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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640734

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel ring-down suppression system based on transfer function is proposed for the first time to suppress the ring-down time and decrease the blind area of PMUTs (Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers). This suppression system includes a transfer function and a simple P (proportion) controller, which can reduce the ring-down time without degrading any performances of PMUTs. The transfer function serves as a virtual PMUT device, feeding its output into the P controller; then, the P controller generates a suppression signal to the actual PMUT device. The ring-down time of a 115-kHz PMUT array is demonstrated to be reduced by up to 93% through the suppression system. In addition, the P controller has been experimentally optimized, reducing the blind area of the PMUT array by about 40%. Moreover, a low ring-down PMUTs system design guideline is established, which is practical and straightforward for industrial scenarios. Finally, the system can be easily integrated into ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit).


Assuntos
Sistemas Microeletromecânicos , Transdutores , Desenho de Equipamento , Ultrassom , Ultrassonografia
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502793

RESUMO

Due to the low costs of distributed optical fibre sensors (DFOS) and the possibility of their direct integration within layered composite members, DFOS technology has considerable potential in structural health monitoring of linear underground infrastructures. Often, it is challenging to truly simulate the actual ground conditions at all construction stages. Thus, reliable measurements are required to adjust the model and verify theoretical calculations. The article presents a new approach to monitor displacements and strains in Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) collectors and pipelines using DFOS. The research verifies the effectiveness of the proposed monitoring solution for health monitoring of composite pipelines. Optical fibres were installed over the circumference of a composite tubular pipe, both on the internal and external surfaces, while loaded externally. Analysis of strain profiles allowed for calculating the actual displacements (shape) of the pipe within its cross-section plane using the Trapezoidal method. The accuracy of proposed approach was positively verified both with reference spot displacement transducer as well as numerical simulations using finite element method (FEM). DFOS could obtain a comprehensive view of structural deformations, including both strains and displacements under externally applied load. The knowledge gained during research will be ultimately used for renovating existing collectors.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Fibras Ópticas , Polímeros , Transdutores
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502802

RESUMO

This paper reports the design, fabrication and measured performance of a passive microelectromechanical transducer for the wireless monitoring of high irradiation doses in nuclear environments. The sensing device is composed of a polymer material (high-density polyethylene) sealed inside a cavity. Subjected to ionizing radiation, this material releases various gases, which increases the pressure inside the cavity and deflects a dielectric membrane. From the measurement of the deflection, the variation of the applied pressure can be estimated, and, in turn, the dose may be determined. The microelectromechanical structure can also be used to study and validate the radiolysis properties of the polymer through its gas emission yield factor. Measurement of the dielectric membrane deflection is performed here to validate on the one hand the required airtightness of the cavity exposed to doses about 4 MGy and on the other hand, the functionality of the fabricated dosimeter for doses up to 80 kGy. The selection of appropriate materials for the microelectromechanical device is discussed, and the outgassing properties of the selected high-density polyethylene are analysed. Moreover, the technological fabrication process of the transducer is detailed.


Assuntos
Dosímetros de Radiação , Transdutores , Monitorização Fisiológica , Polímeros
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502853

RESUMO

Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) has great potential in brain imaging and therapy. However, the structural and acoustic differences of the skull will cause a large number of technical problems in the application of tFUS, such as low focus energy, focal shift, and defocusing. To have a comprehensive understanding of the skull effect on tFUS, this study investigated the effects of the structural parameters (thickness, radius of curvature, and distance from the transducer) and acoustic parameters (density, acoustic speed, and absorption coefficient) of the skull model on tFUS based on acrylic plates and two simulation methods (self-programming and COMSOL). For structural parameters, our research shows that as the three factors increase the unit distance, the attenuation caused from large to small is the thickness (0.357 dB/mm), the distance to transducer (0.048 dB/mm), and the radius of curvature (0.027 dB/mm). For acoustic parameters, the attenuation caused by density (0.024 dB/30 kg/m3) and acoustic speed (0.021 dB/30 m/s) are basically the same. Additionally, as the absorption coefficient increases, the focus acoustic pressure decays exponentially. The thickness of the structural parameters and the absorption coefficient of the acoustic parameters are the most important factors leading to the attenuation of tFUS. The experimental and simulation trends are highly consistent. This work contributes to the comprehensive and quantitative understanding of how the skull influences tFUS, which further enhances the application of tFUS in neuromodulation research and treatment.


