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1.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 75(3): 187-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to compare the predictive value of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for hyperuricemia with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 9,206 South China residents (male/female: 4,433/4,773) aged 18-89 years recruited during years 2009-2010 and 2014-2015. Anthropometric measurements, serum uric acid, blood pressure, and plasma glucose, lipid, lipoprotein, and transferase levels were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the predictive values of anthropometric indices for hyperuricemia. RESULTS: The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased significantly with higher quartiles of WHtR in both genders. The best cutoff points of WHtR to predict hyperuricemia are 0.52 for men and 0.49 for women and differed between different BMI and WC stratums. Although there was no significant difference between the area under the ROC curves, subjects in the top quartile of WHtR were at a highest risk of hyperuricemia (p for linear trend <0.001) and the adjusted ORs of WHtR (2.24-2.77 in men and 2.66-4.95 in women) were higher than those of BMI or WC in the multivariable regression model. CONCLUSIONS: WHtR was an independent and better predictor of hyperuricemia compared with BMI and WC.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Regressão , Transferases/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
2.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(7): 488-494, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Animal experiments indicate that exposure to particulate matter (PM) can induce hepatotoxic effects but epidemiological evidence is scarce. We aimed to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to PM air pollution and liver enzymes, which are biomarkers widely used for liver function assessment. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 351 852 adult participants (mean age: 40.1 years) who participated in a standard medical screening programme in Taiwan. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels were measured. A satellite-based spatio-temporal model was used to estimate the concentrations of ambient fine particles (PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm, PM2.5) at each participant's address. Linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between PM2.5 and the liver enzymes with adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, every 10 µg/m3 increment in 2-year average PM2.5 concentration was associated with 0.02%(95% CI: -0.04% to 0.08%), 0.61% (95% CI: 0.51% to 0.70%) and 1.60% (95% CI: 1.50% to 1.70%) increases in AST, ALT and GGT levels, respectively. Consistently, the odds ratios of having elevated liver enzymes (>40 IU/L) per 10 µg/m3 PM2.5 increment were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.09), 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.10) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.11) for AST, ALT and GGT, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increased levels of liver enzymes, especially ALT and GGT. More studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Fígado/enzimologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Transferases/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagens de Satélites , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086097

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The pathophysiology of tethered cord syndrome (TCS) in children is not well elucidated. An inelastic filum terminale (FT) is the main factor underlying the stretching of the spinal cord in TCS. Our study aimed to investigate the expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in children and fetal FT samples in order to understand the relationship between this enzyme expression and the development of TCS. Materials and Methods: FT samples were obtained from ten children with TCS (Group 1) and histological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. For comparison, FT samples from fifteen normal human fetuses (Group 2) were also analyzed using the same techniques. Statistical comparison was made using a Chi-square test. Results: Positive GST-sigma expression was detected in eight (80%) of 10 samples in Group 1. The positive GST-sigma expression was less frequent in nine (60%) of 15 samples from Group 2. No statistically significant difference was detected between the two groups (p = 0.197). Conclusions: Decreased FT elasticity in TCS may be associated with increased GST expression in FT. More prospective studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of the GST-TCS relationship in children.


Assuntos
Glutationa/sangue , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/enzimologia , Cauda Equina , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glutationa/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Transferases/análise , Transferases/sangue
4.
Turk J Med Sci ; 48(1): 168-177, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479980

RESUMO

Background/aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide. Cinnamic acid (CA) and its derivatives are synthesized in plants and increasing attention has been given to them in recent years due to the high number of beneficial health properties attributed to their consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CA on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: DNA damage was evaluated in the blood, liver, and kidney cells of rats by the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative stress parameters such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, total glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels; biochemical parameters including insulin, total bilirubin, and BCA protein levels; hepatic enzyme levels such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase; and lipid profile parameters including high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were also evaluated. Results: DM caused genotoxic damage and alterations in lipid profiles, oxidative stress parameters, and hepatic enzymes levels. CA treatment ameliorated these effects. Conclusion: It seems that CA might have a role in the prevention of the complications of diabetes.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Catalase/sangue , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Glutationa/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Malondialdeído/sangue , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/sangue , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Transferases/sangue
5.
J Med Virol ; 90(2): 291-303, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971485

