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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23031, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157953

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The evidence for outpatient pulmonary embolism (PE) management apart from hospitalization is expanding. The availability and ease of direct oral anticoagulants have facilitated this transition. The literature, however, is sparse on the topic of comprehensive management of pulmonary embolism in the primary care clinic setting. As such, the role of the primary care physician in the complete diagnosis, risk stratification for outpatient eligibility, and initiation of treatment is unclear. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Case 1: A 33-year-old man with known heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation and a remote history of deep vein thrombosis presented to his primary care physician's office with 2 days of mild pleuritic chest pain and a dry cough after a recent transcontinental flight. Case 2: A 48-year-old man with a complex medical history including recent transverse myelitis presented to his primary care family physician with dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain for 6 days. DIAGNOSIS: Case 1: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography that same afternoon showed multiple bilateral segmental and subsegmental emboli as well as several small pulmonary infarcts. Case 2: The patient's D-dimer was elevated at 1148 ng/mL. His physician ordered a computed tomographic pulmonary angiography, performed that evening, which showed segmental and subsegmental PE. INTERVENTIONS: Both patients were contacted by their respective physicians shortly after their diagnoses and, in shared decision-making, opted for treatment at home with 5 days of enoxaparin followed by dabigatran. OUTCOMES: Neither patient developed recurrence nor complications in the subsequent 3 months. LESSONS: These cases, stratified as low risk using the American College of Chest Physicians criteria and the PE Severity Index, are among the first in the literature to illustrate comprehensive primary care-based outpatient PE management. Care was provided within an integrated delivery system with ready, timely access to laboratory, advanced radiology, and allied health services. This report sets the stage for investigating the public health implications of comprehensive primary care-based PE management, including cost-savings as well as enhanced patient follow-up and patient satisfaction.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/normas , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mielite Transversa/complicações , Mielite Transversa/diagnóstico , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico
3.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E422-E430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Failure to rapidly identify bleeding in trauma patients leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop and validate a simple bedside score for identifying bleeding patients requiring escalation of care beyond initial resuscitation. METHODS: We included patients with major blunt or penetrating trauma, defined as those with an Injury Severity Score greater than 12 or requiring trauma team activation, at The Ottawa Hospital from September 2014 to September 2017. We used logistic regression for derivation. The primary outcome was a composite of the need for massive transfusion, embolization or surgery for hemostasis. We prespecified clinical, laboratory and imaging predictors using findings from our prior systematic review and survey of Canadian traumatologists. We used an AIC-based stepdown procedure based on the Akaike information criterion and regression coefficients to create a 5-variable score for bedside application. We used bootstrap internal validation to assess optimism-corrected performance. RESULTS: We included 890 patients, of whom 133 required a major intervention. The main model comprised systolic blood pressure, clinical examination findings suggestive of hemorrhage, lactate level, focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) and computed tomographic imaging. The C statistic was 0.95, optimism-corrected to 0.94. A simplified Canadian Bleeding (CAN-BLEED) score was devised. A score cut-off of 2 points yielded sensitivity of 97.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.6 to 99.5) and specificity 73.2% (95% CI 69.9 to 76.3). An alternative version that included mechanism of injury rather than CT had lower discriminative ability (C statistic = 0.89). CONCLUSION: A simple yet promising bleeding score is proposed to identify highrisk patients in need of major intervention for traumatic bleeding and determine the appropriateness of early transfer to specialized trauma centres. Further research is needed to evaluate the performance of the score in other settings, define interrater reliability and evaluate the potential for reduction of time to intervention.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Modelos Biológicos , Triagem/métodos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Embolização Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Hemostasia Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/terapia
4.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1607-1615, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Utilizing the intrinsic surgical risk (ISR) and the patient's chronic and acute conditions, this study aims to develop and validate a comprehensive predictive model of perioperative morbidity in children undergoing noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Following institutional review board (IRB) approval at a tertiary care children's hospital, data for all noncardiac surgical encounters for a derivation dataset from July 2017 to December 2018 including 16,724 cases and for a validation dataset from January 2019 to December 2019 including 9043 cases were collected retrospectively. The primary outcome was a composite morbidity score defined by unplanned transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU), acute respiratory failure requiring intubation, postoperative need for noninvasive or invasive positive pressure ventilation, or cardiac arrest. Internal model validation was performed using 1000 bootstrap resamples, and external validation was performed using the 2019 validation cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1519 surgical cases (9.1%) experienced the defined composite morbidity. Using multivariable logistic regression, the Risk Assessment of Morbidity in Pediatric Surgery (RAMPS) score was developed with very good predictive ability in the derivation cohort (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.805; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.795-0.816), very good internal validity using 1000 bootstrap resamples (bias-corrected Nagelkerke R = 0.21 and Brier score = 0.07), and good external validity (AUC = 0.783; 95% CI, 0.770-0.797). The included variables are age <5 years, critically ill, chronic condition indicator (CCI) ≥3, significant CCI ≥2, and ISR quartile ≥3. The RAMPS score ranges from 0 to 10, with the risk of composite morbidity ranging from 1.8% to 42.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The RAMPS score provides the ability to identify a high-risk cohort of pediatric patients using a 5-component tool, and it demonstrated good internal and external validity and generalizability. It also provides an opportunity to improve perioperative planning with the intent of improving both individual-patient outcomes and the appropriate allocation of health care resources.


