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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5053, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028821

RESUMO

The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the unjamming transition (UJT) each comprises a gateway to cellular migration, plasticity and remodeling, but the extent to which these core programs are distinct, overlapping, or identical has remained undefined. Here, we triggered partial EMT (pEMT) or UJT in differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells. After triggering UJT, cell-cell junctions, apico-basal polarity, and barrier function remain intact, cells elongate and align into cooperative migratory packs, and mesenchymal markers of EMT remain unapparent. After triggering pEMT these and other metrics of UJT versus pEMT diverge. A computational model attributes effects of pEMT mainly to diminished junctional tension but attributes those of UJT mainly to augmented cellular propulsion. Through the actions of UJT and pEMT working independently, sequentially, or interactively, those tissues that are subject to development, injury, or disease become endowed with rich mechanisms for cellular migration, plasticity, self-repair, and regeneration.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Regeneração , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/fisiologia , Plasticidade Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Cultura Primária de Células , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia
2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(17): 9505-9520, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870263

RESUMO

Rapid growth of single-cell transcriptomic data provides unprecedented opportunities for close scrutinizing of dynamical cellular processes. Through investigating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we develop an integrative tool that combines unsupervised learning of single-cell transcriptomic data and multiscale mathematical modeling to analyze transitions during cell fate decision. Our approach allows identification of individual cells making transition between all cell states, and inference of genes that drive transitions. Multiscale extractions of single-cell scale outputs naturally reveal intermediate cell states (ICS) and ICS-regulated transition trajectories, producing emergent population-scale models to be explored for design principles. Testing on the newly designed single-cell gene regulatory network model and applying to twelve published single-cell EMT datasets in cancer and embryogenesis, we uncover the roles of ICS on adaptation, noise attenuation, and transition efficiency in EMT, and reveal their trade-off relations. Overall, our unsupervised learning method is applicable to general single-cell transcriptomic datasets, and our integrative approach at single-cell resolution may be adopted for other cell fate transition systems beyond EMT.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise de Célula Única , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
3.
Tumour Biol ; 42(9): 1010428320957506, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914709

RESUMO

The development of the multidrug resistance phenotype is one of the major challenges faced in the treatment of cancer. The multidrug resistance phenotype is characterized by cross-resistance to drugs with different chemical structures and mechanisms of action. In this work, we hypothesized that the acquisition of resistance in cancer is accompanied by activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process, where the tumor cell acquires a more mobile and invasive phenotype; a fundamental step in tumor progression and in promoting the invasion of other organs and tissues. In addition, it is known that atypical glycosylations are characteristic of tumor cells, being used as biomarkers. We believe that the acquisition of the multidrug resistance phenotype and the activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition provoke alterations in the cell glycophenotype, which can be used as glycomarkers for chemoresistance and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition processes. Herein, we induced the multidrug resistance phenotype in the PC-3 human prostate adenocarcinoma line through the continuous treatment with the drug paclitaxel. Our results showed that the induced cell multidrug resistance phenotype (1) acquired a mixed profile between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes and (2) modified the glycophenotype, showing an increase in the level of sialylation and in the number of branched glycans. Both mechanisms are described as indicators of poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/fisiologia , Glicosilação , Humanos , Células PC-3 , Fenótipo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810161

RESUMO

In human lung cancer progression, the EMT process is characterized by the transformation of cancer cells into invasive forms that migrate to other organs. Targeting to EMT-related molecules is emerging as a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) has recently been considered as an anti-proliferative target molecule to regulate the Wnt signaling pathway in several types of cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and the integrin-αⅤß3 targeted cyclic peptide (cRGDfK) on EMT in human lung cancer cells. Sunitinib strongly inhibited the TGF-ß1-activated EMT through suppression of Wnt signaling, Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. In addition, the cRGDfK also inhibited the expression of TGFß1-induced mesenchymal marker genes and proteins. The anti-EMT effect of sunitinib was enhanced when cRGDfK was treated together. When sunitinib was treated with cRGDfK, the mRNA and protein expression levels of mesenchymal markers were decreased compared to the treatment with sunitinib alone. Co-treatment of cRGDfK has shown the potential to improve the efficacy of anticancer agents in combination with therapeutic agents that may be toxic at high concentrations. These results provide new and improved therapies for treating and preventing EMT-related disorders, such as lung fibrosis and cancer metastasis, and relapse.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Sunitinibe/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Mol Immunol ; 125: 15-22, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619930