RESUMO

We investigated how the natural course of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) may evolve during HIV co-infection and long term HBV-active HAART. From a cohort of 181 HIV infected patients who were consecutively recruited over a 5 year period, 28 HBV co-infected patients with sequential sera (n = 98) were identified. Iterative HBV serology and viral loads were determined before and during treatment. The viral HBsAg gene was then serially amplified, directly sequenced, and molecularly characterized. Persistent detection of anti-HBs did not result in a modification to the clinical course of OBI. In contrast, reactivation of chronic HBV infection, hepatic enzymatic flares and cases of HBV reinfection were evident among anti-HBs negative OBI patients, and this was a notable finding. Of the 14 chronic HBV infected patients, eight progressed to persistent OBI after initiation of HBV-active HAART, increasing the number of patients with OBI in the study. Long term HBV-active HAART was not found to have a notable impact on low level viremia during OBI. While the HBsAg gene sequences isolated from chronic HBV infection were genetically stable over time, OBI-associated variants (sP111R, sT127P, sY161F) were neither stable nor predominant during the course of infection. This study is the first of its kind from South Africa to show the occurrence of hepatic enzymatic flares, HBV reactivation, and reinfection in HAART-exposed HIV co-infected patients with OBI. Among the cases studied, there was further evidence that OBI-associated variants may not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of OBI.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , África do Sul , Transferases/sangue , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 76: 183-191, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27951519

RESUMO

Alcohol dependence (AD) leads to altered innate and adaptive immune responses, and frequently co-occurs with inflammation. Therefore, inflammatory cytokines potentially play a crucial role in the development of alcohol-related illnesses. This study evaluated changes in plasma cytokine concentrations, liver function, cravings, depression severity, and cognitive function in male patients with AD, during the course of an alcohol-detoxification program. A total of 78 male patients with AD were recruited for a conservative detoxification program; and cytokine levels, depressive score, and cognitive impairment applying the Trail Making Test (TMT) were evaluated during early withdrawal (baseline) and after 4 weeks of abstinence from alcohol. Healthy volunteers (86 males) were also recruited as controls. Inflammatory cytokine expression in all participants was assessed by multiplex magnetic bead assay. AD patients during early withdrawal demonstrated higher cytokine levels than the healthy controls (P≤0.001 for all cytokines). However, the levels of cytokine expression were significantly lower after 4 weeks of abstinence from alcohol (P≤0.001, except for IL-1ß and IL-5). Higher liver function marker levels, depressive severity, and TMT times were observed in patients at the beginning of the detoxification program than in healthy controls. Fortunately, these functions significantly ameliorated after 4 weeks of abstinence. (P≤0.001). Levels of circulating cytokines, liver function, and cognitive function may markers of alcohol use disorder.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Citocinas/sangue , Inflamação , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Transferases/sangue , Adulto , Alcoolismo/sangue , Alcoolismo/enzimologia , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/enzimologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/sangue , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/enzimologia , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica
7.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 28(2): 395-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26182934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT) were determined by an auto-chemistry analyzer. The data of airborne concentrations of DMF was obtained from the local Center of Disease Control and Prevention. The level of urine N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteine (AMCC) was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Time weighted average (TWA) concentration of the DMF in workplace was 18.6 (range: 9.8-36.2) mg/m3. The concentration of the AMCC in workers' urine was 28.32 (range: 1.8-58.6) mg/l and 9 workers' AMCC exceeded the biological exposure index (40 mg/l). Thirty-one workers reported gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia) and 10 workers reported headache, dizziness and/or palpitation in the exposed group. Serum analysis revealed that both the mean of serum activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and c-GT) and the percentage of workers with abnormal liver function were significantly higher in the exposed group as compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Dimethylformamide can cause liver damage even if air concentration is in the sub-threshold limit value (sub-TLV) level. The protection of skin contact against the exposure to the DMF might be a critical issue as far as the occupational health is concerned.


