Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.442
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4454, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901001

RESUMO

Chronic viral infections are often associated with impaired CD8+ T cell function, referred to as exhaustion. Although the molecular and cellular circuits involved in CD8+ T cell exhaustion are well defined, with sustained presence of antigen being one important parameter, how much T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is actually ongoing in vivo during established chronic infection is unclear. Here, we characterize the in vivo TCR signaling of virus-specific exhausted CD8+ T cells in a mouse model, leveraging TCR signaling reporter mice in combination with transcriptomics. In vivo signaling in exhausted cells is low, in contrast to their in vitro signaling potential, and despite antigen being abundantly present. Both checkpoint blockade and adoptive transfer of naïve target cells increase TCR signaling, demonstrating that engagement of co-inhibitory receptors curtails CD8+ T cell signaling and function in vivo.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Doença Crônica , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunidade Celular , Técnicas In Vitro , Ativação Linfocitária , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/genética , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3800, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733040

RESUMO

Frameshift insertion/deletions (fs-indels) are an infrequent but highly immunogenic mutation subtype. Although fs-indels are degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, we hypothesise that some fs-indels escape degradation and elicit anti-tumor immune responses. Using allele-specific expression analysis, expressed fs-indels are enriched in genomic positions predicted to escape NMD, and associated with higher protein expression, consistent with degradation escape (NMD-escape). Across four independent melanoma cohorts, NMD-escape mutations are significantly associated with clinical-benefit to checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) therapy (Pmeta = 0.0039). NMD-escape mutations are additionally found to associate with clinical-benefit in the low-TMB setting. Furthermore, in an adoptive cell therapy treated melanoma cohort, NMD-escape mutation count is the most significant biomarker associated with clinical-benefit. Analysis of functional T cell reactivity screens from personalized vaccine studies shows direct evidence of fs-indel derived neoantigens eliciting immune response, particularly those with highly elongated neo open reading frames. NMD-escape fs-indels represent an attractive target for biomarker optimisation and immunotherapy design.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Transferência Adotiva , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos T/transplante , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655581

RESUMO

Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune responders critical for viral clearance and immunomodulation. Despite their vital role in viral infection, the contribution of NK cells in fighting SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been directly investigated. Insights into pathophysiology and therapeutic opportunities can therefore be inferred from studies assessing NK cell phenotype and function during SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. These studies suggest a reduction in circulating NK cell numbers and/or an exhausted phenotype following infection and hint toward the dampening of NK cell responses by coronaviruses. Reduced circulating NK cell levels and exhaustion may be directly responsible for the progression and severity of COVID-19. Conversely, in light of data linking inflammation with coronavirus disease severity, it is necessary to examine NK cell potential in mediating immunopathology. A common feature of coronavirus infections is that significant morbidity and mortality is associated with lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from an exaggerated immune response, of which NK cells are an important component. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how NK cells respond in both early and late coronavirus infections, and the implication for ongoing COVID-19 clinical trials. Using this immunological lens, we outline recommendations for therapeutic strategies against COVID-19 in clearing the virus while preventing the harm of immunopathological responses.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
4.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(4): e12938, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697853

RESUMO

Cancer is a major cause of death in the industrialized world. New therapies are constantly being developed in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. NK cell-based cellular therapies have shown effect against haematological malignancies, but it has been difficult to target solid tumours due to low NK cell infiltration of the tumour and efficient tumour evasion strategies. NK cells release extracellular vesicles that naturally contain cytolytic proteins and tumour-targeting molecules. These vesicles can directly interact with and kill malignant cells, and their small size could allow more efficient extravasation into the tumour tissue. Extracellular vesicles are also less sensitive to the hostile tumour microenvironment compared to cells. Based on their features, NK cell-derived extracellular vesicles represent promising novel tools in oncology. In this review, we summarize the current available literature on NK cell-derived extracellular vesicles and discuss how they may be utilized in therapy for solid tumours.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias , Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Animais , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/transplante , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2859, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503973

RESUMO

Mature double negative (DN) T cells are a population of αß T cells that lack CD4 and CD8 coreceptors and contribute to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The splenic marginal zone macrophages (MZMs) are important for establishing immune tolerance, and loss of their number or function contributes to the progression of SLE. Here we show that loss of MZMs impairs the tolerogenic clearance of apoptotic cells and alters the serum cytokine profile, which in turn provokes the generation of DN T cells from self-reactive CD8+ T cells. Increased Ki67 expression, narrowed TCR V-beta repertoire usage and diluted T-cell receptor excision circles confirm that DN T cells from lupus-prone mice and patients with SLE undergo clonal proliferation and expansion in a self-antigen dependent manner, which supports the shared mechanisms for their generation. Collectively, our results provide a link between the loss of MZMs and the expansion of DN T cells, and indicate possible strategies to prevent the development of SLE.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Antígeno Ki-67/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2860, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503978

