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4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(3): 34, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485872

RESUMO

The growing commercialization of scientific research has raised important concerns about industry bias. According to some evidence, so-called industry bias can affect the integrity of the science as well as the direction of the research agenda. I argue that conceptualizing industry's influence in scientific research in terms of bias is unhelpful. Insofar as industry sponsorship negatively affects the integrity of the research, it does so through biasing mechanisms that can affect any research independently of the source of funding. Talk about industry bias thus offers no insight into the particular epistemic shortcomings at stake. If the concern is with the negative effects that industry funding can have on the research agenda, conceptualizing this influence as bias obscures the ways in which such impact is problematic and limits our ability to offer solutions that can successfully address the concerns raised by the growing role of private funding in science.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Mercantilização , Transferência de Tecnologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/instrumentação
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 263: 193-204, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411163

RESUMO

Technologies are often viewed as the route to better, safer and more efficient care, but technology projects rarely deliver all the benefits expected of them. Based on a literature review and empirical case studies, we developed a framework (NASSS) for studying the non-adoption, abandonment and challenges to scale-up, spread and sustainability of technology-supported change efforts in health and social care. Such projects meet problems usually because they are too complex - and because the complexity is sub-optimally handled. NASSS consists of six domains - the illness or condition, the technology, the value proposition, the individuals intended to adopt the technology, the organisation(s) and the wider system - along with a seventh domain that considers how all these evolve over time. The NASSS framework incorporates a number of other theories and analytic approaches described elsewhere in this book. It is not intended to offer a predictive or formulaic solution to technology adoption. Rather, NASSS should be used to generate a rich and situated narrative of the multiple influences on a complex project; to identify parts of the project where complexity might be reduced; and to consider how individuals and organisations might be supported to handle the remaining complexities better.


Assuntos
Transferência de Tecnologia , Tecnologia , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438488

RESUMO

The objective of this research is to analyze the transfer of technology developed by the commercial and industrial compensation policy of the initiative of the Plan of Expansion of Radiotherapy of the Ministry of Health. The data of the organization subsidized by the Plan of Expansion of Radiotherapy were obtained through research documentary, interviews with professionals and participant observation. The methodological strategy consisted of a case study supported by a cross-sectional study, the internal environment was analyzed with variables found in the literature, allowing its comprehension in a certain hospital situation. The results revealed that the initiatives of introduction of radiotherapy equipment by the Expansion Plan suffered numerous confrontations within the contextual and organizational circumstances that affected its development and effectiveness. Given the struggles of the Expansion Plan at the tactical and operational levels of decision-making, there are challenges that require responses from organizations involved in the process to implement the trade agreement established by the compensation policy, with the initial stage being highlighted as a technology transfer process. Due to management skills and expertise, it gives you the paradigm status to be followed based on the relevant dimensions and indicators of the technology transfer analysis.


Assuntos
Radioterapia , Transferência de Tecnologia , Brasil , Governo Federal , Humanos , Saúde Pública
7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 263, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338714

RESUMO

Modeling of the lyophilization process, based on the steady-state heat and mass transfer, is a useful tool in understanding and optimizing of the process, developing an operating design space following the quality-by-design principle, and justifying occasional process deviations during routine manufacturing. The steady-state model relies on two critical parameters, namely, the vial heat transfer coefficient, Kv, and the cake resistance, Rp. The classical gravimetric method used to measure Kv is tedious, time- and resource-consuming, and can be challenging and costly for commercial scale dryers. This study proposes a new approach to extract both Kv and Rp directly from an experimental run (e.g., temperature and Pirani profiles). The new methodology is demonstrated using 5% w/v mannitol model system. The values of Kv obtained using this method are comparable to those measured using the classic gravimetric method. Application of the proposed approach to process scale-up and technology transfer is illustrated using a case study. The new approach makes the steady-state model a simple and reliable tool for model parameterization, thus maximizes its capability and is particularly beneficial for transfer products from lab/pilot to commercial manufacturing.


Assuntos
Liofilização/métodos , Transferência de Tecnologia , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 13(8): 785-796, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282770

RESUMO

Introduction: Short bowel syndrome represents the leading etiology that causes intestinal failure both in children and adults. Total parenteral nutrition support has dramatically improved the prognosis for these patients but, if related irreversible complications occur, the alternative is represented by surgery and/or transplantation. Areas covered: Autologous gastrointestinal reconstructive procedures are a feasible, alternative approach with good long-term outcome data inexperienced surgical centers. Expert opinion: Ongoing innovative efforts have driven the surgical options for successful autologous reconstructive surgery: bowel elongation/tapering techniques (LILT, STEP, and the new SILT) together with the 'reversed bowel segment' procedure are now recognized procedures and all must be tailored to the individual patient needs to obtain the optimal result in terms of enteral autonomy. Background laboratory experimentation with new procedures e.g. options for bowel dilation techniques and distraction-induced enterogenesis, may provide additional management and treatment modalities.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/fisiopatologia , Intestino Delgado/transplante , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/transplante , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/cirurgia , Tecnologia Biomédica , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Transferência de Tecnologia , Transplante Autólogo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067650

RESUMO

University-industry technology transfer (UITT) plays an important role in the construction of the national pharmaceutical innovation system. The speculations of a faculty inventor may hinder the successful transfer of pharmaceutical research results. This paper divides the specific process of the transformation of pharmaceutical research results into two parts: (1) an evolutionary game between faculty inventors and universities; and (2) a Stackelberg game between faculty inventors and pharmaceutical companies. Further, we carry out numerical simulations to analyze the impact of transformation success rate, income distribution coefficient, and a faculty inventor's future working years on the transformation of pharmaceutical research results. The findings indicated that whether a combination of action strategies of faculty inventors and universities can evolve to the optimal equilibrium is determined by many factors, such as the technological transaction price of the pharmaceutical company and the reward or the income obtained by the faculty inventor. The transformation success rate and the income distribution coefficient are the key factors that affect the faculty inventor's will and the behavior of the pharmaceutical company. The conclusions of this paper contribute to the research on how we can improve the success rate of research results and avoid resource waste, and provide a decision-making reference for the management of pharmaceutical research results in universities.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Teoria do Jogo , Relações Interinstitucionais , Modelos Teóricos , Transferência de Tecnologia , Docentes , Humanos , Pesquisa , Universidades
10.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 114(2): 167-173, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060648

RESUMO

In the last decades, surgical techniques have evolved, introducing better, more sophisticated devices, aimed at providing the least traumatizing surgical operations, with improved perioperative and longtime results. Based on the results of randomized control trials, current guidelines recommend laparoscopic approach for the treatment of colonic cancer where there is appropriate expertise. Compared with colonic resection, laparoscopic rectal resections are technically challenging procedures associated with a low adoption rate, high conversion rate, debatable functional and oncological results. These drawbacks created the need for a better tool. Robotic surgery emerged to overcome the limits of laparoscopy in terms of visibility and instrument maneuverability. Laparoscopic approach is best suited for colon and superior rectal cancers, while robotic approach is best indicated in medium and inferior rectal cancers(especially in men with a narrow pelvis and in patients with high BMI). In these cases the robotic approach greatly facilitate the minimally invasive approach and, most of the time, allow preservation of the pelvic autonomic nerves leading to a better quality of life. Due to increased costs and relative unavailability of this method, it is difficult to anticipate if the adoption rate of minimally invasive surgery in colorectal cancer will increase significantly.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Cirurgia Colorretal/tendências , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/tendências , Qualidade de Vida , Transferência de Tecnologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
IEEE Pulse ; 10(2): 8-13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021751

RESUMO

Regenerative Patch Technologies LLC was founded by Mark Humayun, MD, PhD, and David R. Hinton, MD, from the University of Southern California; and Dennis O. Clegg, PhD, from the University of California, Santa Barbara. The technology to produce the stem cell-based retinal implant is exclusively licensed to Regenerative Patch Technologies LLC from the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the University of California, Santa Barbara. Humayun and Hinton have an equity interest in and are consultants for Regenerative Patch Technologies LLC.


Assuntos
Bioprótese , Atrofia Geográfica , Retina , Células-Tronco , Transferência de Tecnologia , Atrofia Geográfica/metabolismo , Atrofia Geográfica/patologia , Atrofia Geográfica/terapia , Humanos , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/patologia
12.
Healthc Manage Forum ; 32(3): 148-152, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947549

RESUMO

Hospitals and other health settings across Canada are transitioning from paper or legacy information systems to Electronic Medical Records (EMR) systems to improve patient care and service delivery. The literature speaks to benefits of EMR systems, but also challenges, such as adverse patient events and provider workflow interruptions. Theoretical models have been proposed to help understand the complex interaction between health information technologies and the healthcare environment, but a shortcoming is the transition from conceptual models to actual clinical settings. The health ecosystem is filled with human diversity and organizational culture considerations that cannot be separated from technical implementation strategies. This paper analyzes literature on EMR implementation and adoption to develop a tactical framework for EMR adoption. The framework consists of six categories, each with a set of seed questions to consider when leading technology adoption projects.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Cultura Organizacional , Inovação Organizacional , Transferência de Tecnologia
15.
East Mediterr Health J ; 25(1): 24-33, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919922