Assuntos
Dimetilformamida/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Transferases/sangue , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Acetilcisteína/urina , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dimetilformamida/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Níveis Máximos Permitidos , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 10: 159, 2014 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25022282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In any calf rearing system it is desirable to obtain healthy animals, and reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. Bovine syndesmochorial placentation prevents the direct transfer of bovine immunoglobulins to the fetus, and calves are born hypogammaglobulinemic. These calves therefore require colostrum immediately after birth. Colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins (Ig) and its consumption results in the transfer of passive immunity to calves. The Ig absorption occurs within the first 12 h after birth. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY), derived from chicken egg yolk, has been used in the prevention and control of diseases affecting calves because it is very similar in structure and function to immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the current study, we sought to establish whether administration routes of colostrum supplemented with avian IgY affected passive immunity in calves. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed with respect to route of administration for colostrum. However, we did observe some differences in certain interactions between the various treatments. Calves fed colostrum containing egg yolk had higher levels of TP, ALB, and IgG, along with increased GGT activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that supplementing colostrum with egg yolk has a beneficial effect when given to calves, regardless of administration route.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/sangue , Colostro/química , Dieta/veterinária , Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Bovinos/imunologia , Gema de Ovo/química , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulinas/química , Placentação/imunologia , Placentação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Albumina Sérica , Transferases/sangue , Transferases/metabolismo
9.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 85(1): e1-e7, 2014 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24831856

RESUMO

Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Búfalos/sangue , Albumina Sérica/análise , Soroglobulinas/análise , Transferases/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Metais/sangue , Valores de Referência , Transferases/análise , Transferases/sangue , Ureia/análise , Ureia/sangue
10.
Rev Environ Health ; 28(4): 203-13, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24200534

RESUMO

Few or no studies have measured the effect of short- and long-term exposure to industrial leachate. Mature male Wistar strain albino rats (175-220 g) underwent sub-chronic exposure to leachate from the Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRL) via oral administration for a period of 60 days at different doses (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) per kilogram of body weight to evaluate the toxic effects of the leachate on male reproductive function using steroidogenic enzymes and biomarkers of prostate damage. Control groups were treated equally but were given distilled water instead of the leachate. After the treatment periods, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (p<0.05) loss in absolute body weight and decline in growth rate. There was a marked significant decrease (p<0.05) in testicular activities of Δ(5)-3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Conversely, the activity of prostatic acid phosphatase, a key marker enzyme for prostrate damage was significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the treated rats. Similarly, the administration of EOMABRL significantly (p<0.05) exacerbated the activity of total acid phosphatase with concomitant increase in the activity of prostatic alkaline phosphatase. These findings conclude that exposure to leachate from a battery recycling site induces sub-chronic testicular toxicity by inhibiting key steroidogenic enzymes and activating key markers linked with prostate damage/cancer in rats.


Assuntos
17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Nigéria , Oxirredução , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/química , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Transferases/sangue
11.
Occup Environ Med ; 69(9): 679-84, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22562051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in epoxy resins in China. There are few reports on the adverse health effects of occupational exposure to BPA. This study examined associations between urinary BPA concentrations in workers and laboratory parameters for health status. METHODS: Spot urine checks at the end shift on Friday were used for cross-sectional analysis of BPA concentrations, and blood or urinary markers of liver function, glucose homeostasis, thyroid function and cardiovascular diseases were measured. The 28 participants were workers in two semiautomatic epoxy resin factories. RESULTS: The average urinary BPA concentration was 55.73±5.48 ng/ml (geometric mean ± geometric SD) (range 5.56-1934.85 ng/ml). After adjusting for urine creatinine (Cr), it was 31.96±4.42 µg/g Cr (geometric mean ± geometric SD) (range 4.61-1253.69 µg/g Cr). BPA feeding operators showed the highest concentrations, over 10 times those of the crushing and packing and office workers. Higher BPA concentrations were associated with clinically abnormal concentrations of FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and γ-glutamyl transferase. Workers with higher BPA concentrations showed higher FT3 concentrations (linear trend: p<0.001). Bivariate correlation tests for laboratory analytes within normal limits showed FT3 to be positively associated with logged BPA concentrations, r=0.57, p=0.002. FT4 was positively associated with lactate dehydrogenase, r=0.45, p=0.020, and insulin was positively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone with r=0.57, p=0.009. CONCLUSIONS: Higher occupational BPA exposure, reflected in urinary concentrations of BPA, may be associated with thyroid hormone disruption.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Insulina/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Transferases/sangue , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Compostos Benzidrílicos , China , Estudos Transversais , Resinas Epóxi/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Ocupações , Fenóis/urina , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Adulto Jovem , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
12.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 31(7): 676-85, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22027508

