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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5232, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475402

RESUMO

Disseminated tumor cells often fall into a long term of dormant stage, characterized by decreased proliferation but sustained survival, in distant organs before awakening for metastatic growth. However, the regulatory mechanism of metastatic dormancy and awakening is largely unknown. Here, we show that the epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like subpopulations of breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs) demonstrate different levels of dormancy and tumorigenicity in lungs. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NR2F1-AS1 (NAS1) is up-regulated in the dormant mesenchymal-like BCSCs, and functionally promotes tumor dissemination but reduces proliferation in lungs. Mechanistically, NAS1 binds to NR2F1 mRNA and recruits the RNA-binding protein PTBP1 to promote internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated NR2F1 translation, thus leading to suppression of ΔNp63 transcription by NR2F1. Furthermore, ΔNp63 downregulation results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, reduced tumorigenicity and enhanced dormancy of cancer cells in lungs. Overall, the study links BCSC plasticity with metastatic dormancy, and reveals the lncRNA as an important regulator of both processes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fator I de Transcrição COUP/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fator I de Transcrição COUP/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
2.
Biol Res ; 54(1): 30, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the effect of miR-146a-5p on trophoblast cell invasion as well as the mechanism in preeclampsia (PE). METHODS: Expression levels of miR-146a-5p and Wnt2 in preeclamptic and normal placentae were quantified. Trophoblast cells (HTR-8) were separately transfected with miR-146a-5p mimic, miR-146a-5p inhibitor, pcDNA3.1-Wnt2 or sh-Wnt2, and then the expression levels of miR-146a-5p, Wnt2, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins (Vimentin, N-cadherin and E-cadherin) were measured. Moreover, the proliferative, migratory and invasive capacities of trophoblast cells were detected, respectively. Dual luciferase reporter assay determined the binding of miR-146a-5p and Wnt2. RESULTS: Compared with normal placental tissues, the placentae from PE patients showed higher miR-146a-5p expression and lower Wnt2 expression. Transfection of miR-146a-5p inhibitor or pcDNA3.1-Wnt2 exerted pro-migratory and pro-invasive effects on HTR-8 cells and encouraged EMT in HTR-8 cells; transfection with miR-146a-5p mimic or sh-Wnt2 weakened the proliferative, migratory and invasive capacities as well as reduced EMT process of HTR-8 cells. Moreover, Wnt2 overexpression could partially counteract the suppressive effects of miR-146a-5p overexpression on the progression and EMT of HTR-8 cells. CONCLUSION: miR-146a-5p mediates trophoblast cell proliferation and invasion through regulating Wnt2 expression.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , MicroRNAs , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Trofoblastos/citologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Placenta , Gravidez
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4447-4453, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in tumor progression. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been reported to promote proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. Furthermore, angiogenesis has been reported to induce chemoresistance due to the inefficient distribution of drugs to cancer cells. However, the impact of TAMs on chemoresistance via angiogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of TAMs on the chemotherapeutic outcome in CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 54 patients who underwent chemotherapy for unresectable metastatic CRC after resection of the primary tumor. We evaluated the density of TAMs and the degree of angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry and then explored the correlation between the density of TAMs and chemotherapeutic outcome. Furthermore, we assessed any correlation between the density of TAMs and that of neovascularity. RESULTS: The high-TAMs group had a significantly worse progression-free survival (p=0.0006) and a poorer response rate (p=0.0274) than the low-TAMs group. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the density of TAMs and the degree of neovascularity (r=0.665, p=0.0004). CONCLUSION: TAMs were shown to promote chemoresistance via angiogenesis in CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
J Cell Sci ; 134(2)2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432034

