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1.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(4): 713-727, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973263

RESUMO

Brain plasticity is a key mechanism for learning and recovery. A striking example of plasticity in the adult brain occurs following input loss, for example, following amputation, whereby the deprived zone is "invaded" by new representations. Although it has long been assumed that such reorganization leads to functional benefits for the invading representation, the behavioral evidence is controversial. Here, we investigate whether a temporary period of somatosensory input loss to one finger, induced by anesthetic block, is sufficient to cause improvements in touch perception ("direct" effects of deafferentation). Further, we determine whether this deprivation can improve touch perception by enhancing sensory learning processes, for example, by training ("interactive" effects). Importantly, we explore whether direct and interactive effects of deprivation are dissociable by directly comparing their effects on touch perception. Using psychophysical thresholds, we found brief deprivation alone caused improvements in tactile perception of a finger adjacent to the blocked finger but not to non-neighboring fingers. Two additional groups underwent minimal tactile training to one finger either during anesthetic block of the neighboring finger or a sham block with saline. Deprivation significantly enhanced the effects of tactile perceptual training, causing greater learning transfer compared with sham block. That is, following deafferentation and training, learning gains were seen in fingers normally outside the boundaries of topographic transfer of tactile perceptual learning. Our results demonstrate that sensory deprivation can improve perceptual abilities, both directly and interactively, when combined with sensory learning. This dissociation provides novel opportunities for future clinical interventions to improve sensation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Dedos/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Psicofísica/métodos , Tato/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção do Tato/efeitos dos fármacos , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/efeitos dos fármacos , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(2): 634-640, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937830

RESUMO

After studying a stimulus (e.g., a word triplet such as gift, rose, wine), taking a cued recall test on that stimulus (e.g., gift, rose, ?) improves later recall of the retrieved term (e.g., wine) relative to a restudy control. That testing effect, however, is specific to the tested term: later recall of a previously untested term from the same stimulus (e.g., gift or rose) is not enhanced. In the present research, two possibilities for that highly specific learning were investigated: (a) learning through cued recall is always highly specific to the tested term, or, alternatively, (b) learning specificity is unique to the case of retrieving a term from an episodic memory of a study event. We addressed those possibilities by using the pretesting paradigm, in which there is no study opportunity prior to cued recall testing, and hence retrieval occurs through semantic memory. The results of two experiments supported the latter hypothesis. Thus, it is not the recall attempt per se that produces highly specific learning, but rather the attempt to recall the response by accessing an episodic memory of a particular study event. Theoretical and practical implications for learning through cued recall are discussed.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 45(2): 125-142, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816735

RESUMO

A wealth of recent studies have demonstrated that predictive cues involved in a linearly solvable component discrimination gain associability in subsequent learning relative to nonpredictive cues. In contrast, contradictory findings have been reported about the fate of cues involved in learning biconditional discriminations in which the cues are relevant but none are individually predictive of a specific outcome. In 3 experiments we examined the transfer of learning from component and biconditional discriminations in a within-subjects design. The results show a greater benefit in associability for cues that had previously served as predictive cues in a component discrimination than cues previously used in a biconditional discrimination. Further, new biconditional discriminations were learned faster when they were composed of cues that were previously trained in separate biconditional discriminations. Similarly, new component discriminations were learned faster when they were composed of cues that were previously trained in a separate component discriminations irrespective of whether they were previously predictive or previously nonpredictive. These results provide novel evidence that cue-specific learning of relational structure affects subsequent learning, suggesting changes in cue processing that go beyond simple changes in cue associability based on learned predictiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Discriminação (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 4862157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833964