RESUMO

We investigated the toxic effect of nevirapine (NVP; Viramune(®)), an antiretroviral drug, on the liver, kidney and testis of Wistar rats. Twenty-one rats were assigned into 3 groups of 7 animals each. The first group served as control, and the second and third groups received NVP at 18 and 36 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in the animals. NVP at both doses did not significantly (p > 0.05) alter the body weight gain, relative weights of kidney and testis, serum protein, urea, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase levels of the animals. However, NVP2 significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative weight of liver, level of serum total bilirubin and activities of γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. NVP administration caused a dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05) elevation of lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver, kidney and testis of the rats. Hepatic, renal and testicular MDA were increased by 107%, 80% and 163%, respectively, in NVP2-treated rats. Elevation in MDA was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the activities of hepatic, renal and testicular superoxide dismutase and catalase. NVP2 caused 43% and 32% decrease in spermatozoa motility and live/dead sperm count, respectively, and 94% increase in total sperm abnormalities. Histopathological findings showed that NVP2 caused degeneration of seminiferous tubules in testis, and severe necrosis in liver slides. NVP induced oxidative stress with corresponding decrease in antioxidant status of the rats. The changes in sperm parameters and, elevation of liver marker enzymes suggest an interference of NVP2 with these organs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nevirapina/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bilirrubina/sangue , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Transferases/sangue
13.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 30(11): 1804-10, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21339256

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to elucidate the effect of Kupffer cells inhibition on hepatic injury induced by chronic cholestasis. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham operation and were treated with either saline solution or gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3), a specific Kupffer cell inhibitor, 20 mg/kg i.p. daily). Serum and liver samples were collected after 28 days. Direct and total bilirubin concentrations and serum enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) increased following BDL (p < 0.01). On the contrary to bilirubin concentrations and AST activity, GdCl(3) partially prevented the elevation in ALP, ALT and GGT enzyme activities (p < 0.05). GdCl(3) alleviated lipid peroxidation (reflected by malondialdehyde [MDA] concentration) and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. catalase and glutathione peroxidase) in liver samples after BDL (p < 0.05). Fibrosis, ductular proliferation and portal inflammation were also scored in liver samples. Among morphological changes appeared following BDL (i.e. marked fibrosis, portal inflammation and ductular proliferation); only ductular proliferation was not alleviated by GdCl(3). Therefore, Kupffer cells inhibition has beneficial effects against the development of hepatic injury induced by chronic cholestasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Gadolínio/uso terapêutico , Hepatite Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bilirrubina/sangue , Catalase/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestase/metabolismo , Colestase/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Gadolínio/farmacologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hepatite Animal/metabolismo , Hepatite Animal/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transferases/sangue
14.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 30(10): 1674-81, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21262865