RESUMO

Silicosis is characterized by silica exposure-induced lung interstitial fibrosis and formation of silicotic nodules, resulting in lung stiffening. The acetylation of microtubules mediated by α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase 1 (α-TAT1) is a posttranslational modification that promotes microtubule stability in response to mechanical stimulation. α-TAT1 and downstream acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-α-Tub) are decreased in silicosis, promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We found that silica, matrix stiffening or their combination triggered Ac-α-Tub downregulation in alveolar epithelial cells, followed by DNA damage and replication stress. α-TAT1 elevated Ac-α-Tub to limit replication stress and the EMT via trafficking of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1, also known as TP53BP1). The results provide evidence that α-TAT1 and Ac-α-Tub inhibit the EMT and silicosis fibrosis by preventing 53BP1 mislocalization and relieving DNA damage. This study provides insight into how the cell cycle is regulated during the EMT and why the decrease in α-TAT1 and Ac-α-Tub promotes silicosis fibrosis. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first authors of the paper.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Tubulina (Proteína) , Acetilação , Dano ao DNA , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
5.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(4): 494-502, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignancies. miRNAs (microRNAs) have been reported to play a pivotal role in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. However, the role of miR-643 in gastric cancer is not fully understood. METHODS: The expression of miR-643 in gastric cancer cell lines was detected by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcription PCR). Cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were assessed using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, flow cytometry, and wound scratch and Transwell assays, respectively. The target gene of miR-643 was predicted by bioinformatics analysis and validated using luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: The expression level of miR-643 in gastric cancer cell lines was lower than in the normal gastric epithelium cell line (GES-1). Overexpression of miR-643 inhibited cell viability and colony formation but promoted cell apoptosis in gastric cancer. Transwell invasion assay and in vitro scratch assay evidenced that miR-643 overexpression inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that miR-643 could directly target TXNDC9 (Thioredoxin domain containing 9), and luciferase reporter assay validated this result. Further analysis showed that miR-643 mimics caused a significant reduction of TXNDC9 in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, TXNDC9 overexpression reversed the effects of miR-643 mimics on gastric cancer cell viability, invasion, and migration. CONCLUSION: miR-643 functions as a potential tumor suppressor in gastric cancer by inhibiting cell viability, colony formation, migration, and invasion via targeting TXNDC9, which provides a novel target for the diagnostic treatment of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360950

RESUMO

The Bruch's membrane (BrM) is a five-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) that supports the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Normal age-related changes in the BrM may lead to RPE cell damage and ultimately to the onset and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the most common cause of visual loss among the elderly. A role for the complement system in AMD pathology has been established, but the disease mechanisms are poorly understood, which hampers the design of efficient therapies to treat millions of patients. In an effort to identify the mechanisms that lead from normal aging to pathology, we have developed a cell-based model using complement deficient human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE cells cultured on an AMD-like ECM that mimics BrM. The data present evidence that changes in the ECM result in loss of differentiation and promote epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of healthy RPE cells. This pathological process is mediated by complement activation and involves the formation of a randomly oriented collagen meshwork that drives the dedifferentiation of the RPE monolayer. Genetic ablation of complement component 3 has a protective effect against EMT but does not prevent the abnormal deposition of collagens. These findings offer new insights into the sequence of events that initiate AMD and may guide the design of efficient therapies to treat this disease with unmet medical needs.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento , Complemento C3/genética , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360952

RESUMO

The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a strictly regulated process that is indispensable for normal development, but it can result in fibrosis and cancer progression. It encompasses a complete alteration of the cellular transcriptomic profile, promoting the expression of genes involved in cellular migration, invasion and proliferation. Extracellular signaling factors driving the EMT process require secondary messengers to convey their effects to their targets. Due to its remarkable properties, calcium represents an ideal candidate to translate molecular messages from receptor to effector. Therefore, calcium-permeable ion channels that facilitate the influx of extracellular calcium into the cytosol can exert major influences on cellular phenotype. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels represent a superfamily of non-selective cation channels that decode physical and chemical stimuli into cellular behavior. Their role as cellular sensors renders them interesting proteins to study in the context of phenotypic transitions, such as EMT. In this review, we elaborate on the current knowledge regarding TRP channel expression and activity in cellular phenotype and EMT.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/classificação , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/genética
8.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(4): 484-491, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380795

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Lingual squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) pose a major public health burden in India. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the conversion of an epithelial cell to a mesenchymal phenotype at the invasive front (IF) enhancing invasiveness of these cells which may be studied using immunohistochemistry. The objective of this study was to assess the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin at the IF, and their correlation with the histological risk assessment score, clinicopathological parameters and lymph node metastasis. Methods: Thirty consecutive untreated patients diagnosed as lingual SCC who underwent hemiglossectomy over one year formed the study group. The immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in the periphery as well as the centre of tumour islands was correlated with clinicopathological parameters, Brandwein-Gensler risk assessment score and lymph node metastasis, along with a correlation between the coexpression of two markers at the IF. Results: Loss of E-cadherin expression was seen at IF in 83.3 per cent (25/30) cases. Out of these, 20 per cent (5/25) showed a corresponding gain in vimentin expression (complete epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and 80 per cent (20/25) did not. Overall, 16.6 per cent (5/30) cases showed complete EMT. However, no correlation between E- cadherin and vimentin expression at the IF was found. No statistical significance was found between E-cadherin loss and vimentin gain at the IF, with the various parameters or the risk score. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study suggests that the cells at IF may metastasize even without a gain in vimentin expression (without classical EMT), as cohesive clusters showing incomplete EMT (E-cadh-/Vim-).


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Caderinas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico , Vimentina/genética
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26762, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397721

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Reliable biomarkers are of great significance for the treatment and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study identified potential prognostic epithelial-mesenchymal transition related lncRNAs (ERLs) by the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database and bioinformatics.The differential expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) was obtained by analyzing the lncRNA data of 370 HCC samples in TCGA. Then, Pearson correlation analysis was carried out with EMT related genes (ERGs) from molecular signatures database. Combined with the univariate Cox expression analysis of the total survival rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, the prognostic ERLs were obtained. Then use "step" function to select the optimal combination of constructing multivariate Cox expression model. The expression levels of ERLs in HCC samples were verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Finally, we identified 5 prognostic ERLs (AC023157.3, AC099850.3, AL031985.3, AL365203.2, CYTOR). The model showed that these prognostic markers were reliable independent predictors of risk factors (P value <.0001, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.400, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.667-3.454 for OS). In the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis, this prognostic marker is a good predictor of HCC survival (area under the curve of 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 5 years are 0.754, 0.720, 0.704, and 0.662 respectively). We analyzed the correlation of clinical characteristics of these prognostic markers, and the results show that this prognostic marker is an independent factor that can predict the prognosis of HCC more accurately. In addition, by matching with the Molecular Signatures Database, we obtained 18 ERLs, and then constructed the HCC prognosis model and clinical feature correlation analysis using 5 prognostic ERLs. The results show that these prognostic markers have reliable independent predictive value. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these prognostic markers were involved in the regulation of EMT and related functions of tumor occurrence and migration.Five prognostic types of ERLs identified in this study can be used as potential biomarkers to predict the prognosis of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1330: 151-169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339036

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is a heterogenous disease with variable clinicopathological and molecular mechanisms being responsible for tumorigenesis. Despite substantial technological improvement, lack of early diagnosis contributes to its highest mortality. Ovarian cancer is considered to be the most lethal female gynaecological cancer across the world. Conventional treatment modules with platinum- and Taxane-based chemotherapy can cause an initial satisfactory improvement in ovarian cancer patients. However, approximately 75-80% patients of advanced stage ovarian cancer, experience relapse and nearly 40% have overall poor survival rate. It has been observed that a subpopulation of cells referred as cancer stem cells (CSCs), having self renewal property, escape the conventional chemotherapy because of their quiescent nature. Later, these CSCs following its interaction with microenvironment and release of various inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases, induce invasion and propagation to distant organs of the body mainly peritoneal cavity. These CSCs can be enriched by their specific surface markers such as CD44, CD117, CD133 and intracellular enzyme such as aldehyde dehydrogenase. This tumorigenicity is further aggravated by the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of CSCs and neovascularisation via epigenetic reprogramming and over-expression of various signalling cascades such as Wnt/ß-catenin, NOTCH, Hedgehog, etc. to name a few. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of various cellular events involving interaction between cancer cells and cancer stem cells as well as its surrounding micro environmental components would be of unmet need to achieve the ultimate goal of better management of ovarian cancer patients. This chapter deals with the impact of ovarian cancer stem cells in tumorigenesis which would help in the implementation of basic research into the clinical field in the form of translational research in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality in ovarian cancer patients through amelioration of diagnosis and impoverishment of therapeutic resistance.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 230, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs are involved in multiple cellular functions and participate in various cancer development and progression, including breast cancer. METHODS: We aimed to investigate the role of miR-381-3p in breast cancer. The expression level of miR-381-3p and EMT transcription factors was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The effects of miR-381-3p on breast cancer proliferation and invasion were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, and transwell assays. The regulation of miR-381-3p on its targets was determined by dual-luciferase analysis, qRT-PCR, and western blot. RESULTS: We found that the expression of miR-381-3p was significantly decreased in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-381-3p inhibited breast cancer proliferation and invasion, whereas knockdown of miR-381-3p promoted cell proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 cells. Mechanistically, overexpression of miR-381-3p inhibited breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Both Sox4 and Twist1 were confirmed as targets of miR-381-3p. Moreover, transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) could reverse the effects of miR-381-3p on breast cancer progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our observation suggests that miR-381-3p inhibits breast cancer progression and EMT by regulating the TGF-ß signaling via targeting Sox4 and Twist1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Nucleares , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(8): e358-e368, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339656

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process during which cells lose their epithelial characteristics, for instance apical-basal cell polarity and cell-cell contact, and gain mesenchymal properties, such as increased motility. In colorectal cancer, EMT has an important role in tumour progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. There has been accumulating evidence from preclinical and early clinical studies that show that EMT markers might serve as outcome predictors and potential therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer. This Review describes the fundamentals of EMT, including biology, newly partial EMT, and associated changes. We also provide a comprehensive summary of therapeutic compounds capable of targeting EMT markers, including drugs in preclinical and clinical trials and those with repurpose potential. Lastly, we explore the obstacles of EMT bench-to-bedside drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360851

RESUMO

Endothelial cells can acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through a process called Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal transition (EndMT). This event is found in embryonic development, but also in pathological conditions. Blood vessels lose their ability to maintain vascular homeostasis and ultimately develop atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, or fibrosis. An increase in inflammatory signals causes an upregulation of EndMT transcription factors, mesenchymal markers, and a decrease in endothelial markers. In our study, we show that the induction of EndMT results in an increase in long non-coding RNA AERRIE expression. JMJD2B, a known EndMT regulator, induces AERRIE and subsequently SULF1. Silencing of AERRIE shows a partial regulation of SULF1 but showed no effect on the endothelial and mesenchymal markers. Additionally, the overexpression of AERRIE results in no significant changes in EndMT markers, suggesting that AERRIE is marginally regulating mesenchymal markers and transcription factors. This study identifies AERRIE as a novel factor in EndMT, but its mechanism of action still needs to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445405

RESUMO

Persistent HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection is the primary cause of cervical cancer. Despite the development of the HPV vaccine to prevent infections, cervical cancer is still a fatal malignant tumor and metastatic disease, and it is often difficult to treat, so a new treatment strategy is needed. The FDA-approved drug Bazedoxifene is a novel inhibitor of protein-protein interactions between IL-6 and GP130. Multiple ligand simultaneous docking and drug repositioning approaches have demonstrated that an IL-6/GP130 inhibitor can act as a selective estrogen modulator. However, the molecular basis for GP130 activation in cervical cancer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer properties of Bazedoxifene in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that Bazedoxifene inhibited cell invasion, migration, colony formation, and tumor growth in cervical cancer cells. We also confirmed that Bazedoxifene inhibits the GP130/STAT3 pathway and suppresses the EMT (Epithelial-mesenchymal transition) sub-signal. Thus, these data not only suggest a molecular mechanism by which the GP130/STAT3 pathway may promote cancer, but also may provide a basis for cervical cancer replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Receptor gp130 de Citocina/metabolismo , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Gene ; 805: 145904, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418470

