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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5081-5090, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer with limited targets for chemotherapy. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of novel imidazo[2,1-b]oxazole-based rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) inhibitors, KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2, on epithelial cell transformation and TNBC tumorigenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunoblotting, BrdU incorporation assay, reporter gene assay, and soft agar assay analyses were performed. In vivo effects were studied using the BALB/c mouse xenograft model. RESULTS: KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 inhibited the RAFs-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway induced by EGF in MDA-MB-231 cells, which inhibited c-fos transcriptional activity and activator protein-1 transactivation activity. KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 also prevented neoplastic transformation of JB6 C141 mouse epidermal cells induced by EGF and consistently suppressed the growth of tumours formed by 4T1 cells in BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of RAF kinases using KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy to treat TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3945, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770028

RESUMO

TP53 missense mutations leading to the expression of mutant p53 oncoproteins are frequent driver events during tumorigenesis. p53 mutants promote tumor growth, metastasis and chemoresistance by affecting fundamental cellular pathways and functions. Here, we demonstrate that p53 mutants modify structure and function of the Golgi apparatus, culminating in the increased release of a pro-malignant secretome by tumor cells and primary fibroblasts from patients with Li-Fraumeni cancer predisposition syndrome. Mechanistically, interacting with the hypoxia responsive factor HIF1α, mutant p53 induces the expression of miR-30d, which in turn causes tubulo-vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus, leading to enhanced vesicular trafficking and secretion. The mut-p53/HIF1α/miR-30d axis potentiates the release of soluble factors and the deposition and remodeling of the ECM, affecting mechano-signaling and stromal cells activation within the tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing tumor growth and metastatic colonization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Complexo de Golgi/patologia , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/patologia , Camundongos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Mutação , Cultura Primária de Células , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3546, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669559

RESUMO

Advanced ovarian cancer usually spreads to the omentum. However, the omental cell-derived molecular determinants modulating its progression have not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we show that circulating ITLN1 has prognostic significance in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Further studies demonstrate that ITLN1 suppresses lactotransferrin's effect on ovarian cancer cell invasion potential and proliferation by decreasing MMP1 expression and inducing a metabolic shift in metastatic ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, ovarian cancer-bearing mice treated with ITLN1 demonstrate marked decrease in tumor growth rates. These data suggest that downregulation of mesothelial cell-derived ITLN1 in the omental tumor microenvironment facilitates ovarian cancer progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/secundário , Citocinas/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Omento/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Animais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Citocinas/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Lectinas/administração & dosagem , Lectinas/sangue , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Ovário , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3715, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709844

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in some geographical regions of the world. ESCC development presents a multistep pathogenic process from inflammation to invasive cancer; however, what is critical in these processes and how they evolve is largely unknown, obstructing early diagnosis and effective treatment. Here, we create a mouse model mimicking human ESCC development and construct a single-cell ESCC developmental atlas. We identify a set of key transitional signatures associated with oncogenic evolution of epithelial cells and depict the landmark dynamic tumorigenic trajectories. An early downregulation of CD8+ response against the initial tissue damage accompanied by the transition of immune response from type 1 to type 3 results in accumulation and activation of macrophages and neutrophils, which may create a chronic inflammatory environment that promotes carcinogen-transformed epithelial cell survival and proliferation. These findings shed light on how ESCC is initiated and developed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T , Fatores de Transcrição , Microambiente Tumoral
5.
Life Sci ; 257: 118133, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710946

RESUMO

AIMS: MiR-135b is a downstream effector of oncogenic signaling pathways. This study aimed to reveal the underlying regulation and significance of miR-135b in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of Wnt and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways on the transcriptional activation of the miR-135b promoter was determined by dual-luciferase reporter assays. In vitro experiments, including the cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining, flow cytometry analysis and malignant phenotype profiles, were conducted to determine the oncogenic role of miR-135b in gastric cancer. To analyze the clinical significance of miR-135b in gastric cancer, the expression profile of miR-135b in tissue specimens and plasma was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). KEY FINDINGS: Oncogenic signaling pathways represented by Wnt and PI3K/AKT promoted the transcriptional activation of the miR-135b promoter in gastric cancer. Downregulation of miR-135b inhibited proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and suppressed the migratory, invasive, and adherent abilities as well as the cancer stem cell phenotype of gastric cancer cells. High expression of miR-135b in gastric cancer tissues was tightly associated with poor prognosis and malignant transformation represented by metastasis of gastric cancer. The miR-135b level in the plasma of gastric cancer patients was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals. SIGNIFICANCE: MiR-135b is a potential downstream effector of the Wnt and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in gastric cancer. High expression of miR-135b may predict malignant transformation and poor prognosis of gastric cancer. This study reveals the potential role of miR-135b as a target for the early diagnosis and therapy of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Adulto , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Via de Sinalização Wnt
6.
Adv Cancer Res ; 148: 171-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723563

RESUMO

Cancer is a complex disease with high incidence and mortality rates. The important role played by the tumor microenvironment in regulating oncogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis is by now well accepted in the scientific community. SPARC is known to participate in tumor-stromal interactions and impact cancer growth in ambiguous ways, which either enhance or suppress cancer aggressiveness, in a context-dependent manner. p53 transcription factor, a well-established tumor suppressor, has been reported to promote tumor growth in certain situations, such as hypoxia, thus displaying a duality in its action. Although both proteins are being tested in clinical trials, the synergistic relation between them is yet to be explored in clinical practice. In this review, we address the controversial roles of SPARC and p53 as double agents in cancer, briefly summarizing the interaction found between these two molecules and its importance in cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Osteonectina/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Osteonectina/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(18)2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661120

RESUMO

The DNA and protein complex known as chromatin is subject to posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that regulate cellular functions such that PTM dysregulation can lead to disease, including cancer. One critical PTM is acetylation/deacetylation, which is being investigated as a means to develop targeted cancer therapies. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) family of proteins performs histone acetylation. In humans, MOF (hMOF), a member of the MYST family of HATs, acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac). MOF-mediated acetylation plays a critical role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and embryonic stem cell development. Functionally, MOF is found in two distinct complexes: NSL (nonspecific lethal) in humans and MSL (male-specific lethal) in flies. The NSL complex is also able to acetylate additional histone H4 sites. Dysregulation of MOF activity occurs in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancer, medulloblastoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Bioinformatics analysis of KAT8, the gene encoding hMOF, indicated that it is highly overexpressed in kidney tumors as part of a concerted gene coexpression program that can support high levels of chromosome segregation and cell proliferation. The linkage between MOF and tumor proliferation suggests that there are additional functions of MOF that remain to be discovered.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Acetilação , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2717, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483112

RESUMO

Somatic inactivating mutations of ARID1A, a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling gene, are prevalent in human endometrium-related malignancies. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying how ARID1A deleterious mutation contributes to tumorigenesis, we establish genetically engineered murine models with Arid1a and/or Pten conditional deletion in the endometrium. Transcriptomic analyses on endometrial cancers and precursors derived from these mouse models show a close resemblance to human uterine endometrioid carcinomas. We identify transcriptional networks that are controlled by Arid1a and have an impact on endometrial tumor development. To verify findings from the murine models, we analyze ARID1AWT and ARID1AKO human endometrial epithelial cells. Using a system biology approach and functional studies, we demonstrate that ARID1A-deficiency lead to loss of TGF-ß tumor suppressive function and that inactivation of ARID1A/TGF-ß axis promotes migration and invasion of PTEN-deleted endometrial tumor cells. These findings provide molecular insights into how ARID1A inactivation accelerates endometrial tumor progression and dissemination, the major causes of cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/citologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2711, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483135

RESUMO

p16INK4a (CDKN2A) is a central tumor suppressor, which induces cell-cycle arrest and senescence. Cells expressing p16INK4a accumulate in aging tissues and appear in premalignant lesions, yet their physiologic effects are poorly understood. We found that prolonged expression of transgenic p16INK4a in the mouse epidermis induces hyperplasia and dysplasia, involving high proliferation rates of keratinocytes not expressing the transgene. Continuous p16INK4a expression increases the number of epidermal papillomas formed after carcinogen treatment. Wnt-pathway ligands and targets are activated upon prolonged p16INK4a expression, and Wnt inhibition suppresses p16INK4a-induced hyperplasia. Senolytic treatment reduces p16INK4a-expressing cell numbers, and inhibits Wnt activation and hyperplasia. In human actinic keratosis, a precursor of squamous cell carcinoma, p16INK4a-expressing cells are found adjacent to dividing cells, consistent with paracrine interaction. These findings reveal that chronic p16INK4a expression is sufficient to induce hyperplasia through Wnt-mediated paracrine stimulation, and suggest that this tumor suppressor can promote early premalignant epidermal lesion formation.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Epiderme/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperplasia/genética , Hiperplasia/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Ceratose/genética , Ceratose/metabolismo , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Papiloma/genética , Papiloma/metabolismo , Papiloma/patologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13447-13456, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482854

RESUMO

Precisely controlling the activation of transcription factors is crucial for physiology. After a transcription factor is activated and carries out its transcriptional activity, it also needs to be properly deactivated. Here, we report a deactivation mechanism of HIF-1 and several other oncogenic transcription factors. HIF-1 promotes the transcription of an ADP ribosyltransferase, TiPARP, which serves to deactivate HIF-1. Mechanistically, TiPARP forms distinct nuclear condensates or nuclear bodies in an ADP ribosylation-dependent manner. The TiPARP nuclear bodies recruit both HIF-1α and an E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, which promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1α. Similarly, TiPARP promotes the degradation of c-Myc and estrogen receptor. By suppressing HIF-1α and other oncogenic transcription factors, TiPARP exerts strong antitumor effects both in cell culture and in mouse xenograft models. Our work reveals TiPARP as a negative-feedback regulator for multiple oncogenic transcription factors, provides insights into the functions of protein ADP-ribosylation, and suggests activating TiPARP as an anticancer strategy.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosilação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Camundongos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/química , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
11.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2310-2324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372436

RESUMO

ETS homologous factor (EHF) plays a critical function in epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. However, the roles of EHF in cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels, precise function and mechanism of EHF in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). We observed significantly elevated EHF expression in CRC cell lines and tissues. EHF overexpression correlated positively with poor differentiation, advanced T stage, and shorter overall survival of CRC patients. Function experiments revealed that EHF overexpression promoted CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, EHF could directly upregulate transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) expression at the transcription level, thereby activating canonical TGF-ß signaling. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of EHF in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis of CRC, which may help to provide new therapeutic targets for CRC intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Transporte Proteico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Carga Tumoral
12.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2297-2309, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378752

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been verified to have significant regulatory functions in many types of human cancers. The lncRNA ANRIL is transcribed from the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster in the opposite direction. Whether ANRIL can act as an oncogenic molecule in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains unknown. Our data show that ANRIL knockdown greatly inhibited CCA cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. According to the results of RNA sequencing analysis, ANRIL knockdown dramatically altered target genes associated with the cell cycle, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. By binding to a component of the epigenetic modification complex enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), ANRIL could maintain lysine residue 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3) levels in the promoter of ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor 1 (ERRFI1), which is a tumor suppressor gene in CCA. In this way, ERRFI1 expression was suppressed in CCA cells. These data verified the key role of the epigenetic regulation of ANRIL in CCA oncogenesis and indicate its potential as a target for CCA intervention.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442224

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent neoplasia comprising approximately 20% of lymphomas. FL is generally considered incurable, with a median survival exceeding 10 years. A subset of FL patients experiences histological transformation (HT) to a more aggressive lymphoma, resulting in markedly poorer clinical outcome, with a reduced median survival after transformation of 1-2 years. Early, reliable prediction of HT would be valuable in the clinical setting, allowing pre-emptive therapeutic intervention. We previously used proteomics to identify the glycolytic enzymes fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A (aldolase A) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as candidate predictors of FL transformation. Now, we use immunohistochemistry to evaluate expression of these enzymes in paired primary FLs from patients with (n = 41) or without subsequent HT (n = 49), to test their value as predictive biomarkers. At initial FL diagnosis, patients with subsequent HT had significantly higher expression of aldolase A and GAPDH (p<0.001 and p<0.01) compared with patients without HT. Furthermore, high expression of aldolase A and GAPDH was associated with significantly shorter transformation free survival (p = 0.018, p = 0.001). These data suggest that high expression of aldolase A and GAPDH, may indicate increased metabolic turnover, and that these enzymes may be useful biomarkers in primary FL for predicting the risk of subsequent lymphoma transformation.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/metabolismo , Glicólise , Linfoma Folicular/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
14.
Cancer Sci ; 111(9): 3195-3209, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369664

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and the progression of gastric carcinogenesis (GCG) covers multiple complicated pathological stages. Molecular mechanisms of GCG are still unclear. Here, we undertook NMR-based metabolomic analysis of aqueous metabolites extracted from gastric tissues in an established rat model of GCG. We showed that the metabolic profiles were clearly distinguished among 5 histologically classified groups: control, gastritis, low-grade gastric dysplasia, high-grade gastric dysplasia (HGD), and GC. Furthermore, we carried out metabolic pathway analysis based on identified significant metabolites and revealed significantly disturbed metabolic pathways closely associated with the 4 pathological stages, including oxidation stress, choline phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism, Krebs cycle, and glycolysis. Three metabolic pathways were continually disturbed during the progression of GCG, including taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glutamine and glutamate metabolism, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism. Both the Krebs cycle and glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism were profoundly impaired in both the HGD and GC stages, potentially due to abnormal energy supply for tumor cell proliferation and growth. Furthermore, valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis and glycolysis were significantly disturbed in the GC stage for higher energy requirement of the rapid growth of tumor cells. Additionally, we identified potential gastric tissue biomarkers for metabolically discriminating the 4 pathological stages, which also showed good discriminant capabilities for their serum counterparts. This work sheds light on the molecular mechanisms of GCG and is of benefit to the exploration of potential biomarkers for clinically diagnosing and monitoring the progression of GCG.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Ratos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(6): 539-546, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358923

RESUMO

The increase of the morbidity rate in age-related diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis and pulmonary fibrosis, has become a profound social problem. Recent reports have pointed out that senescent cells accumulated in the body with aging might cause these aged-related pathologies. Cellular senescence is known as an irreversible cell cycle arrest induced by various stresses, and can function as an important tumor suppression mechanism to exclude the premalignant cells. In contrast, senescent cells provoke the phenomenon, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, which causes the secretion of various inflammatory proteins, and it is at risk of facilitating chronic inflammation and oncogenic transformation to surrounding cells. We have previously reported that senescent cells secrete not only inflammatory proteins, but also extracellular vesicles (EV). EV include various cellular components, such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, which are proven to be important factors for cell-to-cell communication. Recent evidence suggests that EV secreted from senescent cells might contribute to tumorigenesis and age-associated pathologies as new senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors. In addition, we also showed that the EV secretion pathway is one of the essential defense mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis by excretion of intercellular toxic substances into extracellular space. Herein, this review shows the biological functions of EV secreted from senescent cells. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenótipo
16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(7): 779-790, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451440