RESUMO

A bioinspired adaptive model, developed by means of a spiking neural network made of thousands of artificial neurons, has been leveraged to control a humanoid NAO robot in real time. The learning properties of the system have been challenged in a classic cerebellum-driven paradigm, a perturbed upper limb reaching protocol. The neurophysiological principles used to develop the model succeeded in driving an adaptive motor control protocol with baseline, acquisition, and extinction phases. The spiking neural network model showed learning behaviours similar to the ones experimentally measured with human subjects in the same task in the acquisition phase, while resorted to other strategies in the extinction phase. The model processed in real-time external inputs, encoded as spikes, and the generated spiking activity of its output neurons was decoded, in order to provide the proper correction on the motor actuators. Three bidirectional long-term plasticity rules have been embedded for different connections and with different time scales. The plasticities shaped the firing activity of the output layer neurons of the network. In the perturbed upper limb reaching protocol, the neurorobot successfully learned how to compensate for the external perturbation generating an appropriate correction. Therefore, the spiking cerebellar model was able to reproduce in the robotic platform how biological systems deal with external sources of error, in both ideal and real (noisy) environments.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Neurológicos , Movimento (Física) , Robótica , Cerebelo/citologia , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)
5.
Gait Posture ; 70: 84-89, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the extent to which learning with one limb transfers to the opposite, untrained limb (i.e., interlimb transfer) is proportional to the amount of prior learning (or skill acquisition) that has occurred in the training limb. Thus, it is likely that distributed practice-a training strategy that is known to facilitate learning-will result in greater interlimb transfer than massed practice. RESEARCH QUESTION: To evaluate the effects of massed and distributed practice on acquisition and interlimb transfer of leg motor skills during walking. METHODS: Forty-five subjects learned a new gait pattern that required greater hip and knee flexion during the swing phase of gait. The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. Subjects in the massed practice group (n = 20) learned the task on a single day, whereas subjects in the distributed practice group (n = 25) learned the task that was spaced over two consecutive days (training phase). Following completion of training, subjects in both groups practiced the task with their untrained, opposite leg to evaluate interlimb transfer (transfer phase). RESULTS: Results indicated that the amount of skill acquisition (i.e., reductions in tracking error) on the training leg was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the distributed practice group when compared with the massed practice group. Similarly, the amount of interlimb transfer was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the distributed practice group both at the beginning and end of the transfer phase. SIGNIFICANCE: The findings indicate that acquisition and interlimb transfer of leg motor skills are significantly greater when the task was learned using distributed practice, which may have implications for gait rehabilitation in individuals with unilateral deficits, such as stroke.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Behav Neurosci ; 133(2): 145-175, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907616

RESUMO

Occasion setting refers to the ability of 1 stimulus, an occasion setter, to modulate the efficacy of the association between another, conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) or reinforcer. Occasion setters and simple CSs are readily distinguished. For example, occasion setters are relatively immune to extinction and counterconditioning, and their combination and transfer functions differ substantially from those of simple CSs. Similarly, the acquisition of occasion setting is favored when stimuli are separated by longer intervals, by empty trace intervals, and are of different modalities, whereas the opposite conditions typically favor the acquisition of simple associations. Furthermore, the simple conditioning and occasion setting properties of a single stimulus can be independent, for example, that stimulus may simultaneously predict the occurrence of a reinforcer and indicate that another stimulus will not be reinforced. Many behavioral phenomena that are intractable to simple associative analysis are better understood within an occasion setting framework. Besides capturing the distinction between direct and modulatory control common to many arenas in neuroscience, occasion setting provides a model for the hierarchical organization of memory for events and event relations, and for contextual control more broadly. Although early lesion studies further differentiated between occasion setting and simple conditioning functions, little is known about the neurobiology of occasion setting. Modern techniques for precise manipulation and monitoring of neuronal activity in multiple brain regions are ideally suited for disentangling contributions of simple conditioning and occasion setting in associative learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Condicionamento (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Animais , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Condicionamento (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia
7.
Hum Mov Sci ; 64: 123-132, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gait impairment is a major motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD), and treadmill training is an effective non-pharmacological treatment option. RESEARCH QUESTION: In this study, the time course, sustainability and transferability of gait adaptations to treadmill training with and without additional postural perturbations were investigated. METHODS: 38 PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr 1-3.5) were randomly allocated to eight weeks of treadmill training, performed twice-weekly for 40 min either with (perturbation treadmill training [PTT], n = 18) or without (conventional treadmill training [CTT], n = 20) additional perturbations to the treadmill surface. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were assessed during treadmill walking on a weekly basis (T0-T8), and after three months follow-up (T9). Additional overground gait analyses were performed at T0 and T8 to investigate transfer effects. RESULTS: Treadmill gait variability reduced linearly over the course of 8 weeks in both groups (p < .001; Cohen's d (range): -0.53 to -0.84). Only the PTT group significantly improved in other gait parameters (stride length/time, stance-/swing time), with stride time showing a significant between-group interaction effect (Cohen's d = 0.33; p = .05). Additional between-group interactions indicated more sustained improvements in stance (Cohen's d = 0.85; p = .02) and swing time variability in the PTT group (Cohen's d = 0.82; p = .03) at T9. Overground gait improvements at T8 existed only in stance (d = -0.73; p = .04) and swing time (d = 0.73; p = .04). DISCUSSION: Treadmill stride-to-stride variability reduced substantially and linearly, but transfer to overground walking was limited. Adding postural perturbations tended to increase efficacy and sustainability of several gait parameters. However, since between-group effects were small, more work is necessary to support these findings.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Idoso , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Hum Mov Sci ; 64: 142-152, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735818