Assuntos
Crânio , Transdutores , Acústica , Encéfalo , Simulação por Computador , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577300

RESUMO

Ultrasonic transducers are often used in the nuclear industry as sensors to monitor the health and process status of systems or the components. Some of the after-effects of the Fukushima Daiichi earthquake could have been eased if sensors had been in place inside the four reactors and sensed the overheating causing meltdown and steam explosions. The key element of ultrasonic sensors is the piezoelectric wafer, which is usually derived from lead-zirconate-titanate (Pb(Zr, Ti)O3, PZT). This material loses its piezoelectrical properties at a temperature of about 200 °C. It also undergoes nuclear transmutation. Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12, BiTi) has been considered as a potential candidate for replacing PZT at the middle of this temperature range, with many possible applications, since it has a Curie-Weiss temperature of about 650 °C. The aim of this article is to describe experimental details for operation in gamma and nuclear radiation concomitant with elevated temperatures and details of the performance of a BiTi sensor during and after irradiation testing. In these experiments, bismuth titanate has been demonstrated to operate up to a fast neutron fluence of 5 × 1020 n/cm2 and gamma radiation of 7.23 × 1021 (gamma/cm2). The results offer a perspective on the state-of the-art for a possible sensor for harsh environments of high temperature, Gamma radiation, and nuclear fluence.


Assuntos
Transdutores , Ultrassom , Bismuto , Cerâmica , Temperatura , Titânio
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577324

RESUMO

Cymbal transducers are frequently used as an array rather than a single element because of their high quality factor and low energy conversion efficiency. When used as an array, cymbal transducers are likely to have a big change in their frequency characteristics due to the interaction with neighboring elements. In this study, we designed an array pattern of cymbal transducers to achieve a wide frequency bandwidth using this property. First, cymbal transducers with specific center frequencies were designed. Next, a 2 × 2 planar array was constructed with the designed transducers, where dielectric polarity directions of the transducers were divided into two cases (i.e., same and different). For the array, the effect of the difference in the center frequencies and the spacing between the transducers on the acoustic characteristics of the entire array was analyzed. Based on the results, the structural pattern of the array was optimized to have the maximum fractional bandwidth while maintaining the transmitting voltage response over a given requirement. The design validity was verified by making cymbal array prototypes, followed by measuring their performances and comparing them with that of the design.


Assuntos
Acústica , Transdutores , Desenho de Equipamento , Ultrassonografia
7.
Anal Chem ; 93(39): 13293-13301, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554739

RESUMO

Efficient and rapid particle enrichment at the submicron scale is essential for research in biomedicine and biochemistry. Here, we demonstrate an acoustofluidic method for submicron particle enrichment within a spinning droplet driven by a unidirectional transducer. The unidirectional transducer generates intense sound energy with relatively low attenuation. Droplets placed offset in the wave propagation path on a polydimethylsiloxane film undergo strong pressure gradients, deforming into an ellipsoid shape and spinning at high speed. Benefitting from the drag force induced by the droplet spin and acoustic streaming and the radial force induced by the droplet compression and expansion, the submicron particles in the liquid droplet quickly enrich toward the central area following a spiral trajectory. Through numerical calculations and experimental processes, we have demonstrated the possible mechanism responsible for particle enrichment. The application of biological sample processing has also been exploited. This study anticipates that the strategy based on the spinning droplet and particle enrichment method will be highly desirable for many applications.


Assuntos
Acústica , Transdutores
8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1010, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OptimalTTF-2 is a randomized, comparative, multi-center, investigator-initiated, interventional study aiming to test skull remodeling surgery in combination with Tumor Treating Fields therapy (TTFields) and best physicians choice medical oncological therapy for first recurrence in glioblastoma patients. OptimalTTF-2 is a phase 2 trial initiated in November 2020. Skull remodeling surgery consists of five burrholes, each 15 mm in diameter, directly over the tumor resection cavity. Preclinical research indicates that this procedure enhances the effect of Tumor Treating Fields considerably. We recently concluded a phase 1 safety/feasibility trial that indicated improved overall survival and no additional toxicity. This phase 2 trial aims to validate the efficacy of the proposed intervention. METHODS: The trial is designed as a comparative, 1:1 randomized, minimax two-stage phase 2 with an expected 70 patients to a maximum sample size of 84 patients. After 12-months follow-up of the first 52 patients, an interim futility analysis will be performed. The two trial arms will consist of either a) TTFields therapy combined with best physicians choice oncological treatment (control arm) or b) skull remodeling surgery, TTFields therapy and best practice oncology (interventional arm). Major eligibility criteria include age ≥ 18 years, 1st recurrence of supratentorial glioblastoma, Karnofsky performance score ≥ 70, focal tumor, and lack of significant co-morbidity. Study design aims to detect a 20% increase in overall survival after 12 months (OS12), assuming OS12 = 40% in the control group and OS12 = 60% in the intervention group. Secondary endpoints include hazard rate ratio of overall survival and progression-free survival, objective tumor response rate, quality of life, KPS, steroid dose, and toxicity. Toxicity, objective tumor response rate, and QoL will be assessed every 3rd month. Endpoint data will be collected at the end of the trial, including the occurrence of suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs), unacceptable serious adverse events (SAEs), withdrawal of consent, or loss-to-follow-up. DISCUSSION: New treatment modalities are highly needed for first recurrence glioblastoma. Our proposed treatment modality of skull remodeling surgery, Tumor Treating Fields, and best practice medical oncological therapy may increase overall survival significantly. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0422399 , registered 13. January 2020.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Crânio/cirurgia , Adulto , Seguimentos , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo , Transdutores
9.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 1188-1204, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376103

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the design of an endoluminal deployable ultrasound applicator for delivering volumetric hyperthermia to deep tissue sites as a possible adjunct to radiation and chemotherapy. METHOD: This study considers an ultrasound applicator consisting of two tubular transducers situated at the end of a catheter assembly, encased within a distensible conical shaped balloon-based reflector that redirects acoustic energy distally into the tissue. The applicator assembly can be inserted endoluminally or laparoscopically in a compact form and expanded after delivery to the target site. Comprehensive acoustic and biothermal simulations and parametric studies were employed in generalized 3D and patient-specific pancreatic head and body tumor models to characterize the acoustic performance and evaluate heating capabilities of the applicator by investigating the device at a range of operating frequencies, tissue acoustic and thermal properties, transducer configurations, power modulation, applicator positioning, and by analyzing the resultant 40, 41, and 43 °C isothermal volumes and penetration depth of the heating volume. Intensity distributions and volumetric temperature contours were calculated to define moderate hyperthermia boundaries. RESULTS: Parametric studies demonstrated the frequency selection to control volume and depth of therapeutic heating from 62 to 22 cm3 and 4 to 2.6 cm as frequency ranges from 1 MHz to 4.7 MHz, respectively. Width of the heating profile tracks closely with the aperture. Water cooling within the reflector balloon was effective in controlling temperature to 37 °C maximum within the luminal wall. Patient-specific studies indicated that applicators with extended OD in the range of 3.6-6.2 cm with 0.5-1 cm long and 1 cm OD transducers can heat volumes of 1.1-7 cm3, 3-26 cm3, and 3.3-37.4 cm3 of pancreatic body and head tumors above 43, 41, and 40 °C, respectively. CONCLUSION: In silico studies demonstrated the feasibility of combining endoluminal ultrasound with an integrated expandable balloon reflector for delivering volumetric hyperthermia in regions adjacent to body lumens and cavities.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Terapia por Ultrassom , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Hipertermia , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 341, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonates and small infants with congenital cardiac disease undergoing cardiac surgery represent major challenges facing paediatric anaesthesia and perioperative medicine. AIMS: We here aimed to investigate the success rates in performing ultrasound (US) guided central venous catheter insertion (CVC) in neonates and small infants undergoing cardiac surgery, and to evaluate the practicability and feasibility of thereby using a novel wireless US transducer (WUST). METHODS: Thirty neonates and small infants with a maximum body weight of 10 kg and need for CVC before cardiac surgery were included in this observational trial and were subdivided into two groups according to their weight: < 5 kg and ≥ 5 kg. Cannulation success, failure rate, essential procedure related time periods, and complications were recorded and the clinical utility of the WUST was assessed by a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: In total, CVC-insertion was successful in 27 (90%) of the patients and the first attempt was successful in 24 (78%) of patients. Success rates of CVC were 80% < 5 kg and 100% ≥5 kg. Comparing the two groups we found a clear trend towards longer needle insertion time in patients weighing < 5 kg (33 [28-69] vs. 24 [15-37]s, P = .07), whereas, the total time for catheter insertion and the duration of the whole procedure were similar in both groups (199 [167-228] vs. 178 [138-234] and 720[538-818] vs. 660 [562-833]s. In total, we report 3 (10%) cases of local hematoma as procedure-related complications. Assessments of the WUST revealed very good survey results for all parameters of practicability and handling (all ratings between 4.5 and 5.0). CONCLUSION: Although difficulties in CVC-placement seem to relate to vessel size and patient's weight, US guided CVC-insertion represents a valuable, fast, and safe intervention in neonates and small children undergoing cardiac surgery. Using the WUST is feasible for this clinical application and may aid in efforts aiming to optimize perioperative care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Wireless US-guided CVC placement in infants; Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04597021 ; Date of Registration: 21October, 2020; retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
11.
Physiol Rep ; 9(17): e14998, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448551

RESUMO

The spread of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. The disease has spread rapidly, and research shows that COVID-19 can induce long-lasting cardiac damage. COVID-19 can result in elevated cardiac biomarkers indicative of acute cardiac injury, and research utilizing echocardiography has shown that there is mechanical dysfunction in these patients as well, especially when observing the isovolumic, systolic, and diastolic portions of the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study was to present two case studies on COVID-19 positive patients who had their cardiac mechanical function assessed every day during the acute period to show that cardiac function in these patients was altered, and the damage occurring can change from day-to-day. Participant 1 showed compromised cardiac function in the systolic time, diastolic time, isovolumic time, and the calculated heart performance index (HPI), and these impairments were sustained even 23 days post-symptom onset. Furthermore, Participant 1 showed prolonged systolic periods that lasted longer than the diastolic periods, indicative of elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Participant 2 showed decreases in systole and consequently, increases in HPI during the 3 days post-symptom onset, and these changes returned to normal after day 4. These results showed that daily observation of cardiac function can provide detailed information about the overall mechanism by which cardiac dysfunction is occurring and that COVID-19 can induce cardiac damage in unique patterns and thus can be studied on a case-by-case basis, day-to-day during infection. This could allow us to move toward more personalized cardiovascular medical treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Função Ventricular , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/instrumentação , Coração/virologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Transdutores
12.
Anal Chem ; 93(32): 11066-11071, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348024

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) act as versatile coordinators for the subsequent synthesis of high-performance catalysts by providing dispersed metal-ion distribution, initial coordination condition, dopant atom ratios, and so on. In this work, a crystalline MOF trans-[Cu(NO3)2(Him)4] was synthesized as the novel precursor of a redox-alternating CuxO electrochemical catalyst. Through simple temperature modulation, the gradual transformation toward a highly active nanocomposite was characterized to ascertain the signal enhancing mechanism in H2O2 reduction. Owing to the proprietary structure of the transducer material and its ensuing high activity, a proof-of-principle sensor was able to provide an amplified sensitivity of 2330 µA mM-1 cm-2. The facile one-pot preparation and intrinsic nonenzymatic nature also suggests its wide potentials in medical settings.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanocompostos , Catálise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Transdutores
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451023

RESUMO

In acoustic receiver design, the receiving sensitivity and bandwidth are two primary parameters that determine the performance of a device. The trade-off between sensitivity and bandwidth makes the design very challenging, meaning it needs to be fine-tuned to suit specific applications. The ability to design a PMUT with high receiving sensitivity and a wide bandwidth is crucial to allow a wide spectrum of transmitted frequencies to be efficiently received. This paper presents a novel structure involving a double flexural membrane with a fluidic backing layer based on an in-plane polarization mode to optimize both the receiving sensitivity and frequency bandwidth for medium-range underwater acoustic applications. In this structure, the membrane material and electrode configuration are optimized to produce good receiving sensitivity. Simultaneously, a fluidic backing layer is introduced into the double flexural membrane to increase the bandwidth. Several piezoelectric membrane materials and various electrode dimensions were simulated using finite element analysis (FEA) techniques to study the receiving performance of the proposed structure. The final structure was then fabricated based on the findings from the simulation work. The pulse-echo experimental method was used to characterize and verify the performance of the proposed device. The proposed structure was found to have an improved bandwidth of 56.6% with a receiving sensitivity of -1.8864 dB rel 1 V µPa. For the proposed device, the resonance frequency and center frequency were 600 and 662.5 kHz, respectively, indicating its suitability for the targeted frequency range.