RESUMO

Tissue stem cells are the cell of origin for many malignancies. Metabolites regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, but whether endogenous metabolic pathways or nutrient availability predispose stem cells towards transformation remains unknown. Here, we address this question in epidermal stem cells (EpdSCs), which are a cell of origin for squamous cell carcinoma. We find that oncogenic EpdSCs are serine auxotrophs whose growth and self-renewal require abundant exogenous serine. When extracellular serine is limited, EpdSCs activate de novo serine synthesis, which in turn stimulates α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that remove the repressive histone modification H3K27me3 and activate differentiation programmes. Accordingly, serine starvation or enforced α-ketoglutarate production antagonizes squamous cell carcinoma growth. Conversely, blocking serine synthesis or repressing α-ketoglutarate-driven demethylation facilitates malignant progression. Together, these findings reveal that extracellular serine is a critical determinant of EpdSC fate and provide insight into how nutrient availability is integrated with stem cell fate decisions during tumour initiation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Células Epidérmicas/patologia , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
18.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2203-2211, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335977

RESUMO

The Mdm2 oncoprotein and its association with p53 were discovered 30 years ago, and a cornucopia of activities and regulatory pathways have been associated with it. In this review, we will raise questions about Mdm2 and its cousin Mdm4 that we consider worth pursuing in future research, reaching from molecular structures and intracellular activities all the way to development, evolution, and cancer therapy. We anticipate that such research will not only close a few gaps in our knowledge but could add new dimensions to our current view. This compilation of questions contributes to the preparation for the 10th Mdm2 Workshop in Tokyo.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/química , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
19.
Am J Pathol ; 190(8): 1752-1762, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339497

RESUMO

The biological processes of urothelial carcinogenesis are not fully understood, particularly regarding the relationship between specific genetic events, cell of origin, and molecular subtypes of subsequent tumors. N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-induced mouse bladder cancer is widely accepted as a useful model that recapitulates the pathway of human bladder tumorigenesis from dysplasia to invasive cancer via carcinoma in situ. However, the long and variable time of tumorigenesis often hinders efficient preclinical or translational research. We hypothesized that Trp53 mutation in specific types of urothelial cells facilitates efficient development of clinically relevant bladder cancer. Using lineage tracing, we showed that Trp53 mutation in Krt5-expressing cells resulted in more efficient tumorigenesis of mouse muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) with squamous differentiation compared with Trp53 mutation in Upk2-expressing cells, or wild-type or hemizygous Trp53 in the entire urothelium. Mouse MIBC that developed at 24 weeks of BBN treatment showed morphologic and genetic similarities to the basal squamous subtypes of human MIBC, irrespective of pre-induction of Trp53 mutation or whether the cell of origin was Krt5- or Upk2-expressing cells. Our findings suggest that intermediate cells as well as basal cells also can give rise to basal-like MIBC, with pre-induction of Trp53 mutation accelerating MIBC. Thus, in BBN chemical carcinogenesis, pre-induction of Trp53 mutation in basal cells facilitates efficient modeling of the basal squamous subtype of human MIBC.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Queratina-5/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Queratina-5/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
20.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250351

RESUMO

Tumor-stroma interactions play a critical role in the development of lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC). However, understanding how these dynamic interactions contribute to tissue architectural changes observed during tumorigenesis remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate models. In this protocol, we describe the generation of a 3D coculture model using a LUSC primary cell culture known as TUM622. TUM622 cells were established from a LUSC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and have the unique property to form acinar-like structures when seeded in a basement membrane matrix. We demonstrate that TUM622 acini in 3D coculture recapitulate key features of tissue architecture during LUSC progression as well as the dynamic interactions between LUSC cells and components of the tumor microenvironment (TME), including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We further adapt our principal 3D culturing protocol to demonstrate how this system could be utilized for various downstream analyses. Overall, this organoid model creates a biologically rich and adaptable platform that enables one to gain insight into the cell-intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that promote the disruption of epithelial architectures during carcinoma progression and will aid the search for new therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Organoides/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Microambiente Tumoral
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