RESUMO

PIM1 is serine/threonine protein kinase that is involved in numerous biological processes. Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic pathological result of the dysfunctional repair of lung injury without effective therapeutic treatments. In the current study, we investigated whether PIM1 inhibition would improve bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In a BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, PIM1 was persistently upregulated in fibrotic lung tissues. Furthermore, PIM1 inhibition by the PIM1-specific inhibitor SMI-4a showed protective effects against BLM-induced mortality. Furthermore, SMI-4a suppressed hydroxyproline deposition and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) formation, which was characterized by E-cadherin and α-SMA expression in vivo. More importantly, the ZEB1/E-cadherin pathway was found to be closely associated with BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. After the in vitro treatment of A549 cells, PIM1 regulated E-cadherin expression by dependently modulating the activity of the transcription factor ZEB1. These findings were verified in vivo after SMI-4a administration. Finally, an shPIM1-expressing adeno-associated virus was delivered via intratracheal injection to induce a long-term PIM1 deficiency in the alveolar epithelium. AAV-mediated PIM1 knockdown in the lung tissues alleviated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as indicated by collagen accumulation reduction, pulmonary histopathological mitigation and EMT reversion. These findings enhance our understanding of the roles of PIM1 in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and suggest PIM1 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy in chronic pulmonary injuries.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia
6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115110, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533954

RESUMO

Melanoma is characterized by high malignancy and early onset of metastasis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an early event during tumor metastasis. Tumor cells that develop EMT can escape apoptosis, but they are vulnerable to ferroptosis inducers. Gambogenic acid (GNA), a xanthone found in Gamboge, has cytotoxic effects in highly invasive melanoma cells. This study investigated the anti-melanoma effect and mechanism of action of GNA in TGF-ß1-induced EMT melanoma cells. We found that GNA significantly inhibited the invasion, migration and EMT in melanoma cells, and these cells exhibited small mitochondrial wrinkling (an important feature of ferroptosis). An iron chelator, but not an apoptosis inhibitor or a necrosis inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effects of GNA on proliferation, invasion and migration of TGF-ß1-stimulated melanoma cells. GNA upregulated the expression of p53, solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in the model cells, contributing to the mechanisms underlying GNA-induced ferroptosis. Collectively, our findings suggest that GNA induces ferroptosis in TGF-ß1-stimulated melanoma cells via the p53/SLC7A11/GPX4 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Xantenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Xantenos/uso terapêutico
7.
Metabolism ; 108: 154258, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376130

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which is closely related to functional injury of the kidney, can be observed in advanced stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mammalian serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 (MST1), a core component of the Hippo pathway that is involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple metabolic diseases, kidney diseases and cancer. METHODS: In type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, as well as in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), activation of MST1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. In db/db mice, MST1 protein was knocked down or overexpressed by shRNA, and renal function, fibrosis, and downstream signaling were then investigated. RNA silencing and overexpression were performed by using an MST1 or YAP knockdown/expression lentivirus to investigate the regulation of MST1-mediated YAP/TEAD signaling pathways in the fibrosis process in HK-2 cells. Luciferase and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were used to identify whether YAP directly regulated TEAD activation by forming a YAP-TEAD heterodimer, which ultimately leads to tubulointerstitial fibrosis. RESULTS: MST1 activation was significantly decreased in type 1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Notably, the downregulation of MST1 activation was also observed in HK-2 cells in a glucose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo, downregulation of MST1 was sufficient to promote renal dysfunction and fibrosis in db/m mice, whereas overexpression of MST1 ameliorated diabetic nephropathy-induced renal fibrosis. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that activated YAP induced by MST1 inhibition directly upregulated TEAD activation by binding to TEAD and forming a YAP-TEAD heterodimer, resulting in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis in renal tubular epithelial. CONCLUSIONS: MST1 activation represents a potential therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy-induced renal fibrosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
8.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 150: 102961, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361589

RESUMO

Cancer patients with different stages can benefit from radiotherapy, but there are still limited due to inherent or acquired radioresistance. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex biological process that is implicated in malignant characteristics of cancer, such as radioresistance. Although the possible mechanisms of EMT-dependent radioresistance are being extensively studied, there is a lack of a clear picture of the overall signaling of EMT-mediated radioresistance. In this review, we highlight the role and possible molecular mechanisms of EMT in cancer radioresistance, in particular to EMT-associated signaling pathway, EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), EMT-related non-coding RNAs. The knowledge of EMT-associated mechanisms of radioresistance will offer more potent therapy targets to improve the radiotherapy responses.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Tolerância a Radiação , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2142, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358524

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity contributes to many biological processes, including tumor progression. Various epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) responses have been reported and no common, EMT-defining gene expression program has been identified. Here, we have performed a comparative analysis of the EMT response, leveraging highly multiplexed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to measure expression profiles of 103,999 cells from 960 samples, comprising 12 EMT time course experiments and independent kinase inhibitor screens for each. We demonstrate that the EMT is vastly context specific, with an average of only 22% of response genes being shared between any two conditions, and over half of all response genes were restricted to 1-2 time course experiments. Further, kinase inhibitor screens revealed signaling dependencies and modularity of these responses. These findings suggest that the EMT is not simply a single, linear process, but is highly variable and modular, warranting quantitative frameworks for understanding nuances of the transition.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Células A549 , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357159

RESUMO

Lymphatic systems play important roles in the maintenance of fluid homeostasis and undergo anatomical and physiological changes during inflammation and aging. While lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) undergo mesenchymal transition in response to transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), the molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of LECs remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of TGF-ß2 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), an inflammatory cytokine, on EndMT using human skin-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). TGF-ß2-treated HDLECs showed increased expression of SM22α, a mesenchymal cell marker accompanied by increased cell motility and vascular permeability, suggesting HDLECs to undergo EndMT. Our data also revealed that TNF-α could enhance TGF-ß2-induced EndMT of HDLECs. Furthermore, both cytokines induced the production of Activin A while decreasing the expression of its inhibitory molecule Follistatin, and thus enhancing EndMT. Finally, we demonstrated that human dermal lymphatic vessels underwent EndMT during aging, characterized by double immunostaining for LYVE1 and SM22α. These results suggest that both TGF-ß and TNF-α signals play a central role in EndMT of LECs and could be potential targets for senile edema.


Assuntos
Ativinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Vasos Linfáticos/citologia , Proteína Smad2/fisiologia , Transativadores/fisiologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
11.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 6(1): 15, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424264

RESUMO

Metastasis is the cause of over 90% of cancer-related deaths. Cancer cells undergoing metastasis can switch dynamically between different phenotypes, enabling them to adapt to harsh challenges, such as overcoming anoikis and evading immune response. This ability, known as phenotypic plasticity, is crucial for the survival of cancer cells during metastasis, as well as acquiring therapy resistance. Various biochemical networks have been identified to contribute to phenotypic plasticity, but how plasticity emerges from the dynamics of these networks remains elusive. Here, we investigated the dynamics of various regulatory networks implicated in Epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP)-an important arm of phenotypic plasticity-through two different mathematical modelling frameworks: a discrete, parameter-independent framework (Boolean) and a continuous, parameter-agnostic modelling framework (RACIPE). Results from either framework in terms of phenotypic distributions obtained from a given EMP network are qualitatively similar and suggest that these networks are multi-stable and can give rise to phenotypic plasticity. Neither method requires specific kinetic parameters, thus our results emphasize that EMP can emerge through these networks over a wide range of parameter sets, elucidating the importance of network topology in enabling phenotypic plasticity. Furthermore, we show that the ability to exhibit phenotypic plasticity correlates positively with the number of positive feedback loops in a given network. These results pave a way toward an unorthodox network topology-based approach to identify crucial links in a given EMP network that can reduce phenotypic plasticity and possibly inhibit metastasis-by reducing the number of positive feedback loops.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Fenótipo
12.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(4): e9288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294702

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the leading causes of mortality in diabetic patients. Long non-coding RNA zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 antisense 1 (ZEB1-AS1) plays a crucial role in the development of various diseases, including DN. However, the molecular mechanism of ZEB1-AS1 in DN pathogenesis remains elusive. An in vitro DN model was established by treating HK-2 cells with high glucose (HG). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was utilized to detect the expression levels of ZEB1-AS1, microRNA-216a-5p (miR-216a-5p), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7). Western blot assay was used to evaluate the protein levels of BMP7, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins, and fibrosis markers. Additionally, the interaction among ZEB1-AS1, miR-216a-5p, and BMP7 was predicted by MiRcode (http://www.mircode.org) and starBase 2.0 (omics_06102, omicX), and confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. ZEB1-AS1 and BMP7 were down-regulated, while miR-216a-5p was highly expressed in kidney tissues of DN patients. Consistently, HG treatment decreased the levels of ZEB1-AS1 and BMP7, whereas HG increased miR-216a-5p expression in HK-2 cells in a time-dependent manner. ZEB1-AS1 upregulation inhibited HG-induced EMT and fibrogenesis. Furthermore, ZEB1-AS1 directly targeted miR-216a-5p, and overexpression of miR-216a-5p restored the inhibitory effects of ZEB1-AS1 overexpression on EMT and fibrogenesis. BMP7 was negatively targeted by miR-216a-5p. In addition, ZEB1-AS1 suppressed HG-induced EMT and fibrogenesis by regulating miR-216a-5p and BMP-7. lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 inhibited high glucose-induced EMT and fibrogenesis via regulating miR-216a-5p/BMP7 axis in diabetic nephropathy, providing a potential target for DN therapy.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Regulação para Cima
13.
Development ; 147(7)2020 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280063

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases have a broad spectrum of substrates ranging from extracellular matrix components and adhesion molecules to chemokines and growth factors. Despite being mostly secreted, MMPs have been detected in the cytosol, the mitochondria or the nucleus. Although most of the attention is focused on their role in matrix remodeling, the diversity of their substrates and their complex trafficking open the possibility for non-canonical functions. Yet in vivo examples and experimental demonstration of the physiological relevance of such activities are rare. Here, we have used chick neural crest (NC) cells, a highly migratory stem cell population likened to invasive cancer cells, as a model for physiological epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We demonstrate that MMP14 is required for NC delamination. Interestingly, this role is independent of its cytoplasmic tail and of its catalytic activity. Our in vivo data indicate that, in addition to being a late pro-invasive factor, MMP14 is also likely to be an early player, owing to its role in EMT.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 14 da Matriz/fisiologia , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caderinas/metabolismo , Catálise , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 7-14, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278962

RESUMO

Melanoma progression is associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) when tumor cells reduce E-cadherin and increase N-cadherin expression resulting in an escape from the microenvironment via loss of cellular adhesion and gain of motility. Transcription factor proteins Snail and ZEB trigger EMT by repression of epithelial markers and activation of mesenchymal properties. This study evaluated E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression by IHC and investigated their relationship with morphological characteristics in cutaneous and oral canine melanoma. Results from melanoma cases demonstrated E-cadherin expression in 45% (9/20) of oral and 58% (22/38) of cutaneous tumors, while N-cadherin expression was observed in 95% (18/19) of oral and 92% (34/37) of cutaneous melanoma. Cytoplasmic and nuclear N-cadherin expression was positively correlated with ZEB1 expression, while the cell membrane N-cadherin expression was positively correlated with ZEB2. In addition, an increase in nuclear N-cadherin expression was associated with reduced Snail expression in cutaneous melanoma and an increase in Snail expression in oral melanoma, indicating that the correlation between N-cadherin and Snail expression is coincident with tumor location. Our data suggest that ZEB family protein is associated with N-cadherin translocation from cell membrane to the cytoplasm and nuclei, and may act as important transcription factors of EMT regulation in canine melanoma.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Melanoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Movimento Celular , Doenças do Cão/genética , Cães , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4180, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144311

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex biological program between physiology and pathology. Here, amniotic epithelial cells (AEC) were used as in vitro model of transiently inducible EMT in order to evaluate the transcriptional insights underlying this process. Therefore, RNA-seq was used to identify the differentially expressed genes and enrichment analyses were carried out to assess the intracellular pathways involved. As a result, molecules exclusively expressed in AEC that experienced EMT (GSTA1-1 and GSTM3) or when this process is inhibited (KLHL14 and KCNE3) were identified. Lastly, the network theory was used to obtain a computational model able to recognize putative controller genes involved in the induction and in the prevention of EMT. The results suggested an opposite role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) synthesis and degradation enzymes in the regulation of EMT process. In conclusion, these molecules may represent novel EMT regulators and also targets for developing new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Epistasia Genética/genética , Epistasia Genética/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
16.
Life Sci ; 249: 117503, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142767

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the role and mechanism of insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1)-mediated EMT on multiple myeloma (MM) growth and metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression data from GEO datasets were utilized to explore the expression levels of IGF-1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in MM. Western blotting and flow cytometry analysis were performed to detect the protein levels of EMT markers as well as key components of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Cell proliferation ability was assessed using colony formation assay and EdU incorporation assays. Transwell migration and invasion assays were performed to assess cell metastasis properties. Vimentin was knocked down by using electro-transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to detect the effect of IGF-1-mediated EMT on MM cell growth and metastasis. KEY FINDINGS: First of all, the analysis of GEO database revealed that IGF-1 was excessively expressed and closely correlated with the expression of the EMT markers in MM patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IGF-1 enhanced the acquisition of mesenchymal features in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, in vitro studies revealed that IGF-1-mediated mesenchymal phenotype promoted MM migration, invasion and colony formation. Finally, the mechanism study showed PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was involved in the IGF-1-induced EMT in MM cells. SIGNIFICANCE: IGF-1-induced mesenchymal phenotype contributed to MM progression via the PI3K/Akt pathway regulation.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/fisiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima , Vimentina/metabolismo
17.
Am J Pathol ; 190(6): 1271-1283, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188584

