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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5081-5090, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer with limited targets for chemotherapy. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of novel imidazo[2,1-b]oxazole-based rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) inhibitors, KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2, on epithelial cell transformation and TNBC tumorigenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunoblotting, BrdU incorporation assay, reporter gene assay, and soft agar assay analyses were performed. In vivo effects were studied using the BALB/c mouse xenograft model. RESULTS: KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 inhibited the RAFs-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway induced by EGF in MDA-MB-231 cells, which inhibited c-fos transcriptional activity and activator protein-1 transactivation activity. KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 also prevented neoplastic transformation of JB6 C141 mouse epidermal cells induced by EGF and consistently suppressed the growth of tumours formed by 4T1 cells in BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of RAF kinases using KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy to treat TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5107-5114, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling may be one of the mechanisms of progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In this study, we investigated the possible therapeutic effect of vismodegib, a new Shh inhibitor, in a mouse CRPC model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined cell proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of EMT-related genes for three prostate cancer cell lines; androgen-dependent LNCaP and independent C4-2B and PC-3 in the presence of vismodegib in vitro. Fifty mg/kg of vismodegib were orally administered into mice bearing C4-2B and PC-3 tumors, respectively every other week for 3 weeks. RESULTS: Vismodegib significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in all cell lines in vitro (p<0.05). Vismodegib significantly inhibited EMT in CRPC cells and tumor growth in C4-2B-bearing mice compared to controls in vivo (p<0.05). Higher expression of caspase-3 and lower expression of vimentin in PC-3 and C4-2B tumors were induced by vismodegib in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION: Vismodegib inhibited cell proliferation via apoptosis and also suppressed EMT, showing anti-tumor effects in mice. Further mechanistic studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of vismodegib for CRPC treatment.


Assuntos
Anilidas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4989-4999, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process that facilitates cancer metastasis. Therefore, therapeutic approaches that target EMT have garnered increasing attention. The present study aimed to examine the in vitro effects of ephemeranthol A on cell death, migration, and EMT of lung cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ephemeranthol A was isolated from Dendrobium infundibulum. Non-small cell lung cancer cells H460 were treated with ephemeranthol A and apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342 staining. Anoikis resistance was determined by soft agar assay. Wound healing assay was performed to test the migration. The regulatory proteins of apoptosis and cell motility were determined by western blot. RESULTS: Treatment with ephemeranthol A resulted in a concentration-dependent cell apoptosis. At non-toxic concentrations, the compound could inhibit anchorage-independent growth of the cancer cells, as indicated by the decreased colony size and number. Ephemeranthol A also exhibited an inhibitory effect on migration. We further found that ephemeranthol A exerts its antimetastatic effects via inhibition of EMT, as indicated by the markedly decrease of N-cadherin, vimentin, and Slug. Furthermore, the compound suppressed the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase B (Akt) proteins, which are key regulators of cell migration. As for the anticancer activity, ephemeranthol A induced apoptosis by decreasing Bcl-2 followed by the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9. CONCLUSION: The pro-apoptotic and anti-migratory effects of ephemeranthol A on human lung cancer cells support its use for the development of novel anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendrobium/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Fenantrenos/química
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among adult males globally. The poor prognosis of PCa is largely due to late diagnosis of the disease when it has already progressed to an advanced stage marked by androgen-independence, thus necessitating new strategies for early detection and treatment. We construe that these direly needed advances are limited by our poor understanding of early events in the progression of PCa and that would thus represent ideal targets for early intervention. To begin to fill this void, we interrogated molecular "oncophenotypes" that embody the transition of PCa from an androgen-dependent (AD) to-independent (AI) state. METHODS: To accomplish this aim, we used our previously established AD and AI murine PCa cell lines, PLum-AD and PLum-AI, respectively, which recapitulate primary and progressive PCa morphologically and molecularly. We statistically surveyed global gene expressions in these cell lines by microarray analysis. Differential profiles were functionally interrogated by pathways, gene set enrichment and topological gene network analyses. RESULTS: Gene expression analysis of PLum-AD and PLum-AI transcriptomes (n = 3 each), revealed 723 differentially expressed genes (392 upregulated and 331 downregulated) in PLum-AI compared to PLum-AD cells. Gene set analysis demonstrated enrichment of biological functions and pathways in PLum-AI cells that are central to tumor aggressiveness including cell migration and invasion facilitated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further analysis demonstrated that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was predicted to be significantly activated in the PLum-AI cells, whereas gene sets previously associated with favorable response to the p38 inhibitor SB203580 were attenuated (i.e., inversely enriched) in the PLum-AI cells, suggesting that these aggressive cells may be therapeutically vulnerable to p38 inhibition. Gene set and gene-network analysis also alluded to activation of other signaling networks particularly those associated with enhanced EMT, inflammation and immune function/response including, but not limited to Tnf, IL-6, Mmp 2, Ctgf, and Ptges. Accordingly, we chose SB203580 and IL-6 to validate their effect on PLum-AD and PLum-AI. Some of the common genes identified in the gene-network analysis were validated at the molecular and functional level. Additionally, the vulnerability to SB203580 and the effect of IL-6 were also validated on the stem/progenitor cell population using the sphere formation assay. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our study highlights pathways associated with an augmented malignant phenotype in AI cells and presents new high-potential targets to constrain the aggressive malignancy seen in the castration-resistant PCa.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810161