RESUMO

The benefits of less repetitive practice in motor learning have been explained by the increased demand for memory processes during the execution of motor skills. Recently, a new perspective associating increased demand for perception with less repetitive practice has also been proposed. Augmented information gathering and visual scanning characterize this higher perceptual demand. To extend our knowledge about mental effort and perceptual differences in practice organization, the association between oculomotor behavior and type of practice was investigated. We required participants to press four keys with different absolute and relative timing goals during the acquisition phase. An eye-tracker captured visual scanning of the skill's absolute and relative information displayed on the screen. Participants were tested 24 h after acquisition by a retention and transfer test. A higher level of both pupil dilation and amount of eyeblinks indicated an increased mental effort in less repetitive practice compared to more repetitive practice. Visual scanning of the skill's relative and absolute information was specific to the type of practice. The findings indicate many differences in oculomotor behavior associated with the practice schedule.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(1): 25-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intermanual transfer of learning is an important movement basis for a keyboard and instrument playing movement. However, the issue of where neural plastic mechanism occurs in the brain after intermanual transfer training remains both controversial and unresolved. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study is to investigate the neuroplastic mechanism associated with the interlimb transfer learning from non-dominant hand to dominant hand. METHODS: Twenty healthy right-handed adults were classified into either the control group (no-training) or the experimental group (training serial button-press motor task, SPMT), 5 days a week for two consecutive weeks. SPMT involved pressing the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 in a random sequence, which was presented in the monitor screen. Outcome measures included movement accuracy (MA), movement time (MT), and the fMRI data using a 3T MRI scanner. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and non-parametric tests were used at p <0.05. RESULTS: Motor performances in the MA and MT were significantly more improved in the experimental group than in the control group (p <0.05). Neuroimaging data revealed a distributed subcortical and cortical motor network including the SMA-thalamus (VL/VL)-basal ganglia-cerebellum loop, suggesting a differential and time-dependent neural network utilized during intermanual transfer learning. CONCLUSION: Pre-training intermanual transfer learning involved a form of declarative (or explicit) motor learning, which was primarily mediated by the cortical motor network, whereas post-training involved a form of procedural knowledge, which activated subcortical and cortical motor network regions, including the SMA-thalamus (VL/VL)-basal ganglia-cerebellum loop.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto , Gânglios da Base/fisiologia , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Tálamo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychol Res ; 83(3): 544-566, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806809

RESUMO

Humans learn categorization rules that are aligned with separable dimensions through a rule-based learning system, which makes learning faster and easier to generalize than categorization rules that require integration of information from different dimensions. Recent research suggests that learning to categorize objects along a completely novel dimension changes its perceptual representation, making it more separable and discriminable. Here, we asked whether such newly learned dimensions could support rule-based category learning. One group received extensive categorization training and a second group did not receive such training. Later, both groups were trained in a task that made use of the category-relevant dimension, and then tested in an analogical transfer task (Experiment 1) and a button-switch interference task (Experiment 2). We expected that only the group with extensive pre-training (with well-learned dimensional representations) would show evidence of rule-based behavior in these tasks. Surprisingly, both groups performed as expected from rule-based learning. A third experiment tested whether a single session (less than 1 h) of training in a categorization task would facilitate learning in a task requiring executive function. There was a substantial learning advantage for a group with brief pre-training with the relevant dimension. We hypothesize that extensive experience with separable dimensions is not required for rule-based category learning; rather, the rule-based system may learn representations "on the fly" that allow rule application. We discuss what kind of neurocomputational model might explain these data best.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 1910624, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809254

RESUMO

Because of the lack of discriminative face representations and scarcity of labeled training data, facial beauty prediction (FBP), which aims at assessing facial attractiveness automatically, has become a challenging pattern recognition problem. Inspired by recent promising work on fine-grained image classification using the multiscale architecture to extend the diversity of deep features, BeautyNet for unconstrained facial beauty prediction is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a multiscale network is adopted to improve the discriminative of face features. Secondly, to alleviate the computational burden of the multiscale architecture, MFM (max-feature-map) is utilized as an activation function which can not only lighten the network and speed network convergence but also benefit the performance. Finally, transfer learning strategy is introduced here to mitigate the overfitting phenomenon which is caused by the scarcity of labeled facial beauty samples and improves the proposed BeautyNet's performance. Extensive experiments performed on LSFBD demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, which can achieve 67.48% classification accuracy.


Assuntos
Beleza , Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia) , Humanos , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Variações Dependentes do Observador
12.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(4): 1077-1092, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758515

RESUMO

Transfer, in which capability acquired in one situation influences performance in another is considered, along with retention, as demonstrative of effectual learning. In this regard, interlimb transfer of functional capacity has commanded particular attention as a means of gauging the generalisation of acquired capability. Both theoretical treatments and prior empirical studies suggest that the successful accomplishment of a physical training regime is required to bring about generalised changes that extend to the untrained limb. In the present study, we pose the following question: Does interlimb transfer occur if and only if the training movements are executed? We report findings from JG-an individual recruited to a larger scale trial, who presented with (unilateral) deficits of motor control. We examined whether changes in the performance of the untrained right limb arose following practice undertaken by the impaired left limb, wherein the majority of JG's attempts to execute the training task were unsuccessful. Comparison was made with a group of "control" participants drawn from the main trial, who did not practice the task. For JG, substantial gains in the performance of the untrained limb (registered 3 days, 10 days and 1 year following training) indicated that effective learning had occurred. Learning was, however, expressed principally when the unimpaired (i.e. untrained) limb was utilised to perform the task. When the impaired limb was used, marked deficiencies in movement execution remained prominent throughout.


Assuntos
Generalização (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(4): 1109-1127, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778618

RESUMO

Pairing an acute bout of lower-limb cycling exercise with skilled motor practice enhances acquisition and learning. However, it is not known whether an acute bout of exercise enhances a specific form of motor learning, namely motor adaptation, and if subsequent inter-limb transfer of this adaptation is enhanced. Seventeen young healthy participants performed a bout of cycling exercise and rest, on separate days, prior to right-arm reaching movements to visual targets under 45° rotated feedback of arm position (acquisition), followed by an immediate test of inter-limb transfer with the untrained left arm. After a 24-h delay, participants returned for a no-exercise retention test using the right and left arm with the same rotated visual feedback as acquisition. Results demonstrated that exercise enhanced right-arm adaptation during the acquisition and retention phases, and transiently enhanced aspects of inter-limb transfer, irrespective of usual levels of physical activity. Specifically, exercise enhanced movement accuracy, decreased reaction and movement time during acquisition, and increased accuracy during retention. Exercise shortened reaction time during the inter-limb transfer test immediately after right-arm acquisition but did not influence left-arm performance assessed at retention. These results indicate that an acute bout of exercise before practice enhances right-arm visuomotor adaptation (acquisition) and learning, and decreases reaction time during untrained left arm performance. The current results may have implications for the prescription of exercise protocols to enhance motor adaptation for healthy individuals and in clinical populations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Retenção (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adulto , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vision Res ; 156: 39-45, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684500

RESUMO

Perceptual learning is often interpreted as learning of fine stimulus templates. However, we have proposed that perceptual learning is more than template learning, in that more abstract statistical rules may have been learned, so that learning can transfer to stimuli at different precisions. Here we provide new evidence to support this view: Perceptual learning of Vernier discrimination at high noise, which has thresholds approximately 10 times as much as those at zero noise, is initially non-transferrable to zero noise. However, additional exposure to a noise-free Vernier-forming Gabor, which is ineffective alone, not only maximizes zero-noise fine Vernier discrimination, but also further enhances high-noise Vernier performance. Such high-threshold coarse Vernier training cannot impact the fine stimulus template directly. One plausible explanation is that the observers have learned the statistical rules that can apply to standardized input distributions to improve discrimination, regardless of the original precision of these distributions.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Psicofísica , Limiar Sensorial , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia) , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 45(1): 95-101, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604997

