function. Thus, leptin connects metabolism with the immune response. Therefore, it seems appropriate that its dysregulation would have serious consequences during an infection. We propose that leptin may be the link between obesity and its high prevalence as a comorbidity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this article, we present a synthesis of the mechanisms underpinning susceptibility to respiratory viral infections and the contribution of the immunomodulatory effects of obesity to the outcome.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Leptina , Obesidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/imunologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008506, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645119

RESUMO

Circulating androgens can modulate immune cell activity, but the impact of androgens on viral pathogenesis remains unclear. Previous data demonstrate that testosterone reduces the severity of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in male mice by mitigating pulmonary inflammation rather than by affecting viral replication. To examine the immune responses mediated by testosterone to mitigate IAV-induced inflammation, adult male mice remained gonadally intact or were gonadectomized and treated with either placebo or androgen-filled (i.e., testosterone or dihydrotestosterone) capsules prior to sublethal IAV infection. Like intact males, treatment of gonadectomized males with androgens improved the outcome of IAV infection, which was not mediated by changes in the control of virus replication or pulmonary cytokine activity. Instead, androgens accelerated pulmonary leukocyte contraction to limit inflammation. To identify which immune cells were contracting in response to androgens, the composition of pulmonary cellular infiltrates was analyzed and revealed that androgens specifically accelerated the contraction of total pulmonary inflammatory monocytes during peak disease, as well as CD8+ T cells, IAV-specific CD8+ T numbers, cytokine production and degranulation by IAV-specific CD8+ T cells, and the influx of eosinophils into the lungs following clearance of IAV. Neither depletion of eosinophils nor adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells could reverse the ability of testosterone to protect males against IAV suggesting these were secondary immunologic effects. The effects of testosterone on the contraction of immune cell numbers and activity were blocked by co-administration of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide and mimicked by treatment with dihydrotestosterone, which was also able to reduce the severity of IAV in female mice. These data suggest that androgen receptor signaling creates a local pulmonary environment that promotes downregulation of detrimental inflammatory immune responses to protect against prolonged influenza disease.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Testosterona/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Receptores Androgênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
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