RESUMO

Snail is a transcription factor that regulates many cellular events involved in development, homeostasis, and disease. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Snail induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that confers invasive properties on tumor cells during HCC progression and malignancy. Snail activation observed in HCC mouse models suggests its involvement not only in progression, but also onset of HCC. However, it remains unclear whether Snail directly contributes to HCC initiation or whether it supports HCC initiation promoted by other oncogenes. In this study, we generated mouse models for liver-specific and hepatocyte-specific overexpression of Snail to show the independent roles of Snail in liver homeostasis and disease. Enforced Snail expression resulted in liver and hepatocyte enlargement, inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver, lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, substantial increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and bile acids, yellow discoloration of tissues caused by bilirubin accumulation, and liver tumorigenesis. Snail overexpression suppressed mRNA expression of the tight junction components claudins and occludin and that of proteins associated with bile acid metabolism, leading to disruption of the biliary canaliculus formed among hepatocytes and excretion of abnormal amounts of unusual bile acids from hepatocytes. In conclusion, enforced Snail expression in hepatocytes is sufficient for induction of steatohepatitis and liver tumorigenesis through disruption of the biliary canaliculus and bile acid homeostasis in the liver.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hepatócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(3): e1007682, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155144

RESUMO

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental cellular process and plays an essential role in development, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis. Interestingly, EMT is not a binary process but instead proceeds with multiple partial intermediate states. However, the functions of these intermediate states are not fully understood. Here, we focus on a general question about how the number of partial EMT states affects cell transformation. First, by fitting a hidden Markov model of EMT with experimental data, we propose a statistical mechanism for EMT in which many unobservable microstates may exist within one of the observable macrostates. Furthermore, we find that increasing the number of intermediate states can accelerate the EMT process and that adding parallel paths or transition layers may accelerate the process even further. Last, a stabilized intermediate state traps cells in one partial EMT state. This work advances our understanding of the dynamics and functions of EMT plasticity during cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Metástase Neoplásica , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia
19.
Cell ; 180(6): 1198-1211.e19, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200801

RESUMO

It has generally proven challenging to produce functional ß cells in vitro. Here, we describe a previously unidentified protein C receptor positive (Procr+) cell population in adult mouse pancreas through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). The cells reside in islets, do not express differentiation markers, and feature epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition characteristics. By genetic lineage tracing, Procr+ islet cells undergo clonal expansion and generate all four endocrine cell types during adult homeostasis. Sorted Procr+ cells, representing ∼1% of islet cells, can robustly form islet-like organoids when cultured at clonal density. Exponential expansion can be maintained over long periods by serial passaging, while differentiation can be induced at any time point in culture. ß cells dominate in differentiated islet organoids, while α, δ, and PP cells occur at lower frequencies. The organoids are glucose-responsive and insulin-secreting. Upon transplantation in diabetic mice, these organoids reverse disease. These findings demonstrate that the adult mouse pancreatic islet contains a population of Procr+ endocrine progenitors.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Receptor de Proteína C Endotelial/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Nus , Organoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organoides/metabolismo , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Proteína C/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia
20.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 62(6): 699-708, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208980

RESUMO

The mTOR pathway is one of the key signal cascades in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have mainly focused on this pathway in the fibroblasts and/or myofibroblasts, but not in the epithelial cells. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of the mTOR pathway in lung epithelial cells in lung fibrosis. Using Sftpc-mTORSL1+IT transgenic mice, in which active mTOR is conditionally expressed in lung epithelial cells, we assessed the effects of chronically activated mTOR in lung epithelial cells on lung phenotypes as well as bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Furthermore, we isolated alveolar epithelial cell type 2 from mice and performed RNA sequencing. Sftpc-mTORSL1+IT transgenic mice had no obvious abnormal findings, but, after bleomycin administration, showed more severe fibrotic changes and lower lung compliance than control mice. RNA sequencing revealed Angptl4 (angiopoietin-like protein 4) as a candidate downstream gene of the mTOR pathway. In vitro studies revealed that ANGPTL4, as well as mTOR, promoted tight junction vulnerability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. mTOR activation in lung epithelial cells promoted lung fibrosis and the expression of ANGPTL4, a novel downstream target of the mTOR pathway, which could be related to the etiology of fibrosis.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/enzimologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/enzimologia , Pulmão/enzimologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/fisiologia , Células A549 , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/biossíntese , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/genética , Animais , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Caveolina 1/biossíntese , Caveolina 1/genética , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fenótipo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/biossíntese , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética
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