RESUMO

The toxicity of many heavy metals is due to their ability to cause oxidative damage to tissues. Lead is one of the most important metals that pollute the natural environment due to man's impact The aim of this study is to investigate the potential protective effect of epicatechin alone or combined with lycopene against toxicity of lead in male rats. Five groups of rats were involved in this study; the first was control while the other four injected with lead acetate (100 mg/kg BW) subcutaneous for 2 weeks. On the other hand, the third, fourth and fifth groups were injected with epicatechin, lycopene or epicatechin + lycopene, respectively. Results obtained showed that, the combined treatment (epicatechin + lycopene) exert its effects (100%) against toxic effects against lead by lowering the liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyle transferase (GGT) activities and decrease lipid peroixdation (MDA) and enhances the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level was significantly decreased and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) level was statistically significantly increased in lead-injected rats as compared with control group. The combined treatment with epicatechin and lycopene justify these levels to nearly normal values. The erythrocyte level of total glutathione was decreased in lead-injected rats as compared with control group (p < 0.001). The combined effect is significantly higher than individual treatment lycopene alone or epicatechin. A negative correlation was found between the blood lead and SOD (r = -0.6) and glutathione (r = -0.81) while a positive correlation with MDA level (r = 0.7).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Glutationa/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Licopeno , Masculino , Compostos Organometálicos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Transferases/sangue
15.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 26(1): 61-5, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21266699

RESUMO

In parenteral nutrition (PN), essential fatty acids are provided by soy oil-based fat emulsions, which may exert adverse effects on the immune system and lipid peroxidation. Olive oil -based fat emulsions have been said to prevent these undesired effects. This study compares effects of olive oil - and soy oil -based fat emulsions in 22 patients who underwent abdominal surgery for cancer. The first group (n = 10) received soy oil -based fat emulsion; the second group (n = 10) received olive oil -based fat emulsion. Body temperature, body mass index, (BMI) and biochemical variables were measured on days 0 and 7. There were no differences between the groups with regard to BMI or temperature. On day 7, the first group (compared with day 0) had significant increases in plasma alkaline phosphatase (81.70 ± 16.03 vs 117.60 ± 11.1), γ-glutamyl transferase (39.90 ± 15.40 vs 137.70 ± 24.09), and mean body temperature (36.72°C ± 0.14°C vs 37.20°C ± 0.17°C) (P < .01). Second group had increases in alkaline phosphatase (85.80 ± 13.46 vs 147.20 ± 34.17), γ-glutamyl transferase (48.40 ± 12.86 vs 129.40 ± 42.03), total protein (5.14 ± 0.19 vs 6.06 ± 0.49), and albumin (2.62 ± 0.14 vs 3.00 ± 0.18) (P < .05). Changes in thiobutyric acid levels were not statistically significant in either group. In postoperative cancer patients, olive oil-based fat emulsion had similar effects on BMI, body temperature, biochemical values, and thiobutyric acid levels as soy oil-based fat emulsions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Nutrição Parenteral , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Temperatura Corporal , Butiratos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Azeite de Oliva , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Método Simples-Cego , Óleo de Soja/uso terapêutico , Transferases/sangue
16.
Rev. interdisciplin. estud. exp. anim. hum. (impr.) ; 2(4): 114-119, dezembro 2010. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-964436

RESUMO

Objetivos: Verificar a toxicidade em ratos Wistar expostos ao formaldeídeo a 10% e Complucad®, analisando-se as enzimas hepáticas alaninaaminotransferase e aspartatoaminotransferase, os tecidos pulmonar, renal e hepático, após período de exposição aguda. Métodos. A amostra contou com 24 ratos machos adultos, da linhagem Wistar-Tecpar, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos com oito animais cada. O Grupo Controle Negativo (G.C), não foi exposto às substâncias. O Grupo Controle Positivo (G.F) foi exposto ao formaldeído a 1.33 ppm e o Grupo Experimental (G.CP) exposto à substância Complucad®. Os animais foram mantidos sob condições normais de temperatura, com fotoperíodo de 12h claro/escuro, alimentados com ração balanceada para roedores e água ad libitum, sendo expostos diariamente (8 horas/dia) às respectivas substâncias. Após o período de exposição os mesmos foram anestesiados para coleta sanguínea, seguida de eutanásia para coleta dos tecidos. Resultados: O teste ANOVA seguido de TUKEY realizado com nível de significância de 5% demonstrou para a enzima alanina diferença (p=0,04) entre o G.F quando comparado ao controle. A enzima aspartato apresentou (p=0,20). A avaliação histológica dos órgãos demonstrou alteração significativa para o tecido hepático sendo (p=0,0001), tecido pulmonar (p=0,0085) e tecido renal (p=0,00), mediante o teste estatístico com Qui-Quadrado. Através da aplicação do teste Kruskall Wallis 5% para as variáveis dos tecidos, observou-se infiltração de células e perda da arquitetura (p<0,03), dilatação alveolar (p=0,01), tumefação celular cortical, congestão vascular cortical e dilatação tubular (p<0,01). Conclusão: Houve grau de toxicidade aos referidos xenobióticos, sendo em maior intensidade no grupo exposto ao formaldeídeo a 10%.


Objectives: Verify the toxicity in Wistar rats exposed to formaldehyde solutions at 10% and Complucad®, analyzing the alaninaaminotransferase/aspartatoaminotransferase hepatic enzymes and the lung, kidney and liver tissues, after a sharp period of exposition. Methods: The 24 Wistar-Tecpar adult male rats, divided randomly into three groups, with eight animals each group. The Negative Control Group (G.C) was not exposed to the substances; the Positive Control Group (G.F) was exposed to formaldehyde at 1.33 ppm, and the Experimental Group (G. CP) was exposed to Complucad®. The animals were kept under room temperature, in a 12 hour light/dark photo period, fed with a balanced diet for rodents and ad libitum water, being daily exposed (8 hours a day) to the respective substances. After a period of exposition, they were anesthetized for blood collection, then the euthanasia for tissue collection. Results: the ANOVA followed by TUKEY performed with a significance level of 5% showed for enzyme alanine (p=0,04) between the G.F compared with the control group. The enzyme aspartate, showed (p=0,20). The organs histological evaluation showed a significant alteration for the liver tissue, being (p=0,0001), lung tissue (p=0,085), and kidney tissue (p=0.00), before treatment with the Qui-Quadrado Test. Applying the test Kruskall Wallis 5% for the variables of the tissues, observed, cell infiltration and loss of architecture (p=0,03), dilated alveolar (p=0,01), cortical cell swelling, cortical vascular congestion and dilatation tubular (p<0,01). Conclusion: There was a degree of toxicity to the referred xenobiotic, being more intense on the group exposed to formaldehyde at 10%.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Exposição a Produtos Químicos , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Transferases/sangue , Ratos Wistar
17.
Biomed Khim ; 54(1): 114-21, 2008.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18421916

RESUMO

Experimental thyrotoxicosis in rats is accompanied by the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (AlA), aspartate aminotransferase (AsA), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activities and content of primary products of lipid peroxidation--conjugated dienes--in liver, heart and blood. This suggests impairments in these organs accompanying free radical processes intensification. Administration of melatonin decreased AlA, AsA and CK-MB activities and CD level decreased. Thyrotoxicosis increased catalase activity in liver, heart and blood. Exogenous melatonin decreased specific activity ofcatalase in blood and in heart in comparison with animals subjected to hyperthyroidism. However, some increase of catalase specific activity (approximately 15%) was observed in liver. alpha-Tocopherol content, raising in rat tissues in thyrotoxicosis development conditions, decreased after melatonin treatment. Thus, exogenous melatonin is capable to reduce lipid peroxidation intensity at thyrotoxicosis and to act as an adoptogen, regulating free radical homeostasis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Radicais Livres/sangue , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Tireotoxicose/sangue , Animais , Catalase/sangue , Hipertireoidismo/sangue , Hipertireoidismo/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Ratos , Tireotoxicose/tratamento farmacológico , Tireotoxicose/enzimologia , Tocoferóis/metabolismo , Transferases/sangue
18.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 62(1): 48-53, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18079333