RESUMO

Background: Electronic Medical Record (EMR) offers remarkable facilities such as reducing medical errors, decreasing healthcare costs and promoting quality of healthcare services by collecting, storing and displaying information at the point of care. Aims: This study was carried out to identify the determinants of electronic medical record (EMR) adoption by presenting a comprehensive model. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which 330 healthcare personnel working in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, were selected as the study sample. A proposed conceptual path model of technology, organization and environment (TOE), and technology acceptance model (TAM) was developed to identify the determinants of EMR adoption. The model was authorized by structural equation modeling (SEM) and represented by Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS). Results: The results of the study showed that the integrated model of TOE-TAM explained 68 percent (R2 = 0.68) of the variance of EMR adoption. The findings also evidenced that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, technological context, organization context and environmental context have significant effect on EMR adoption. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that the proposed conceptual integrated model of TOE-TAM is a favourable model for identifying the relevant factors of EMR adoption. The present study clearly recognized nine significant determinants that affect end-users' intention when comprehensive implementation of ERMs is considered.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transferência de Tecnologia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(3): e13975, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653102

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics offers remarkable potential for the rapid translation of discoveries into changes in clinical practice. In the present work, we are interested in evaluating the ability of commercially available genome-wide association sequencing chips to cover genes that have high pharmacogenomics potential.We used a set of 2794 variations within 369 absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) genes of interest, as previously defined in collaboration with the Pharma ADME consortium. We have compared the Illumina TrueSeq and both Agilent SureSelect and HaloPlex sequencing technologies. We have developed Python scripts to evaluate the coverage for each of these products. In particular, we considered a specific list of 155 allelic variants in 34 genes which present high pharmacogenomics potential. Both the theoretical and practical coverage was assessed.Given the need to have a good coverage to establish confidently the functionality of an enzyme, the observed rates are unlikely to provide sufficient evidence for pharmacogenomics studies. We assessed the coverage using enrichment technology for exome sequencing using the Illumina Trueseq exome, Agilent SureSelectXT1 V4 and V5, and Haloplex exome, which offer a coverage of 96.12%, 91.61%, and 88.38%, respectively.Although pharmacogenomic advances had been limited in the past due in part to the lack of coverage of commercial genotyping chips, it is anticipated that future studies that make use of new sequencing technologies should offer a greater potential for discovery.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Farmacogenética/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Exoma , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Humanos , Transferência de Tecnologia
19.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(1): 2, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631970

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To estimate the impact of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for high blood pressure (BP) on the next hypertension guidelines in Asia. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines for high BP in adults changed the diagnostic threshold and the management goal of BP from 140/90 to 130/80 mmHg. Another characteristic of the new guideline is its focus on a practical approach for the effective management of hypertension by using home and ambulatory BP monitoring; this point is also recommended in the 2014 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. In Japan, the guidelines for hypertension management are currently under revision and will be released in the spring of 2019. The core concept of the 2019 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension, i.e., early and tight BP control over 24 h, will contribute to target-organ protection and cardiovascular disease prevention for Asians.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Adulto , American Heart Association , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Cardiologia/métodos , Cardiologia/normas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Transferência de Tecnologia , Estados Unidos
20.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 27(1): e9-e16, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320732

RESUMO

Despite the wealth of innovation in the orthopaedic sciences, few technologies translate to clinical use. By way of a 2-day symposium titled "AAOS/ORS Translating Orthopaedic Technologies into Clinical Practice: Pathways from Novel Idea to Improvements in Standard of Care Research Symposium," key components of successful commercialization strategies were identified as a passionate entrepreneur working on a concept aimed at improving patient outcomes and decreasing the cost and burden of disease; a de-risking strategy that has due recognition of the regulatory approval process and associated costs while maximizing the use of institutional, state, and federal resources; and a well thought-out and prepared legal plan and high quality, protected intellectual property. Challenges were identified as a lack of education on the scale-up and commercialization processes; few opportunities to network, get feedback, and obtain funding for early stage ideas; disconnect between the intellectual property and the business model; and poor adoption of new technologies caused in part by un-optimized clinical trials. By leveraging the network of professional orthopaedic societies, there exists an opportunity to create an enlightened community of musculoskeletal entrepreneurs who are positioned to develop and commercialize technologies and transform patient care.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Contrato de Risco/organização & administração , Ortopedia , Transferência de Tecnologia , Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Tecnologia Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Contrato de Risco/legislação & jurisprudência , Organização do Financiamento , Obtenção de Fundos , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Mentores , Cultura Organizacional , Papel do Médico , Rede Social
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