RESUMO

The current article concerns human outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT), where Pavlovian cues selectively invigorate instrumental responses that predict common rewarding outcomes. Several recent experiments have observed PIT effects that were insensitive to outcome devaluation manipulations, which has been taken as evidence of an automatic "associative" mechanism. Other similar studies observed PIT effects that were sensitive to devaluation, which suggests a more controlled, goal-directed process. Studies supporting the automatic approach have been criticized for using a biased baseline, whereas studies supporting the goal-directed approach have been criticized for priming multiple outcomes at test. The current experiment addressed both of these issues. Participants first learned to perform two instrumental responses to earn two outcomes each (R1-O1/O3, R2-O2/O4), before four Pavlovian stimuli (S1-S4) were trained to predict each outcome. One outcome that was paired with each instrumental response (O3 and O4) was then devalued, so that baseline response choice at test would be balanced. Instrumental responding was then assessed in the presence of each individual Pavlovian stimulus, so that only one outcome was primed per trial. PIT effects were observed for the valued outcomes (ts > 3.96, ps < .001) but not for the devalued outcomes (F < 1, Bayes Factor10 = .29). Hence, when baseline response choice was equated and only one outcome was primed per test trial, PIT was sensitive to outcome devaluation. The data therefore support goal-directed models of PIT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Metas , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 45(1): 102-110, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604998

RESUMO

Two experiments investigated an evaluative transfer from actions producing pleasant and unpleasant outcomes to novel stimuli that were assigned to those actions in a subsequent stimulus-response task. Results showed that a fictitious social group was liked more when this group was assigned to the action previously associated with pleasant outcomes relative to the other action. This evaluative transfer from operant contingencies was observed although the actions did not generate outcomes during the stimulus-action pairing. It is concluded that operant contingencies can be used for preference construction because they specify the existence of a relation between specific actions and particular valenced events. Implications for mental process theories of preference formation and motivated perception are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Gen Psychol ; 146(1): 79-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654726

RESUMO

The OPTIMAL theory proposes that enhancing expectancies and autonomy facilitate motor performance and learning (Wulf & Lewthwaite). Present study with two experiments aimed to examine this proposition by using a modified dart throwing as motor task. In both experiments, motor learning (i.e., retention test) was enhanced by practice conditions, which enhance expectancies for future performance and support learners' autonomy. Moreover, they led to significantly superior self-efficacy scores during all acquisition phase, retention, and transfer tests. Findings of the present study provided support for propositions of the OPTIMAL theory. Results are discussed in terms of motivational aspects of enhancing expectancies and autonomy and their role on facilitating motor learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Appl Ergon ; 74: 107-117, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487089

RESUMO

Simulations offer the benefits of a safer and more accessible learning environment, where learners can practice until the point of proficiency. While research into the effectiveness of simulations as learning tools has found tangible benefits, fewer studies have examined retention and differences between high and low fidelity simulations. This research sought to supplement the literature in this domain by investigating whether participants who learned to construct an electrical circuit using a 2D or 3D breadboard simulation could achieve comparable learning, transfer, and retention outcomes to those who learned using a physical breadboard. The influence of learner characteristics - cognitive ability and goal orientation - were also evaluated. This study had two parts: a cross-sectional portion that examined learning and transfer outcomes and a longitudinal portion that examined retention outcomes after a 2 and 4-week period. The cross-sectional analysis included 70 participants and the longitudinal analysis included 40 participants. The results found that the physical fidelity of the learning environment significantly impacted several transfer outcomes (construction and construction time) but not retention outcomes. Cognitive ability was a significant predictor of learning (gain score, circuit design score) and retention (posttest scores, construction time) outcomes. Learning goal orientation significantly predicted circuit construction over time and measurement occasion significantly predicted posttest scores and interacted with fidelity to predict circuit design score. The study demonstrated that simulated environments can lead to comparable, or better, proficiency than physical environments. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of simulated environments, specifically for courses delivered in an online setting.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Retenção (Psicologia) , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia) , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Vis ; 18(13): 8, 2018 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550615

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that perceptual learning of Vernier discrimination, when paired with orientation learning at the same retinal location, can transfer completely to untrained locations (Wang, Zhang, Klein, Levi, & Yu, 2014; Zhang, Wang, Klein, Levi, & Yu, 2011). However, Hung and Seitz (2014) reported that the transfer is possible only when Vernier is trained with short staircases, but not with very long staircases. Here we ran two experiments to examine Hung and Seitz's conclusions. The first experiment confirmed the transfer effects with short-staircase Vernier training in both our study and Hung and Seitz's. The second experiment revealed that long-staircase training only produced very fast learning at the beginning of the pretraining session, but with no further learning afterward. Moreover, the learning and transfer effects differed insignificantly with a small effect size, making it difficult to support Hung and Seitz's claim that learning with long-staircase training cannot transfer to an untrained retinal location.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação , Orientação Espacial , Retina , Adulto Jovem
20.
Educ. med. super ; 32(4): 143-183, oct.-dic. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-989759

RESUMO

Introducción: Un obstáculo al cual se enfrenta el estudiante de Odontología es la dificultad para interrelacionar los conocimientos que han aprendido de manera parcelada durante los dos primeros años de estudio, dificultando la transferencia de aprendizajes para reconocer la multicausalidad de factores presentes al momento de tratar al paciente de manera integral. La evidencia científica señala que una forma de lograrlo es que el estudiante posea estrategias cognitivas y metacognitivas que le permitan un aprendizaje significativo. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de estrategias cognitivas y metacognitivas presentes en los alumnos de Odontología de la Universidad de Concepción. Método: Metodología mixta; de tipo descriptivo y transversal. Un enfoque cualitativo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y cuantitativo mediante la aplicación del Cuestionario para la Evaluación de Estrategias de Aprendizaje de los Estudiantes universitarios (CEVEAPEU). Participaron 117 estudiantes que cursaron el tercer año entre el 2016 y 2017. Resultados : En lo cualitativo, los estudiantes destacaron varios aspectos positivos en la asignatura. No obstante, señalan la necesidad de incorporar herramientas que incentiven su participación y curiosidad, además de aumentar las oportunidades para integrar lo aprendido. Refirieron que utilizan una amplia variedad de estrategias de aprendizaje. Ello evidenció un aprendizaje significativo receptivo que no fomenta la transferencia de aprendizajes. En lo cuantitativo, existió una alta dispersión en las respuestas, tanto para estrategias cognitivas como metacognitivas, asimismo se evidenció una moda de 4 (de acuerdo) para la mayoría de las preguntas. Se demostró que los estudiantes no aseguran un alto nivel de adherencia a las aseveraciones planteadas. Conclusiones: Los estudiantes refirieron que utilizan una amplia variedad de estrategias de aprendizaje, sin embargo, no las adaptan cuando la situación de aprendizaje es más compleja. Los estudiantes no evidenciaron un alto nivel de adherencia a las aseveraciones planteadas en el CEVEAPEU. Por tanto, se logra un aprendizaje significativo receptivo que no fomenta la transferencia de aprendizajes(AU)


Introduction: One obstacle faced by the student of Dental Medicine is the difficulty to interrelate the knowledge they have learned separately during the first two years of study, making it difficult to transfer learning to recognize the multi-causality of factors present at the time of providing comprehensive treatment to the patient. Scientific evidence show that one way to achieve this is for the student to possess cognitive and metacognitive strategies that allow significant learning. Objective: To determine the level of cognitive and metacognitive strategies present in the dental students of Universidad de Concepción. Methods: Mixed methodology, of descriptive and cross-sectional type. A qualitative approach through semi-structured interviews, and quantitative approach through the application of the Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Learning Strategies of University Students (CEVEAPEU). 117 students participated who attended the third academic year between 2016 and 2017. Results: Qualitatively speaking, the students highlighted several positive aspects in the subject; however, they point out the need to incorporate tools that encourage their participation and curiosity, as well as increasing opportunities to integrate what they have learned. They reported that they use a wide variety of learning strategies. This showed a significant receptive learning that does not encourage the transfer of learning types. Quantitatively speaking, there was a high dispersion in the answers, both for cognitive and metacognitive strategies, as well as a trend of 4 (agreed) for most questions. The students were shown not to ensure a high level of adherence to their stated assertions. Conclusions: the students reported that they use a wide variety of learning strategies, but they do not adapt them when the learning situation is more complex. It was shown that students do not ensure a high level of adherence to the assertions made in the CEVEAPEU. Therefore, receptive significant learning is achieved that (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Odontologia , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia) , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Aprendizagem , Chile , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
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