Assuntos
Transdutores , Ultrassom , Acústica , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento
14.
Analyst ; 146(18): 5650-5657, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378558

RESUMO

This paper investigates the mechanism of a new acoustic micro-ejector using a Lamb wave transducer array, which can stably generate picoliter (pL) droplet jetting without nozzles. With eight transducers arranged as an octagon array, droplets are ejected based on the mechanism of combined acoustic pressure waves and acoustic streaming. The acoustic focusing area is designed as a line at the liquid center, which is the key factor for a large working range of liquid height. The experimental results show that the ejector can produce uniform water droplets of 22 µm diameter (5.6 pL in volume) continuously at a rate of 0.33 kHz with high ejection stability, owing to a large liquid height window and high acoustic wave frequency. By delivering precise ∼pL droplets without clogging issues, the acoustic ejector has great potential for demanding biochemical applications.


Assuntos
Acústica , Som , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Ovinos , Transdutores , Água
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372382

RESUMO

This paper proposes a hybrid structural health monitoring (SHM) solution for a smart composite patch repair for aircraft structures based on piezoelectric (PZT) and fibre optic (FO) sensors to monitor the integrity of a the bondline and detect any degradation. FO sensors are used to acquire guided waves excited by PZT transducers to allow the advantages of both sensor technologies to be utilised. One of the main challenges of guided wave based detection methodologies is to distinguish the effect of temperature on the propagating waves, from that of an existing damage. In this research, the application of the hybrid SHM system is tested on a composite step sanded repair coupon under operational condition (temperature variation) representative of an aircraft for the first time. The sensitivity of the embedded FO sensor in recording the strain waves is compared to the signals acquired by PZT sensors under varying temperature. A novel compensation algorithm is proposed to correct for the effect of the temperature on the embedded FO sensor spectrum in the hybrid set-up. The repaired specimen is then impacted with a drop mass to cause barely visible impact damage (BVID). The hybrid SHM system is then used to detect the damage, and its diagnosis results are compared to a PZT only based smart repair solution. The results show promising application of the hybrid solution for monitoring bondline integrity as well as highlighting challenges of the embedding of FO sensors for a reliable and repeatable diagnosis.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Transdutores , Aeronaves , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Temperatura
16.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(1): 561, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340509

RESUMO

Polyethylene (PE) pipes are widely used in gas distribution. Their joints are prone to various flaws and are the most problematic part of the pipeline, so the infrastructure industry requires an effective inspection technique. Butt-fusion (BF) is the most common method of joining PE pipes. In this research, we investigated the applicability of machine learning (ML) to automate the ultrasonic inspection of PE pipe BF joints. Flawless and defective joints were fabricated. A-scan signals were collected from each group of samples using a customized chord transducer, with the aim of developing and assessing the viability of ML approaches to the problem of joint classification. We compared several ML approaches to the problem and found that convolutional neural networks were most performant, classifying signals with an F1 score of 0.874 in a four-class problem (identifying defect presence and type) and of 0.912 in binary classification (defect presence/absence only). Our results show that an ultrasonic chord-type transducer approach can effectively resolve flawless samples versus those with coarse contaminants or cold fusions and that an ML approach can be used to effectively assess these ultrasonic signals. Our findings can be used to develop a portable, efficient, user-friendly, and inexpensive device for in-field joint inspections.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Polietileno , Redes Neurais de Computação , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia
17.
Ultrasonics ; 117: 106558, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461527