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the separate associations of leg length, a biomarker of prepubertal exposures and growth, and trunk length with adult levels of liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the British Women's Health and Heart Study, a random sample of British women aged 60-79 years. RESULTS: Leg length was inversely associated with age-adjusted levels of ALT, GGT and ALP. These associations remained when controlling for childhood and adulthood social class, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, waist-to-hip ratio and trunk length. Trunk length was positively associated with ALT and inversely associated with ALP and the associations remained when adjusting for covariables. CONCLUSIONS: Adult liver function is affected by early life environmental exposures as reflected in leg length, and this may suggest common childhood influences on liver development and adult risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Further studies with detailed measures of early life exposures relevant to leg length would be valuable in identifying any specific exposures contributing to adult liver function and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Idoso , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Antropometria/métodos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Constituição Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Classe Social , Transferases/sangue
19.
Pediatr Int ; 49(6): 888-93, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18045291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is one of the most common causes of neonatal cholestasis. Stem-cell factor (SCF) has been implicated in the development of fibrosis in various diseases. The objective of the present study was to examine the significant role of SCF in BA. METHODS: Fifty-seven pediatric patients with BA after Kasai operation and 30 healthy children were recruited. The mean ages of BA patients and controls were 6.1 +/- 0.6 years and 6.1 +/- 0.7 years, respectively. The patients were categorized into two groups according to their serum levels of total bilirubin (TBil < 2 mg/dL, no jaundice vs TBil > or = 2 mg/dL, persistent jaundice) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT < 100 vs ALT > or = 100 U/L). The serum SCF levels were determined on commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The mean serum SCF level of the BA children was higher than that of normal controls (748.3 +/- 17.9 pg/mL vs 582.2 +/- 17.3 pg/mL; P < 0.001). Subsequent analysis demonstrated that the BA patients with serum ALT > or = 100 U/L had significantly greater levels of serum SCF compared to those with serum ALT < 100 U/L (796.5 +/- 22.6 pg/mL vs 694.7 +/- 25.0 pg/mL, respectively; P = 0.002). In addition, serum SCF levels were significantly elevated in the patients with portal hypertension (PH) compared with those without PH (810.0 +/- 18.8 pg/mL vs 634.1 +/- 20.1 pg/mL, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The current study showed that BA patients had higher serum SCF levels compared with controls. The significant elevation in SCF levels is associated with the presence of PH and the degree of hepatic injury. These findings suggest that SCF may play a part in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis in BA patients after Kasai procedure.


Assuntos
Atresia Biliar/sangue , Portoenterostomia Hepática , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Fator de Células-Tronco/sangue , Atresia Biliar/cirurgia , Bilirrubina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Transferases/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Br J Nutr ; 97(6): 1196-205, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17367566

RESUMO

Trans-fatty acid intake is associated with an increased risk of CHD and diabetes. The effects of single trans-fatty acid isomers are largely unexplored. The present study examined the effects of a 6-week supplementation with two trans-18 : 1 isomers (trans-11 and trans-12) in human subjects on immune cells, several inflammatory and immunological biomarkers (for example, IL, TNFalpha, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, prostacyclin, phagocytic process). Following a 2-week adaptation period without supplements, the test group (n 12) received vaccenic acid (trans-11-18:1) and trans-12-18 : 1 in equal amounts (6.0 g/d) for 6 weeks. The control group (n 12) consumed an oil without trans-fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Samples were collected at the end of both periods. Trans-11- and trans-12-18 : 1 were significantly increased in cellular lipids. The endogenous synthesis of cis-9, trans-11-CLA from trans-11-18 : 1 was demonstrated via increased CLA in cellular lipids of the test group. Generally, trans-isomer supplementation did not affect either inflammatory biomarkers (for example, IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha) or immune function (for example, phagocytosis) during the present study. The dietary supplementation of trans-11- and trans-12-18 : 1 (6 g/d) and their accumulation in leucocytes had no effects on biomarkers of inflammation and immune function. However, because of the limited data on the safety of trans-fatty acid intake and effects of individual trans isomers on human health (for example, trans-9-18 : 1, trans-10-18 : 1) at present, it is prudent to reduce trans-fat intake in general.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/sangue , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Trans/farmacologia , 6-Cetoprostaglandina F1 alfa/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Constituição Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Granulócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/biossíntese , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Trans/sangue , Transferases/sangue
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