Assuntos
Medição de Risco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 57, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the unknowns posed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the role of biological sex to explain disease susceptibility and progression is still a matter of debate, with limited sex-disaggregated data available. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to assess if sex differences exist in the clinical manifestations and transitions of care among hospitalized individuals dying with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Italy (February 27-June 11, 2020). Clinical characteristics and the times from symptoms' onset to admission, nasopharyngeal swab, and death were compared between sexes. Adjusted multivariate analysis was performed to identify the clinical features associated with male sex. RESULTS: Of the 32,938 COVID-19-related deaths that occurred in Italy, 3517 hospitalized and deceased individuals with COVID-19 (mean 78 ± 12 years, 33% women) were analyzed. At admission, men had a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (adj-OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.39-2.23), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adj-OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.29-2.27), and chronic kidney disease (adj-OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.96), while women were older and more likely to have dementia (adj-OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and autoimmune diseases (adj-OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63), yet both sexes had a high level of multimorbidity. The times from symptoms' onset to admission and nasopharyngeal swab were slightly longer in men despite a typical acute respiratory illness with more frequent fever at the onset. Men received more often experimental therapy (adj-OR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.45-5.74) and experienced more likely acute kidney injury (adj-OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Men and women dying with COVID-19 had different clinical manifestations and transitions of care. Identifying sex-specific features in individuals with COVID-19 and fatal outcome might inform preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
6.
World Neurosurg ; 144: e710-e713, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has set a huge challenge to the delivery of neurosurgical services, including the transfer of patients. We aimed to share our strategy in handling neurosurgical emergencies at a remote center in Borneo island. Our objectives included discussing the logistic and geographic challenges faced during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Miri General Hospital is a remote center in Sarawak, Malaysia, serving a population with difficult access to neurosurgical services. Two neurosurgeons were stationed here on a rotational basis every fortnight during the pandemic to handle neurosurgical cases. Patients were triaged depending on their urgent needs for surgery or transfer to a neurosurgical center and managed accordingly. All patients were screened for potential risk of contracting COVID-19 prior to the surgery. Based on this, the level of personal protective equipment required for the health care workers involved was determined. RESULTS: During the initial 6 weeks of the Movement Control Order in Malaysia, there were 50 urgent neurosurgical consultations. Twenty patients (40%) required emergency surgery or intervention. There were 9 vascular (45%), 5 trauma (25%), 4 tumor (20%), and 2 hydrocephalus cases (10%). Eighteen patients were operated at Miri General Hospital, among whom 17 (94.4%) survived. Ninety percent of anticipated transfers were avoided. None of the medical staff acquired COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This framework allowed timely intervention for neurosurgical emergencies (within a safe limit), minimized transfer, and enabled uninterrupted neurosurgical services at a remote center with difficult access to neurosurgical care during a pandemic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/cirurgia , Emergências , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Neurocirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Resgate Aéreo , Bornéu/epidemiologia , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Transporte de Pacientes , Triagem
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14910, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913244

RESUMO

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in healthcare settings is a major public health threat that has been associated with cross-border and local patient transfers between healthcare facilities. Since the impact of transfers on spread may vary, our study aimed to assess the contribution of a patient transfer network on CPE incidence and spread at a countrywide level, with a case study of France from 2012 to 2015. Our results suggest a transition in 2013 from a CPE epidemic sustained by internationally imported episodes to an epidemic sustained by local transmission events through patient transfers. Incident episodes tend to occur within close spatial distance of their potential infector. We also observe an increasing frequency of multiple spreading events, originating from a limited number of regional hubs. Consequently, coordinated prevention and infection control strategies should focus on transfers of carriers of CPE to reduce regional and inter-regional transmission.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos
8.
Am J Surg ; 220(5): 1290-1295, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obese patients may have unique surgical needs. The goal of this study is to determine if there is an association between obesity and transfer in patients undergoing EGS. METHODS: EGS patients were identified in the NSQIP 2011-2016 database. Outcome variables included interhospital transfer, days to surgery, SSI, postoperative LOS, discharge destination, and 30-day readmission. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression were utilized. RESULTS: 419,373 EGS patients were identified, and transfer status varied by obesity class. After controlling for other factors, obese patients had increased odds of interhospital transfer (OR = 1.07-1.53), SSI (OR = 1.22-1.69), and decreased odds of discharge to home (OR = 0.42-0.71, all p < 0.01) but not of 30-day readmission or delay from admission to surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Obese patients undergoing EGS procedures have an increased likelihood of transfer from an acute care hospital. As obese EGS patients are increasingly prevalent, determining best triage practices for this unique patient population warrants additional investigation.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 332-338, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local health care facilities are often unequipped to treat complex upper extremity injuries, and patients are therefore transferred to designated trauma centers. This study describes the characteristics of patients transferred to a Level I trauma center for hand and upper extremity injuries and to investigate the accuracy of the provided diagnosis at the time of referral. METHODS: Adult patients transferred from outside facilities to the authors' Level I trauma center by means of direct contract with the on-call fellow for the care of hand and upper extremity injuries were identified. Patient- and injury-related information was prospectively collected at the time of referral before patient transfer, and again following diagnostic evaluation by a hand surgeon at the authors' institution. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were transferred to the authors' hand surgery service from outside facilities after direct contact with the on-call fellow. Most patients were referred by emergency medicine physicians [n = 47 (76 percent)], followed by midlevel emergency department providers (physician assistant or nurse practitioner) [n = 12 (19 percent)] or hand surgeons [n = 3 (5 percent)]. Six patients were transferred directly from a Level I trauma center. Twenty-one transferred patients (33 percent) had an inaccurate diagnosis at the time of referral. Factors associated with an inaccurate diagnosis included trauma level of the referring hospital and diagnoses of infection or dysvascularity. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy for hand injuries transferred from outside facilities by means of provider-to-provider communication is imperfect, and some injuries are misdiagnosed. Hand surgeons should continue to improve the triage and transfer process for patients with acute hand surgery injuries. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Braço/diagnóstico , Traumatismos da Mão/diagnóstico , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Med Care ; 58(9): 793-799, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) is a federal law enacted in 1986 prohibiting patient dumping (refusing or transferring patients with emergency medical conditions without appropriate stabilization), and discrimination based upon ability to pay. We evaluate hospital-level features associated with citation for EMTALA violation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of observational data on EMTALA enforcement (2005-2013). Regression analysis evaluates the association between facility-level features and odds of EMTALA citation by hospital-year. RESULTS: Among 4916 EMTALA-obligated hospitals there were 1925 EMTALA citation events at 1413 facilities between 2005 and 2013, with 4.3% of hospitals cited per year. In adjusted analyses, increased odds of EMTALA citations were found at hospitals that were: for-profit [odds ratio (OR): 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.96], in metropolitan areas (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.11-1.57); that admitted a higher proportion of Medicaid patients (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.0-1.01); and were in the top quartiles of hospital size (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.10-1.99) and emergency department (ED) volume (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.14-2.12). Predicted probability of repeat EMTALA citation in the year following initial citation was 17% among for-profit and 11% among other hospital types. Among citation events for patients presenting to the same hospital's ED, there were 1.30 EMTALA citation events per million ED visits, with 1.04 at private not-for-profit, 1.47 at government-owned, and 2.46 at for-profit hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: For-profit ownership is associated with increased odds of EMTALA citations after adjusting for other characteristics. Efforts to improve EMTALA might be considered to protect access to emergency care for vulnerable populations, particularly at large, urban, for-profit hospitals admitting high proportions of Medicaid patients.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Disaster Med ; 15(1): 7-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804382

RESUMO

Hospitals, which care for some of the most vulnerable individuals, have been impacted by disasters in the past and are likely to be affected by future disasters. Yet data on hospital evacuations are infrequent and outdated, at best. This goal of this study was to determine the characteristics and frequency of disasters in the United States that have resulted in hospital evacuations by an appraisal of the literature from 2000 to 2017. There were 158 hospital evacuations in the United States over 18 years. The states with the highest number of evacuations were Florida (N = 39), California (N = 30), and. Texas (N = 15). The reason for the evacuation was "natura" in 114 (72.2 percent), made-man "intentional" 14 (8.9 percent), and man-made "unintentional" or technological related to internal hospital infrastructure 30 (19 percent).The most common natural threats were hurricanes (N = 65) (57 percent), wildfires (N = 21) (18.4 percent), floods (N = 10) (8.8 percent), and storms (N = 8) (7 percent). Bombs/bomb threats were the most common reason (N = 8) (57.1 percent) for a hospital evacuation result-ing from a man-made intentional disaster, followed by armed gunman (N = 4) (28.6 percent). The most frequent infrastruc-ture problems included hospital fires/smoke (N = 9) (30 percent), and chemical fumes (N = 7) (23.3 percent). Of those that reported the duration and number of evacuees, 30 percent of evacuations lasted over 24 h and the number of evacuees was >100 in over half (55.2 percent) the evacuations. This information regarding hospital evacuations should allow hospital administrators, disaster planners, and others to better prepare for disasters that result in the need for hospital evacuation.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transporte de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Fogo , Inundações , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039177, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 started spreading widely in China in January 2020. Outpatient fever clinics (FCs), instituted during the SARS epidemic in 2003, were upgraded to serve for COVID-19 screening and prevention of disease transmission in large tertiary hospitals in China. FCs were hoped to relieve some of the healthcare burden from emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate the effect of upgrading the FC system on rates of nosocomial COVID-19 infection and ED patient attendance at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6365 patients were screened in the FC. METHODS: The FC of PUMCH was upgraded on 20 January 2020. We performed a retrospective study of patients presenting to the FC between 12 December 2019 and 29 February 2020. The date when COVID-19 was declared an outbreak in Beijing was 20 January 2020. Two groups of data were collected and subsequently compared with each other: the first group of data was collected within 40 days before 20 January 2020; the second group of data was collected within 40 days after 20 January 2020. All necessary data, including patient baseline information, diagnosis, follow-up conditions and the transfer records between the FC and ED, were collected and analysed. RESULTS: 6365 patients were screened in the FC, among whom 2912 patients were screened before 21 January 2020, while 3453 were screened afterward. Screening results showed that upper respiratory infection was the major disease associated with fever. After the outbreak of COVID-19, the number of patients who were transferred from the FC to the ED decreased significantly (39.21% vs 15.75%, p<0.001), and patients generally spent more time in the FC (55 vs 203 min, p<0.001), compared with before the outbreak. For critically ill patients waiting for their screening results, the total length of stay in the FC was 22 min before the outbreak, compared with 442 min after the outbreak (p<0.001). The number of in-hospital deaths of critically ill patients in the FC was 9 out of 29 patients before the outbreak and 21 out of 38 after the outbreak (p<0.05). Nineteen cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in the FC during the period of this study. However, no other patients nor any healthcare providers were cross-infected. CONCLUSION: The workload of the FC increased significantly after the COVID-19 outbreak. New protocols regarding the use of FC likely helped prevent the spread of COVID-19 within the hospital. The upgraded FC also reduced the burden on the ED.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Febre/virologia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21245, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702904

RESUMO

Little is known about how emergency transfers take place and what outcomes they lead to in the patients who receive home care in Japan. We aimed to assess outcomes of emergency transfers and factors associated with such outcomes in the Japanese home care setting.A retrospective analysis of patient data from a home care clinic in Fukui, Japan, included all patients who experienced emergency transfers which were reported to the clinic during 2018 and 2019. We collected data on patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the transfer process and its outcome, using patient charts and other administrative records. We first analyzed the overall outcome and then evaluated whether transfer outcomes would differ according to by whom and from where the emergency medical service (EMS) was called, by univariate and multivariate analyses.We considered 63 patients who experienced emergency transfers during the study period. Of the total, 10 (15.9%) returned to their residences without being admitted or being dead on arrival. Although only 2.6% (1/39) of patients whose transfers were determined by health care professionals (HCPs) returned home without being admitted, a direct return was observed for 37.5% (9/24) of patients whose transfer was determined by those other than HCPs (odds ratio of direct return to residences 22.80, 95% confidence interval 2.65-195.87). There was no other variable which was significantly associated with the outcomes after the emergency transfers, although all the patients who have no available caregivers resulted in hospitalization.In this preliminary analysis in the Japanese home care setting, only a small proportion of patients returned to their residences without being admitted following emergency transfers. Patients whose EMS transfer was requested by an HCP usually resulted in an admission to the clinic, whereas transfers requested by non-HCPs frequently did not.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Surg Res ; 255: 475-485, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using a national database of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) recipients, we sought to determine risk factors for nonhome discharge (NHD) in a cohort of patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC at any one of 12 participating sites between 2000 and 2017 were identified. Univariate analysis was used to compare the characteristics, operative variables, and postoperative complications of patients discharged home and patients with NHD. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors of NHD. RESULTS: The cohort included 1593 patients, of which 70 (4.4%) had an NHD. The median [range] peritoneal cancer index in our cohort was 14 [0-39]. Significant predictors of NHD identified in our regression analysis were advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.12; P < 0.001), an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score of 4 (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.21-6.83; P = 0.017), appendiceal histology (OR, 3.14; 95% CI 1.57-6.28; P = 0.001), smoking history (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.70-6.12; P < 0.001), postoperative total parenteral nutrition (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.70-5.81; P < 0.001), respiratory complications (OR, 7.40; 95% CI, 3.36-16.31; P < 0.001), wound site infections (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.58-6.17; P = 0.001), preoperative hemoglobin (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94; P = 0.006), and total number of complications (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.73; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Early identification of patients at high risk for NHD after CRS/HIPEC is key for preoperative and postoperative counseling and resource allocation, as well as minimizing hospital-acquired conditions and associated health care costs.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 664, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the UK Early Pregnancy Assessment Units (EPAUs) are usually situated alongside hospital maternity and gynaecology services. In June 2018, the Oxford EPAU relocated from the John Radcliffe Hospital to a community clinic. This is to our knowledge, the UK's first community-based EPAU. This change was inspired by our patient feedback describing the co-location of the EPAU with maternity services as distressing. METHODS: Following the introduction of the community EPAU we developed a database to capture information on the patients seen in the clinic. This is a retrospective observational study of a single cohort of patients attending the clinic over an 8 month period. Data was collected from 1st July 2018 to 28th February 2019. This data included clinical, safety and patient experience outcomes. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred and twenty patient episodes were recorded, 1,932 were new patients. Mean waiting time to be seen in clinic was 1.3 days. When miscarriage was confirmed 48.6% chose conservative management, 19.9% chose medical management, and 31.5% chose surgical management. The mean rate of ambulance transfers to hospital was 3.1 per month. Of all patients seen in EPAU 32 had unplanned admissions, which accounted for 2.7% of all patients seen in EPAU. Patient feedback questionnaires have been consistently positive. CONCLUSION: The development of a community EPAU has improved services to allow care closer to home in an environment separate from maternity care. Our data shows that a community EPAU can deliver timely, good quality patient care, is safe, and a service valued by patients. Further research is indicated to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of community EPAUs and the long term safety and effectiveness of care.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
16.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 935-942, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726267