RESUMO

The MYC oncogene drives T- and B- lymphoid malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Here, we demonstrate a systemic reduction in natural killer (NK) cell numbers in SRα-tTA/Tet-O-MYCON mice bearing MYC-driven T-lymphomas. Residual mNK cells in spleens of MYCON T-lymphoma-bearing mice exhibit perturbations in the terminal NK effector differentiation pathway. Lymphoma-intrinsic MYC arrests NK maturation by transcriptionally repressing STAT1/2 and secretion of Type I Interferons (IFNs). Treating T-lymphoma-bearing mice with Type I IFN improves survival by rescuing NK cell maturation. Adoptive transfer of mature NK cells is sufficient to delay both T-lymphoma growth and recurrence post MYC inactivation. In MYC-driven BL patients, low expression of both STAT1 and STAT2 correlates significantly with the absence of activated NK cells and predicts unfavorable clinical outcomes. Our studies thus provide a rationale for developing NK cell-based therapies to effectively treat MYC-driven lymphomas in the future.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfoma de Células T/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Linfoma de Burkitt/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferon Tipo I/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Linfoma de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células T/genética , Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14342-14353, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513716

RESUMO

Immature T cells undergo a process of positive selection in the thymus when their new T cell receptor (TCR) engages and signals in response to self-peptides. As the T cell matures, a slew of negative regulatory molecules, including the inhibitory surface glycoprotein CD5, are up-regulated in proportion to the strength of the self-peptide signal. Together these regulators dampen TCR-proximal signaling and help avoid any subsequent peripheral activation of T cells by self-peptides. Paradoxically, antigen-specific T cells initially expressing more CD5 (CD5hi) have been found to better persist as effector/memory cells after a peripheral challenge. The molecular mechanisms underlying such a duality in CD5 function is not clear. We found that CD5 alters the basal activity of the NF-κB signaling in resting peripheral T cells. When CD5 was conditionally ablated, T cells were unable to maintain higher expression of the cytoplasmic NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. Consistent with this, resting CD5hi T cells expressed more of the NF-κB p65 protein than CD5lo cells, without significant increases in transcript levels, in the absence of TCR signals. This posttranslationally stabilized cellular NF-κB depot potentially confers a survival advantage to CD5hi T cells over CD5lo ones. Taken together, these data suggest a two-step model whereby the strength of self-peptide-induced TCR signal lead to the up-regulation of CD5, which subsequently maintains a proportional reserve of NF-κB in peripheral T cells poised for responding to agonistic antigen-driven T cell activation.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD5/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/imunologia , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos CD5/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/transplante , Timo/citologia , Timo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Timo/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1891-1904, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Platelets are critical to the formation of a hemostatic plug and the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. Preclinical animal models, especially the mouse, provide an important platform to assess the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet drugs. However, these studies are limited by inherent differences between human and mouse platelets and the species-selectivity of many drugs. To circumvent these limitations, we developed a new protocol for the adoptive transfer of human platelets into thrombocytopenic nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune deficiency mice, that is, a model where all endogenous platelets are replaced by human platelets in mice accepting xenogeneic tissues. Approach and Results: To demonstrate the power of this new model, we visualized and quantified hemostatic plug formation and stability by intravital spinning disk confocal microscopy following laser ablation injury to the saphenous vein. Integrin αIIbß3-dependent hemostatic platelet plug formation was achieved within ≈30 seconds after laser ablation injury in humanized platelet mice. Pretreatment of mice with standard dual antiplatelet therapy (Aspirin+Ticagrelor) or PAR1 inhibitor, L-003959712 (an analog of vorapaxar), mildly prolonged the bleeding time and significantly reduced platelet adhesion to the site of injury. Consistent with findings from clinical trials, inhibition of PAR1 in combination with dual antiplatelet therapy markedly prolonged bleeding time in humanized platelet mice. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that this novel mouse model will provide a robust platform to test and predict the safety and efficacy of experimental antiplatelet drugs and to characterize the hemostatic function of synthetic, stored and patient platelets.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/fisiologia , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Receptor PAR-1/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538902