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Breast cancer metastasis which usually is observed at the last stage is the major cause of breast cancer-related death. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are member of the non-coding RNA family. It is known that lncRNAs have important functions in the genes regulation of different processes and pathways such as EMT (Epithelial mesenchymal transition), metastasis and apoptosis. Therefore, it is inevitable that lncRNAs have potential contribution for the understanding of cancer pathogenesis. lncRNA-ZEB2NAT is the natural antisense transcript of ZEB2. Herein, we investigated the effects of lncRNA-ZEB2NAT on process of EMT, metastasis and apoptosis in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The effect of ZEB2NAT on the expression of important genes in EMT, metastasis and apoptosis, and some protein levels was determined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of ZEB2NAT on cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and colony formation were evaluated using XTT, annexin V, invasion and colony assays, respectively. The ZEB2NAT knockdown caused anti-metastatic and apoptotic effects. The ZEB2NAT knockdown resulted in a decrease in ZEB2 and N-cadherin but an increase in E-cadherin protein levels. In addition, it was determined that ZEB2NAT knockdown significantly decreased cell proliferation and stimulated apoptosis in both cells. It was found that ZEB2NAT knockdown significantly decreased invasion and colony formation in both cells. ZEB2NAT knockdown showed anti-metastatic and apoptotic effect by affecting the important genes in both cells. These results have suggested that ZEB2NAT has an important role in EMT, metastasis and apoptosis in breast cancer and ZEB2NAT knockdown caused significant anti-cancer activities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360933

RESUMO

Cisplatin is among the most widely used anticancer drugs used in the treatment of several malignancies, including oral cancer. However, cisplatin treatment often promotes chemical resistance, subsequently causing treatment failure. Several studies have shown that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) play a variety of roles in cancer progression and overcoming cisplatin resistance. Therefore, this study focused on EGFR inhibitors used in novel targeted therapies as a method to overcome this resistance. We herein aimed to determine whether the combined effects of cisplatin and cetuximab could enhance cisplatin sensitivity by inhibiting the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in cisplatin-resistant cells. In vitro analyses of three cisplatin-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, which included cell proliferation assay, combination index calculation, cell cytotoxicity assay, live/dead cell count assay, Western blot assay, propidium iodide staining assay, scratch assay, and qRT-PCR assay were then conducted. Our results showed that a cisplatin/cetuximab combination treatment inhibited cell proliferation, cell motility, and N-cadherin protein expression but induced E-cadherin and claudin-1 protein expression. Although the combination of cisplatin and cetuximab did not induce apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant cells, it may be useful in treating oral cancer patients with cisplatin resistance given that it controls cell motility and EMT-related proteins.


Assuntos
Cetuximab/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361105

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP) plays critical roles during embryonic development, wound repair, fibrosis, inflammation and cancer. During cancer progression, EMP results in heterogeneous and dynamic populations of cells with mixed epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, which are required for local invasion and metastatic dissemination. Cancer development is associated with an inflammatory microenvironment characterized by the accumulation of multiple immune cells and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines from the interleukin 6 (IL-6) family play fundamental roles in mediating tumour-promoting inflammation within the tumour microenvironment, and have been associated with chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer, where some members often act as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. All IL-6 family members signal through the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway and are able to activate a wide array of signalling pathways and transcription factors. In general, IL-6 cytokines activate EMP processes, fostering the acquisition of mesenchymal features in cancer cells. However, this effect may be highly context dependent. This review will summarise all the relevant literature related to all members of the IL-6 family and EMP, although it is mainly focused on IL-6 and oncostatin M (OSM), the family members that have been more extensively studied.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
18.
Postepy Biochem ; 67(2): 95-103, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378893

RESUMO

Metastasis is of great clinical importance as it is responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related mortality. Therefore, there is a strong need to prevent metastasis formation or to target existing metastases. It is currently assumed that initiating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in differentiated cancers may strongly increase the migration potential and invasiveness of cancer cells. Molecular changes occurring during EMT are accompanied by morphological changes, the effect of which is the change of the epithelial phenotype to the mesenchymal one and the acquisition by cancer cells of increased mobility and the ability to invade. After metastasis is formed at a site distant from the primary tumor, cancer cells undergo the reverse process, the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), regaining the epithelial phenotype. This ability of the tumour cell to switch from one state to the other allows permanent adaptations to the demanding conditions of a changing environment and promotes the formation of metastasis. In this review, I discuss two principle types of metastatic progression: phenotypic plasticity involving transient EMTâMET processes and intrinsic genetic alterations keeping cells in an EMT and stemness state. This simplified classification integrates clinically relevant aspects of dormancy, metastatic tropism and therapy resistance, and implies perspectives on treatment strategies against metastasis


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Plasticidade Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica
19.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7658-7670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335956

RESUMO

SNAI1 is widely regarded as a master driver of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and associated with breast cancer progression and metastasis. This pro-malignant role is strongly linked to posttranslational modification, especially phosphorylation, which controls its protein levels and subcellular localization. While multiple kinases are implicated in regulation of SNAI1 stability, the precise mechanism by which SNAI1 is stabilized in tumors remains to be fully elucidated. Methods: A series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to reveal the regulation of SNAI1 by Serine/Threonine Kinase 39 (STK39) and the role of STK39 in breast cancer metastasis. Results: We identified STK39, a member of Stem 20-like serine/threonine kinase family, as a novel posttranslational regulator that enhances the stability of SNAI1. Inhibition of STK39 via knockdown or use of a specific inhibitor resulted in SNAI1 destabilization. Mechanistically, STK39 interacted with and phosphorylated SNAI1 at T203, which is critical for its nuclear retention. Functionally, STK39 inhibition markedly impaired the EMT phenotype and decreased tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. These effects were rescued by ectopic SNAI1 expression. In addition, depletion of STK39 dramatically enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that STK39 is a key mediator of SNAI1 stability and is associated with the pro-metastatic cellular process, highlighting the STK39-SNAI1 signaling axis as promising therapeutic targets for treatments of metastatic breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7671-7684, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335957

RESUMO

Snail1 is a transcriptional factor required for epithelial to mesenchymal transition and activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). Apart from that, tumor endothelial cells also express Snail1. Here, we have unraveled the role of Snail1 in this tissue in a tumorigenic context. Methods: We generated transgenic mice with an endothelial-specific and inducible Snail1 depletion. This murine line was crossed with MMTV-PyMT mice that develop mammary gland tumors and the consequence of Snail1 depletion in the endothelium were investigated. We also interfere Snail1 expression in cultured endothelial cells. Results: Specific Snail1 depletion in the endothelium of adult mice does not promote an overt phenotype; however, it delays the formation of mammary gland tumors in MMTV-PyMT mice. These effects are associated to the inability of Snail1-deficient endothelial cells to undergo angiogenesis and to enhance CAF activation in a paracrine manner. Moreover, tumors generated in mice with endothelium-specific Snail1 depletion are less advanced and show a papillary phenotype. Similar changes on onset and tumor morphology are observed by pretreatment of MMTV-PyMT mice with the angiogenic inhibitor Bevacizumab. Human breast papillary carcinomas exhibit a lower angiogenesis and present lower staining of Snail1, both in endothelial and stromal cells, compared with other breast neoplasms. Furthermore, human breast tumors datasets show a strong correlation between Snail1 expression and high angiogenesis. Conclusion: These findings show a novel role for Snail1 in endothelial cell activation and demonstrate that these cells impact not only on angiogenesis, but also on tumor onset and phenotype.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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