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inter-hospital transfer (IHT) patients have higher in-hospital mortality, higher healthcare costs, and worse outcomes compared to non-transferred patients. Goals of care (GoC) discussions prior to transfer are necessary in patients at high risk for decline to ensure that the intended outcome of transfer is goal concordant. However, the frequency of these discussions is not well understood. This study was intended to assess the prevalence of GoC discussions in IHT patients with early mortality, defined as death within 72 hours of transfer, and prevalence of primary diagnoses associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of IHT patients aged 18 and older who died within 72 hours of transfer to Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center between October 1, 2016-October 2018. Documentation of GoC discussions within the electronic health record (EHR) prior to transfer was the primary outcome. We also assessed charts for primary diagnosis associated with in-hospital mortality, code status changes prior to death, in-hospital healthcare interventions, and frequency of palliative care consults. RESULTS: We included in this study a total of 298 patients, of whom only 10.1% had documented GoC discussion prior to transfer. Sepsis (29.9%), respiratory failure (28.2%), and cardiac arrest (27.5%) were the top three diagnoses associated with in-hospital mortality, and 73.2% of the patients transitioned to comfort measures prior to death. After transfer, 18.1% of patients had invasive procedures performed with 9.7% undergoing major surgery. Palliative care consultation occurred in only 4.4%. CONCLUSION: The majority (89.9%) of IHT patients with early mortality did not have GoC discussion documented within EHR prior to transfer, although most transitioned to comfort measures prior to their deaths, highlighting that additional work is needed in this area.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Conforto do Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Conforto do Paciente/métodos , Conforto do Paciente/normas , Transferência de Pacientes/normas , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco Ajustado
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(10): 2244.e3-2244.e6, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of encounters in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) brought by interfacility transport by emergency medical services (EMS) from other EDs or urgent care settings. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a multistage probability survey of nonfederal of visits to U.S. EDS. We evaluated patients who were brought to the ED as an interfacility transport by EMS from another ED or urgent care setting between 2014 and 2017. We report demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment factors of ED encounters brought interfacility transport and assessed factors associated with discharge from the receiving ED. RESULTS: Of 562.9 million ED encounters during the assessed period, 4.5 million were brought by interfacility transport by EMS (1.1 million per year). This represented 0.8% (95% CI 0.6-1.0%) of all ED encounters and 5.3% (95% CI 4.4-6.3%) of ED encounters transported by EMS. Most encounters brought by interfacility transport were adults (85%) who were publicly insured (62%). 39% had at least one abnormal vital sign. Most encounters received diagnostic testing (84%) and were seen within 30 min of presentation (61%). 54% were admitted, and 36% were discharged from the ED. Encounters without chronic complex conditions and with normal triage vital signs were associated with ED discharge (p < 0.01). DISCUSSION: Interfacility transports between EDs transported by EMS account for <1% of ED encounters in the U.S. Nearly 40% of such encounters are ultimately discharged. Further research is needed to identify a low-risk cohort among patients in need of secondary transport.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Estados Unidos
18.
Public Health Rep ; 135(4): 452-460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are continually emerging and threatening health care systems. Little attention has been paid to the effect of patient transfers on MDRO dissemination among health care entities in health care systems. In this study, the Florida Department of Health in Orange County (DOH-Orange) developed a baseline social network analysis of patient movement across health care entities in Orange County, Florida, and regionally, within 6 surrounding counties in Central Florida. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DOH-Orange constructed 2 directed network sociograms-graphic visualizations that show the direction of relationships (ie, county and regional)-by using 2016 health insurance data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which include metrics that could be useful for local public health interventions, such as MDRO outbreaks. RESULTS: We found that both our county and regional networks were sparse and centralized. The county-level network showed that acute-care hospitals had the highest influence on controlling the flow of patients between health care entities that would otherwise not be connected. The regional-level network showed that post-acute-care hospitals and other facilities (behavioral hospitals and mental health/substance abuse facilities) served as the primary controls for flow of patients between health care entities. The most prominent health care entities in both networks were the same 2 acute-care hospitals. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Social network analysis can help local public health officials respond to MDRO outbreak investigations by determining which health care facilities are the main contributors of dissemination of MDROs or are at high risk of receiving patients with MDROs. This information can help epidemiologists prioritize prevention efforts and develop county- or regional-specific interventions to control and halt MDRO transmission across a health care network.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2346-2352, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568662

RESUMO

We evaluated the clinical course of asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) admitted to community treatment centers (CTCs) for isolation in South Korea. Of 632 patients, 75 (11.9%) had symptoms at admission, 186 (29.4%) were asymptomatic at admission but developed symptoms during their stay, and 371 (58.7%) remained asymptomatic during their entire clinical course. Nineteen (3.0%) patients were transferred to hospitals, but 94.3% (573/613) of the remaining patients were discharged from CTCs upon virologic remission. The mean virologic remission period was 20.1 days (SD + 7.7 days). Nearly 20% of patients remained in the CTCs for 4 weeks after diagnosis. The virologic remission period was longer in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients. In mildly symptomatic patients, the mean duration from symptom onset to virologic remission was 11.7 days (SD + 8.2 days). These data could help in planning for isolation centers and formulating self-isolation guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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