RESUMO

As cell function is influenced by niche-specific factors in the cellular microenvironment, methods to dissect cell localization and migration can provide further insight on cell function. B-1a cells are a unique B cell subset in mice that produce protective natural IgM antibodies against oxidation-specific epitopes that arise during health and disease. B-1a cell IgM production differs depending on B-1a cell location, and therefore it becomes useful from a therapeutic standpoint to target B-1a localization to niches supportive of high antibody production. Here we describe a method to target B-1a cell migration to the bone marrow by retroviral-mediated overexpression of the C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Gene induction in primary murine B cells can be challenging and typically yields low transfection efficiencies of 10-20% depending on technique. Here we demonstrate that retroviral transduction of primary murine B-1a cells results in 30-40% transduction efficiency. This method utilizes adoptive cell transfer of transduced B-1a cells into B cell-deficient recipient mice so that donor B-1a cell migration and localization can be visualized. This protocol can be modified for other retroviral constructs and can be used in diverse functional assays post-adoptive transfer, including analysis of donor cell or host cell phenotype and function, or analysis of soluble factors secreted post B-1a cell transfer. The use of distinct donor and recipient mice differentiated by CD45.1 and CD45.2 allotype and the presence of a GFP reporter within the retroviral plasmid could also enable detection of donor cells in other, immune-sufficient mouse models containing endogenous B cell populations.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Movimento Celular , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Retroviridae/metabolismo , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito , Camundongos , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 777-789, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572238

RESUMO

T follicular helper (TFH) cells are a distinct type of CD4+ T cells that are essential for most antibody and B lymphocyte responses. TFH cell regulation and dysregulation is involved in a range of diseases. Bcl-6 is the lineage-defining transcription factor of TFH cells and its activity is essential for TFH cell differentiation and function. However, how Bcl-6 controls TFH biology has largely remained unclear, at least in part due to the intrinsic challenges of connecting repressors to gene upregulation in complex cell types with multiple possible differentiation fates. Multiple competing models were tested here by a series of experimental approaches to determine that Bcl-6 exhibits negative autoregulation and controls pleiotropic attributes of TFH differentiation and function, including migration, costimulation, inhibitory receptors and cytokines, via multiple repressor-of-repressor gene circuits.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo
11.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 100-108, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554100

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) is a cell-surface receptor that plays a vital regulatory role in suppressing inflammatory T cell activity; therefore, it is an ideal target for T cell-redirecting therapies. Here, we describe a cynomolgus macaque model for studying the transfer of PD1-modified T cells. We developed the first T cell engager targeting the disruption of PD1 by electroporation of plasmids encoding sgRNA and Cas9. There were no significant differences between mock T cells and PD1-knockout (PD1-KO) T cells in terms of cell viability, T cell signature marker expression, cell apoptosis, or cell cycling during prolonged in vitro culture. However, in a mixed lymphocyte reaction, PD1-KO T cells exhibited increased proliferation for both CD4+ and CD8+T cells and enhanced IFNγ release. We adoptively transferred autologous PD1-KO T cells into three cynomolgus monkeys. The PD1-KO T cells did not cause overt toxicity as measured by evaluating body weight, hematological parameters, and blood chemistry parameters. Histopathological analyses of tissues showed no lesions related to the infused PD1-KO T cells. Our findings demonstrate the utility of cynomolgus monkeys in expanding PD1-KO T cells and evaluating the safety of this immunotherapy and provide a new strategy for T cell-based adoptive cell therapies.


Assuntos
Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/deficiência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Macaca fascicularis , Linfócitos T/transplante
12.
Protein Cell ; 11(10): 707-722, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519302

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Transferência Adotiva , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Coinfecção/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
13.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-220167

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has placed an unprecedented burden on healthcare systems around the world. In patients who experience severe disease, acute respiratory distress is often accompanied by a pathological immune reaction, sometimes referred to as 'cytokine storm'. One hallmark feature of the profound inflammatory state seen in patients with COVID-19 who succumb to pneumonia and hypoxia is marked elevation of serum cytokines, especially interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial experience from the outbreaks in Italy, China and the USA has anecdotally demonstrated improved outcomes for critically ill patients with COVID-19 with the administration of cytokine-modulatory therapies, especially anti-IL-6 agents. Although ongoing trials are investigating anti-IL-6 therapies, access to these therapies is a concern, especially as the numbers of cases worldwide continue to climb. An immunology-informed approach may help identify alternative agents to modulate the pathological inflammation seen in patients with COVID-19. Drawing on extensive experience administering these and other immune-modulating therapies, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer offers this perspective on potential alternatives to anti-IL-6 that may also warrant consideration for management of the systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary compromise that can be seen in patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Transferência Adotiva , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-23/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385146

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has placed an unprecedented burden on healthcare systems around the world. In patients who experience severe disease, acute respiratory distress is often accompanied by a pathological immune reaction, sometimes referred to as 'cytokine storm'. One hallmark feature of the profound inflammatory state seen in patients with COVID-19 who succumb to pneumonia and hypoxia is marked elevation of serum cytokines, especially interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial experience from the outbreaks in Italy, China and the USA has anecdotally demonstrated improved outcomes for critically ill patients with COVID-19 with the administration of cytokine-modulatory therapies, especially anti-IL-6 agents. Although ongoing trials are investigating anti-IL-6 therapies, access to these therapies is a concern, especially as the numbers of cases worldwide continue to climb. An immunology-informed approach may help identify alternative agents to modulate the pathological inflammation seen in patients with COVID-19. Drawing on extensive experience administering these and other immune-modulating therapies, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer offers this perspective on potential alternatives to anti-IL-6 that may also warrant consideration for management of the systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary compromise that can be seen in patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Transferência Adotiva , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-23/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
15.
Am J Pathol ; 190(8): 1723-1734, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389572