RESUMO

In human lung cancer progression, the EMT process is characterized by the transformation of cancer cells into invasive forms that migrate to other organs. Targeting to EMT-related molecules is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) has recently been considered as an anti-proliferative target molecule to regulate the Wnt signaling pathway in several types of cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and the integrin-αⅤß3 targeted cyclic peptide (cRGDfK) on EMT in human lung cancer cells. Sunitinib strongly inhibited the TGF-ß1-activated EMT through suppression of Wnt signaling, Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. In addition, the cRGDfK also inhibited the expression of TGFß1-induced mesenchymal marker genes and proteins. The anti-EMT effect of sunitinib was enhanced when cRGDfK was treated together. When sunitinib was treated with cRGDfK, the mRNA and protein expression levels of mesenchymal markers were decreased compared to the treatment with sunitinib alone. Co-treatment of cRGDfK has shown the potential to improve the efficacy of anticancer agents in combination with therapeutic agents that may be toxic at high concentrations. These results provide new and improved therapies for treating and preventing EMT-related disorders, such as lung fibrosis and cancer metastasis, and relapse.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Sunitinibe/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Life Sci ; 258: 118178, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739468

RESUMO

AIMS: Gentamicin (GEN) is one of the most valuable aminoglycoside antibiotics utilized against life-threatening bacterial infections. Unfortunately, GEN-induced nephrotoxicity limited its clinical utility. The pathologic process of nephrotoxicity caused by GEN may involve epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resveratrol (RES) is a natural compound was revealed to inhibit EMT in kidney. The present work was conducted to explore the potential renoprotective role of RES on GEN-induced EMT. Moreover, the underlying signaling pathway of this inhibition was investigated. MAIN METHODS: Mice were treated with GEN by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route daily for 15 days to identify EMT onset with regard to GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. To assess the ameliorative role of RES against GEN-induced EMT, RES was i.p. administrated in high and low doses before and concurrently with GEN treatment. KEY FINDINGS: GEN administration significantly deteriorated kidney functions. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly decreased with a concomitant increase in the content of kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) after GEN treatment. Histological changes and deposition of collagen were extensive in renal corpuscles and tubules. Increased expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and phosphorylated (p)-Smad2 were observed after GEN administration, while E-cadherin expression was decreased. On the contrary, pretreatment with both doses of RES reversed the modifications caused by GEN administration. SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that EMT contributes to pathogenesis of GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. RES has a protective effect on GEN-induced EMT via suppressing oxidative stress and a possible involvement of TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fibrose , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Life Sci ; 258: 118154, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735882

RESUMO

AIMS: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) facilitates cell migration and invasion, and contributes to metastasis in bladder cancer. Within the perioperative period, anesthetic such as isoflurane have been found to affect cancer prognosis. In the study, we reported the tumor-promoting effect of isoflurane in bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and BIU-87 were exposed to isoflurane at different concentrations. The immunofluorescent staining of Ki67, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, Transwell invasion assays and wound-healing assays were performed to assess cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Expressions of EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) and metastatic markers (Snail-1, Slug-1 and MMP-2/9) were determined by immunoblotting. Orthotopic tumor models and mice given tail vein injection of T24 cells were developed with or without 4-h exposure to 2% isoflurane. KEY FINDINGS: We found isoflurane promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration but reduce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, isoflurane was shown to increase HIF-1α and its nuclear accumulation in bladder cancer cells. HIF-1α knockdown inhibited bladder cancer cell proliferation and delayed EMT, which was reversed in the presence of 4-h exposure to 2% isoflurane. Likewise, we found isoflurane modulated ß-catenin/Notch1 pathways via HIF-1α. In vivo studies showed that isoflurane exposure accelerated formation of orthotopic bladder tumor and promoted hepatic metastases from carcinoma of the bladder. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our study demonstrates that a frequently used anesthetic can exert a protumorigenic effect on bladder cancer. Isoflurane may serve as an important contributory factor to high recurrence following surgery.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflurano/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3978, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770044

RESUMO

Methionine restriction, a dietary regimen that protects against metabolic diseases and aging, represses cancer growth and improves cancer therapy. However, the response of different cancer cells to this nutritional manipulation is highly variable, and the molecular determinants of this heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here we report that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) dictates the sensitivity of liver cancer to methionine restriction. We show that hepatic sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism is under transcriptional control of HNF4α. Knocking down HNF4α or SAA enzymes in HNF4α-positive epithelial liver cancer lines impairs SAA metabolism, increases resistance to methionine restriction or sorafenib, promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and induces cell migration. Conversely, genetic or metabolic restoration of the transsulfuration pathway in SAA metabolism significantly alleviates the outcomes induced by HNF4α deficiency in liver cancer cells. Our study identifies HNF4α as a regulator of hepatic SAA metabolism that regulates the sensitivity of liver cancer to methionine restriction.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Mesoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesoderma/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Molecules ; 25(16)2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784680

RESUMO

Cardiac glycosides (CGs) have a long history of treating cardiac diseases. However, recent reports have suggested that CGs also possess anticancer and antiviral activities. The primary mechanism of action of these anticancer agents is by suppressing the Na+/k+-ATPase by decreasing the intracellular K+ and increasing the Na+ and Ca2+. Additionally, CGs were known to act as inhibitors of IL8 production, DNA topoisomerase I and II, anoikis prevention and suppression of several target genes responsible for the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, CGs were reported to be effective against several DNA and RNA viral species such as influenza, human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and Ebola virus. CGs were reported to suppress the HIV-1 gene expression, viral protein translation and alters viral pre-mRNA splicing to inhibit the viral replication. To date, four CGs (Anvirzel, UNBS1450, PBI05204 and digoxin) were in clinical trials for their anticancer activity. This review encapsulates the current knowledge about CGs as anticancer and antiviral drugs in isolation and in combination with some other drugs to enhance their efficiency. Further studies of this class of biomolecules are necessary to determine their possible inhibitory role in cancer and viral diseases.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(11): 2817-2828, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor and has poor survival outcomes, even after a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Temozolomide is the only agent that has been shown to be effective against GBM, suggesting that combination of temozolomide with other agents may be more effective. Niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, has shown anti-cancer effects against human colon, breast, prostate cancers as well as GBM. However, the efficacy of the combination of niclosamide with temozolomide against GBM tumorspheres (TSs) has not been determined. We hypothesized that the combined treatment could effectively suppress GBM TSs. METHODS: GBM TSs (TS15-88, GSC11) were treated with niclosamide and/or temozolomide. Combined effects of two drugs were evaluated by measuring viability, neurosphere formation, and 3D-invasion in collagen matrix. Transcriptional profiles of GBM TS were analyzed using RNA sequencing. In vivo anticancer efficacy of combined drugs was tested in a mouse orthotopic xenograft model. RESULTS: Combination treatment of niclosamide and temozolomide significantly inhibited the cell viability, stemness, and invasive properties of GBM TSs. This combined treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related markers, Zeb1, N-cadherin, and ß-catenin. The combined treatment also significantly decreased tumor growth in orthotopic xenograft models. CONCLUSION: The combination of niclosamide and temozolomide effectively decreased the stemness and invasive properties of GBM TSs, suggesting that this regimen may be therapeutically effective in treating patients with GBM.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Tumour Biol ; 42(7): 1010428320941760, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662332

RESUMO

Although it could be speculated that almost everything has been said concerning the use of statins in cancer therapy, statins as anticancer drugs have both committed supporters and opponents, for whom the dispute about the legitimacy of statin use in cancer treatment seems never to be clearly resolved; every year more than 300 reports which deepen the knowledge about statins and their influence on cancer cells are published. In this mini-review, we focus on the latest (since 2015) outcomes of cohort studies and meta-analyses indicating statin effectiveness in cancer treatment. We discuss attempts to improve the bioavailability of statins using nanocarriers and review the effectiveness of statins in combined therapies. We also summarise the latest results regarding the development of mechanisms of resistance to statins by cancer cells and, on the other hand, give a few examples where statins could potentially be used to overcome resistance to commonly used chemotherapeutics. Finally, special attention is paid to new reports on the effect of statins on epithelial-mesenchymal transition.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4513-4522, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises from hepatocytes, and is the most frequently occurring malignancy of primary liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic effects of the quaternary ammonium compound, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on HA22T/VGH HCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to our preliminary data, the effect of CTAB on cell cycle distribution, migration, invasion and the associated protein levels was examined using flow cytometry, wound-healing migration, Matrigel transwell invasion assay and western blotting under sub-lethal concentrations. RESULTS: CTAB treatment of HA22T/VGH cells casued dose-dependent mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)-like changes and impaired migration and invasion capabilities. In addition, CTAB reduced the levels of metastasis-related proteins including c-Met, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), Twist, N-cadherin, and Vimentin. Moreover, pretreatment with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) rescued CTAB-mediated effects. CONCLUSION: CTAB exhibited potent anti-EMT and anti-metastatic activities through the inhibition of migration and invasion of HA22T/VGH cells. CTAB interrupted the mesenchymal characteristics of HA22T/VGH cells, which were significantly alleviated by HGF in a dose-dependent manner. CTAB has the potential to evolve as a therapeutic agent for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Cetrimônio/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 155-163, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645460

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to arsenic increases the risk of developing a variety of human cancers including lung carcinomas. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying arsenic carcinogenicity remains largely unknown. Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis whose defects might result in accumulation of dysfunctional organelles and damaged proteins thus promoting tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to sub-lethal dose of sodium arsenite led to autophagy activation and induced an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to enhance cell migratory and invasive capability. The malignant transformation was mediated via activation of MEK/ERK1/2 signaling. Importantly, inhibition of autophagy in these arsenic-exposed cells by pharmacological intervention or genetic deletion further promoted the EMT and increased the generation of inflammasomes. Both autophagy inhibitor and genetic deletion of autophagy core gene Beclin-1 produced similar effects. These results may suggest the important role of autophagy in sodium arsenite-induced lung tumorigenesis which may serve as a potential target in prevention and treatment of arsenic-imposed lung cancer.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Autofagia/fisiologia , Brônquios/patologia , Neoplasias Brônquicas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Brônquicas/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/induzido quimicamente , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109196, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687844

RESUMO

Cancer metastasis and resistance for chemotherapeutic agent correlate with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), while ROS production also involves in the EMT process, However, how autophagy mediated ROS production affects EMT remains unclear. Previous study showed that DpdtC (2,2'-di-pyridylketone hydrazone dithiocarbamate) could induce ferritinophagy in HepG2 cell. To insight into more details that how ferritinophagy affects cellular feature, the SGC-7901and BGC-823 gastric cancer cell lines were used. Interestingly DpdtC treatment resulted in EMT inhibition and was ROS dependent. Similar situation occurred in TGF-ß1 induced EMT model, supporting that DpdtC was able to inhibit EMT. Next the ability of DpdtC in ferritinophagy induction was further evaluated. As expected, DpdtC induced ferritinophagy in the absence and presence of TGF-ß1. The correlation analysis revealed that an enhanced ferritinophagic flux contributed to the EMT inhibition. In addition, ferritinophagy triggers Fenton reaction, resulting in ROS production which give rise of p53 response, thus the role of p53 was further investigated. DpdtC treatment resulted in upregulation of p53, but, the addition of p53 inhibitor, PFT-α could significantly neutralize the action of DpdtC on ferritinophagy induction and EMT inhibition. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitors or NAC could counteract the action of DpdtC, indicating that ferrtinophagy-mediated ROS played an important role in the cellular events. In addition to upregulation of p53, its down-stream targets, AKT/mTor were also downregulated, supporting that DpdtC induced EMT inhibition was achieved through ferritinophagy-ROS vicious cycle mediated p53/AKT/mTor pathway. And the activation of ferritinophagic flux was the dominant driving force in action of DpdtC in gastric cancer cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ditiocarb/análogos & derivados , Ditiocarb/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
15.
Life Sci ; 257: 118010, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598932

RESUMO

Podocyte injury is an early event and core in the development of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) that induces poor prognosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a response of podocyte to injury leads to podocyte depletion and proteinuria. The abnormally reactivated NOTCH pathway may be involved in podocyte EMT. Baicalin, as a natural flavonoid compound, had significant inhibitory activity on tissue fibrosis and tumor cell invasion. However, its potential role and molecular mechanisms to injured podocyte in FSGS are little known. Here we found that baicalin could inhibit podocyte EMT markers expression and cell migration induced by TGF-ß1, accompanied by the up-regulated expression of slit diaphragm (SD) proteins and cell-cell adhesion molecule. Further investigation revealed that EMT inhibition of baicalin on injured podocyte is mainly mediated by the reduction of notch1 activation and its downstream Snail expression. Using the adriamycin-induced FSGS model, we determined that baicalin suppresses the Notch1-Snail axis activation in podocytes, relieves glomerulus structural disruption and dysfunction, and reduces proteinuria. Altogether, these findings suggest that baicalin is a novel renoprotective agent against podocyte EMT in FSGS and indicate its underlying mechanism that involves in negative regulation of the Notch1-Snail axis.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Podócitos/metabolismo , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
16.
Immunol Med ; 43(3): 121-129, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546118

RESUMO

The roles of interleukin-22 (IL-22) in carcinogenesis have been proposed in various neoplasms. Increased expression of IL-22 has been observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lesions as well as in other cancers. OSCC is still associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because of its invasiveness and frequent lymph node metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of IL-22 on OSCC cells. The human OSCC cell lines Ca9-22 and SAS were stimulated with IL-22 (1-10 ng/mL), and their migration abilities were examined using a cell scratch assay. A Matrigel invasion assay was performed to evaluate the invasion abilities of OSCC cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes and proteins were also examined. IL-22 treatment promoted the migration and invasion abilities of OSCC cells without increasing their viability. IL-22 stimulation also induced STAT3 phosphorylation, MMP-9 activity and EMT-related genes and proteins. Our findings suggest that IL-22 has possible roles in the development of OSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucinas/efeitos adversos , Interleucinas/fisiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Fosforilação/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
17.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(5): 323-330, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553076

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) against high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HK-2 cells and relevant mechanisms. Methods: HK-2 cells were exposed to either glucose or glucose+Dex for 6 h. The production of ROS, morphology of HK-2 cells, and cell cycle were detected. Moreover, the expression of AKT, p-AKT, ERK, p-ERK, PI3K, E-Cadherin, Claudin-1, and α-SMA were determined and compared between HK-2 cells exposed to glucose and those exposed to both glucose and Dex with or without PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 and ERK pathway inhibitor U0126. Results: Compared with HK-2 cells exposed to high level of glucose, the HK-2 cells exposed to both high level of glucose and Dex showed: (1) lower level of ROS production; (2) cell morphology was complete; (3) more cells in G1 phase; (4) lower expression of p-AKT, p-ERK and α-SMA, higher expression of E-Cadherin and Claudin-1. PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and ERK inhibitor U0126 decreased the expression of p-AKT, p-ERK and α-SMA, and increased the expression of E-Cadherin and Claudin-1. Conclusion: Dex can attenuate high glucose-induced HK-2 epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting AKT and ERK.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite new drugs, metastatic prostate cancer remains fatal. Growing interest in the latest approved cabazitaxel taxane drug has markedly increased due to the survival benefits conferred when used at an earlier stage of the disease, its promising new therapeutic combination and formulation, and its differential toxicity. Still cabazitaxel's mechanisms of resistance are poorly characterized. The goal of this study was thus to generate a new model of acquired resistance against cabazitaxel in order to unravel cabazitaxel's resistance mechanisms. METHODS: Du145 cells were cultured with increasing concentrations of cabazitaxel, docetaxel/ taxane control or placebo/age-matched control. Once resistance was reached, Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Translation (EMT) was tested by cell morphology, cell migration, and E/M markers expression profile. Cell transcriptomics were determined by RNA sequencing; related pathways were identified using IPA, PANTHER or KEGG software. The Wnt pathway was analyzed by western blotting, pharmacological and knock-down studies. RESULTS: While age-matched Du145 cells were sensitive to both taxane drugs, docetaxel-resistant cells were only resistant to docetaxel and cabazitaxel-resistant cells showed a partial cross-resistance to both drugs concomitant to EMT. Using RNA-sequencing, the Wnt non-canonical pathway was identified as exclusively activated in cabazitaxel resistant cells while the Wnt canonical pathway was restricted to docetaxel-resistant cells. Cabazitaxel-resistant cells showed a minimal crossover in the Wnt-pathway-related genes linked to docetaxel resistance validating our unique model of acquired resistance to cabazitaxel. Pharmacological and western blot studies confirmed these findings and suggest the implication of the Tyrosine kinase Ror2 receptor in cabazitaxel resistant cells. Variation in Ror2 expression level altered the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to both drugs identifying a possible new target for taxane resistance. CONCLUSION: Our study represents the first demonstration that while Wnt pathway seems to play an important role in taxanes resistance, Wnt effectors responsible for taxane specificity remain un-identified prompting the need for more studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Taxoides/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115110, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533954

RESUMO

Melanoma is characterized by high malignancy and early onset of metastasis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an early event during tumor metastasis. Tumor cells that develop EMT can escape apoptosis, but they are vulnerable to ferroptosis inducers. Gambogenic acid (GNA), a xanthone found in Gamboge, has cytotoxic effects in highly invasive melanoma cells. This study investigated the anti-melanoma effect and mechanism of action of GNA in TGF-ß1-induced EMT melanoma cells. We found that GNA significantly inhibited the invasion, migration and EMT in melanoma cells, and these cells exhibited small mitochondrial wrinkling (an important feature of ferroptosis). An iron chelator, but not an apoptosis inhibitor or a necrosis inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effects of GNA on proliferation, invasion and migration of TGF-ß1-stimulated melanoma cells. GNA upregulated the expression of p53, solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in the model cells, contributing to the mechanisms underlying GNA-induced ferroptosis. Collectively, our findings suggest that GNA induces ferroptosis in TGF-ß1-stimulated melanoma cells via the p53/SLC7A11/GPX4 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Xantenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Xantenos/uso terapêutico
20.
Life Sci ; 256: 117967, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553931

RESUMO

AIMS: Magnoflorine is an essential type of alkaloid and possesses anti-tumor activity in multiple cancers. Recent studies have demonstrated that magnoflorine plays tumor-suppressive roles in gastric and breast cancers. However, its role in osteosarcoma (OS) tumorigenesis is enigmatic. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of magnoflorine in OS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two human OS cells (MG-63 and U-2 OS) were treated with different concentrations of magnoflorine. Cell viability and invasion were then detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell assay, respectively. And the effects of magnoflorine on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cisplatin sensitivity were also measured. To explore the potential mechanism, we assayed the influence of magnoflorine on the miR-410-3p/HMGB1/NF-κB signaling pathway. Additionally, rescue experiments were performed to further confirm the regulation mechanism of magnoflorine. KEY FINDINGS: Magnoflorine inhibited the viability, invasion, and EMT of OS cells in a dose-dependent manner. And it increased the sensitivity of OS cells to cisplatin. Magnoflorine significantly suppressed HMGB1 expression and NF-κB activation, but upregulated miR-410-3p level. Overexpression of HMGB1 promoted NF-κB activation and reversed the effects of magnoflorine on the viability, invasion, EMT and cisplatin sensitivity of OS cells. miR-410-3p mimic inhibited the EMT of OS cells, which was restored by HMGB1 upregulation. And miR-410-3p inhibitor abrogated the influence of magnoflorine on HMGB1 expression in OS cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Magnoflorine inhibited the malignant phenotypes and increased cisplatin sensitivity of OS cells via modulating miR-410-3p/HMGB1/NF-κB pathway. These results indicated that magnoflorine might be a novel drug for the treatment of OS.


Assuntos
Aporfinas/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Osteossarcoma/genética , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
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