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease is the most common type of cardiovascular disease, affecting > 18 million adults, and is responsible for > 365 k deaths per year in the U.S. alone. Wall shear stress (WSS) is an emerging indicator of likelihood of plaque rupture in coronary artery disease, however, non-invasive estimation of 3-D blood flow velocity and WSS is challenging due to the requirement for high spatial resolution at deep penetration depths in the presence of significant cardiac motion. Thus we propose minimally-invasive imaging with a catheter-based, 3-D intravascular forward-viewing ultrasound (FV US) transducer and present experiments to quantify the effect of the catheter on flow disturbance in stenotic vessel phantoms with realistic velocities and luminal diameters for both peripheral (6.33 mm) and coronary (4.74 mm) arteries. An external linear array ultrasound transducer was used to quantify 2-D velocity fields in vessel phantoms under various conditions of catheter geometry, luminal diameter, and position of the catheter relative to the stenosis at a frame rate of 5000 frames per second via a particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) approach. While a solid catheter introduced an underestimation of velocity measurement by > 20% relative to the case without a catheter, the hollow catheter introduced < 10% velocity overestimation, indicating that a hollow catheter design allowing internal blood flow reduces hemodynamic disturbance. In addition, for both peripheral and coronary arteries, the hollow catheter introduced < 3% deviation in flow velocity at the minimum luminal area compared to the control case. Finally, an initial comparison was made between velocity measurements acquired using a low frequency, catheter-based, 3-D intravascular FV US transducer and external linear array measurements, with relative error < 12% throughout the region of interest for a flow rate of 150 mL/min. While further system development is required, results suggest intravascular ultrasound characterization of blood flow velocity fields in stenotic vessels could be feasible with appropriate catheter design.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Cateteres , Constrição Patológica , Endossonografia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Transdutores
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203055

RESUMO

The environment consists of the interaction between the physical, biotic, and anthropic means. As this interaction is dynamic, environmental characteristics tend to change naturally over time, requiring continuous monitoring. In this scenario, the internet of things (IoT), together with traditional sensor networks, allows for the monitoring of various environmental aspects such as air, water, atmospheric, and soil conditions, and sending data to different users and remote applications. This paper proposes a Standard-based Internet of Things Platform and Data Flow Modeling for Smart Environmental Monitoring. The platform consists of an IoT network based on the IEEE 1451 standard which has the network capable application processor (NCAP) node (coordinator) and multiple wireless transducers interface module (WTIM) nodes. A WTIM node consists of one or more transducers, a data transfer interface and a processing unit. Thus, with the developed network, it is possible to collect environmental data at different points within a city landscape, to perform analysis of the communication distance between the WTIM nodes, and monitor the number of bytes transferred according to each network node. In addition, a dynamic model of data flow is proposed where the performance of the NCAP and WTIM nodes are described through state variables, relating directly to the information exchange dynamics between the communicating nodes in the mesh network. The modeling results showed stability in the network. Such stability means that the network has capacity of preserve its flow of information, for a long period of time, without loss frames or packets due to congestion.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Internet das Coisas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Internet , Monitorização Fisiológica , Transdutores
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203702

RESUMO

In this paper we present a novel, cost-effective camera-based multi-axis force/torque sensor concept for integration into metallic load-bearing structures. A two-part pattern consisting of a directly incident and mirrored light beam is projected onto the imaging sensor surface. This allows the capturing of 3D displacements, occurring due to structure deformation under load in a single image. The displacement of defined features in size and position can be accurately analyzed and determined through digital image correlation (DIC). Validation on a prototype shows good accuracy of the measurement and a unique identification of all in- and out-of-plane displacement components under multiaxial load. Measurements show a maximum deviation related to the maximum measured values between 2.5% and 4.8% for uniaxial loads (Fx, Fy,Fz,Mz) and between 2.5% and 10.43% for combined bending, torsion and axial load. In the course of the investigations, the measurement inaccuracy was partly attributed to the joint used between the sensor parts and the structure as well as to eccentric load.


Assuntos
Transdutores , Estresse Mecânico , Suporte de Carga
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198822

RESUMO

Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a valuable imaging modality for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. It provides useful clinical information, such as lumen size, vessel wall thickness, and plaque composition, by providing a cross-sectional vascular image. For several decades, IVUS has made remarkable progress in improving the accuracy of diagnosing cardiovascular disease that remains the leading cause of death globally. As the quality of IVUS images mainly depends on the performance of the IVUS transducer, various IVUS transducers have been developed. Therefore, in this review, recently developed mechanically rotating IVUS transducers, especially ones exploiting piezoelectric ceramics or single crystals, are discussed. In addition, this review addresses the history and technical challenges in the development of IVUS transducers and the prospects of next-generation IVUS transducers.


Assuntos
Transdutores , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Estudos Transversais , Desenho de Equipamento , Ultrassonografia
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