RESUMO

Retinal ischemic events, which result from occlusion of the ocular vasculature share similar causes as those for central nervous system stroke and are among the most common cause of acute and irreversible vision loss in elderly patients. Currently, there is no established treatment, and the condition often leaves patients with seriously impaired vision or blindness. The immune system, particularly T-cell-mediated responses, is thought to be intricately involved, but the exact roles remain elusive. We found that acute ischemia-reperfusion injury to the retina induced a prolonged phase of retinal ganglion cell loss that continued to progress during 8 weeks after the procedure. This phase was accompanied by microglial activation and CD4+ T-cell infiltration into the retina. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells isolated from diseased mice exacerbated retinal ganglion cell loss in mice with retinal reperfusion damage. On the other hand, T-cell deficiency or administration of T-cell or interferon-γ-neutralizing antibody attenuated retinal ganglion cell degeneration and retinal function loss after injury. These findings demonstrate a crucial role for T-cell-mediated responses in the pathogenesis of neural ischemia. These findings point to novel therapeutic targets of limiting or preventing neuron and function loss for currently untreatable conditions of optic neuropathy and/or central nervous system ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Isquemia/patologia , Retina/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Camundongos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia
17.
Mol Immunol ; 123: 64-73, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422416

RESUMO

T cells can help confer protective immunity by eliminating infections and tumors or drive immunopathology by damaging host cells. Both outcomes require a series of steps from the activation of naïve T cells to their clonal expansion, differentiation and migration to tissue sites. In addition to specific recognition of the antigen via the T cell receptor (TCR), multiple accessory signals from costimulatory molecules, cytokines and metabolites also influence each step along the progression of the T cell response. Current efforts to modify effector T cell function in many clinical contexts focus on the latter - which encompass antigen-independent and broad, contextual regulators. Not surprisingly, such approaches are often accompanied by adverse events, as they also affect T cells not relevant to the specific treatment. In contrast, fine tuning T cell responses by precisely targeting antigen-specific TCR signals has the potential to radically alter therapeutic strategies in a focused manner. Development of such approaches, however, requires a better understanding of functioning of the TCR and the biochemical signaling network coupled to it. In this article, we review some of the recent advances which highlight important roles of TCR signals throughout the activation and differentiation of T cells during an immune response. We discuss how, an appreciation of specific signaling modalities and variant ligands that influence the function of the TCR has the potential to influence design principles for the next generation of pharmacologic and cellular therapies, especially in the context of tumor immunotherapies involving adoptive cell transfers.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2361, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398640

RESUMO

The development of thymic regulatory T cells (Treg) is mediated by Aire-regulated self-antigen presentation on medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and dendritic cells (DCs), but the cooperation between these cells is still poorly understood. Here we show that signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLR) expressed on mTECs regulates the production of specific chemokines and other genes associated with post-Aire mTEC development. Using single-cell RNA-sequencing, we identify a new thymic CD14+Sirpα+ population of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (CD14+moDC) that are enriched in the thymic medulla and effectively acquire mTEC-derived antigens in response to the above chemokines. Consistently, the cellularity of CD14+moDC is diminished in mice with MyD88-deficient TECs, in which the frequency and functionality of thymic CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs are decreased, leading to aggravated mouse experimental colitis. Thus, our findings describe a TLR-dependent function of mTECs for the recruitment of CD14+moDC, the generation of Tregs, and thereby the establishment of central tolerance.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Separação Celular , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T Reguladores/transplante , Timo/citologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
20.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 766-776, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424367

RESUMO

Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells, functionally distinct from circulating memory T cells, have a critical role in protective immunity in tissues, are more efficacious when elicited after vaccination and yield more effective antitumor immunity, yet the signals that direct development of TRM cells are incompletely understood. Here we show that type 1 regulatory T (Treg) cells, which express the transcription factor T-bet, promote the generation of CD8+ TRM cells. The absence of T-bet-expressing type 1 Treg cells reduces the presence of TRM cells in multiple tissues and increases pathogen burden upon infectious challenge. Using infection models, we show that type 1 Treg cells are specifically recruited to local inflammatory sites via the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Close proximity with effector CD8+ T cells and Treg cell expression of integrin-ß8 endows the bioavailability of transforming growth factor-ß in the microenvironment, thereby promoting the generation of CD8+ TRM cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eimeria/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/transplante , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA