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1.
Gene ; 763: 145115, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891773

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) is a crucial neuroendocrine-immune factor regulating the stress response of Litopenaeus vannamei. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of DA in L. vannamei, the eyestalks of L. vannamei with injection of DA (10-6 mol/shrimp) at 3 and 12 h were chosen to perform transcriptome analysis in this study. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method was used to validate the accuracy of transcriptome data and analyze the expression pattern of candidate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at different time points (0, 3, 6, and 12 h) after DA injection. The transcriptome data showed that 79,434 unigenes were generated. Therein 204 and 434 DEGs were obtained at 3 and 12 h respectively. Besides, the results of enriched pathways showed that the DEGs were involved in GnRH signaling pathway (ko04912) dopaminergic synapse (ko04728), glutamatergic synapse (ko04724), synapse (GO:0045202), synaptic vesicle transport (GO:0048489). Moreover, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of 13 candidate DEGs between transcriptome sequencing and RT-PCR was 0.948, which confirmed the reliability and the accuracy of the transcriptome sequencing results. Furthermore, the results of interaction analysis uncovered 4 pairs of DEGs between eyestalks and hemocytes. Therefore, these results revealed that DA promoted the sensitivity of eyestalk to gonadal related hormones, induced the expression of neuroendocrine factor, enhanced the synaptic behavior and neural signal transduction, regulated immune systems and antioxidation, inhibited the visual function, and promoted the molting. These findings will benefit to foster the understanding on the effects of biogenic amines on neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) networks of crustacean, and supply a substantial material and foundation for further researching of the NEI response.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Penaeidae/genética , Transmissão Sináptica , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dopamina/farmacologia , Olho/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 2/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 2/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4388, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873805

RESUMO

Presynaptic spike timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses is evident until the 3rd postnatal week in mice, disappearing during the 4th week. At more mature stages, we found that the protocol that induced t-LTD induced t-LTP. We characterized this form of t-LTP and the mechanisms involved in its induction, as well as that driving this switch from t-LTD to t-LTP. We found that this t-LTP is expressed presynaptically at CA3-CA1 synapses, as witnessed by coefficient of variation, number of failures, paired-pulse ratio and miniature responses analysis. Additionally, this form of presynaptic t-LTP does not require NMDARs but the activation of mGluRs and the entry of Ca2+ into the postsynaptic neuron through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Nitric oxide is also required as a messenger from the postsynaptic neuron. Crucially, the release of adenosine and glutamate by astrocytes is required for t-LTP induction and for the switch from t-LTD to t-LTP. Thus, we have discovered a developmental switch of synaptic transmission from t-LTD to t-LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in which astrocytes play a central role and revealed a form of presynaptic LTP and the rules for its induction.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4218, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839452

RESUMO

Exposure to social stress and dysregulated serotonergic neurotransmission have both been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. However, the serotonergic circuit involved in stress vulnerability is still unknown. Here, we explored whether a serotonergic input from the dorsal raphe (DR) to ventral tegmental area (VTA) influences vulnerability to social stress. We identified a distinct, anatomically and functionally defined serotonergic subpopulation in the DR that projects to the VTA (5-HTDR→VTA neurons). Moreover, we found that susceptibility to social stress decreased the firing activity of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons. Importantly, the bidirectional manipulation of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons could modulate susceptibility to social stress. Our findings reveal that the activity of 5-HTDR→VTA neurons may be an essential factor in determining individual levels of susceptibility to social stress and suggest that targeting specific serotonergic circuits may aid the development of therapies for the treatment of stress-related disorders.


Assuntos
Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/citologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Confocal , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/citologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008963, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780743

RESUMO

Long-term memory (LTM) formation depends on the conversed cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene transcription followed by de novo protein synthesis. Thirsty fruit flies can be trained to associate an odor with water reward to form water-reward LTM (wLTM), which can last for over 24 hours without a significant decline. The role of de novo protein synthesis and CREB-regulated gene expression changes in neural circuits that contribute to wLTM remains unclear. Here, we show that acute inhibition of protein synthesis in the mushroom body (MB) αß or γ neurons during memory formation using a cold-sensitive ribosome-inactivating toxin disrupts wLTM. Furthermore, adult stage-specific expression of dCREB2b in αß or γ neurons also disrupts wLTM. The MB αß and γ neurons can be further classified into five different neuronal subsets including αß core, αß surface, αß posterior, γ main, and γ dorsal. We observed that the neurotransmission from αß surface and γ dorsal neuron subsets is required for wLTM retrieval, whereas the αß core, αß posterior, and γ main are dispensable. Adult stage-specific expression of dCREB2b in αß surface and γ dorsal neurons inhibits wLTM formation. In vivo calcium imaging revealed that αß surface and γ dorsal neurons form wLTM traces with different dynamic properties, and these memory traces are abolished by dCREB2b expression. Our results suggest that a small population of neurons within the MB circuits support long-term storage of water-reward memory in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Olfato/genética , Transativadores/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Cálcio/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Recompensa , Olfato/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Água
5.
Science ; 369(6507): 1056-1057, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855326
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000826, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776935

RESUMO

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) regulates synaptic plasticity in multiple ways, supposedly including the secretion of neuromodulators like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we show that neuromodulator secretion is indeed reduced in mouse α- and ßCaMKII-deficient (αßCaMKII double-knockout [DKO]) hippocampal neurons. However, this was not due to reduced secretion efficiency or neuromodulator vesicle transport but to 40% reduced neuromodulator levels at synapses and 50% reduced delivery of new neuromodulator vesicles to axons. αßCaMKII depletion drastically reduced neuromodulator expression. Blocking BDNF secretion or BDNF scavenging in wild-type neurons produced a similar reduction. Reduced neuromodulator expression in αßCaMKII DKO neurons was restored by active ßCaMKII but not inactive ßCaMKII or αCaMKII, and by CaMKII downstream effectors that promote cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. These data indicate that CaMKII regulates neuromodulation in a feedback loop coupling neuromodulator secretion to ßCaMKII- and CREB-dependent neuromodulator expression and axonal targeting, but CaMKIIs are dispensable for the secretion process itself.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/deficiência , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , Subunidades Proteicas/deficiência , Sinapses/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
7.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(2): 76-82, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736867

RESUMO

Astrocytes, comprising the primary glial-cell type, are involved in the formation and maturation of synapses, and thus contribute to sustainable synaptic transmission between neurons. Given that the animals in higher phylogenetic tree have brains with a higher density of glial cells with respect to neurons, there is a possibility that the relative astrocytic density directly influences synaptic transmission. However, the notion has not been tested thoroughly. Here we addressed it, by using a primary culture preparation where single hippocampal neurons are surrounded by a variable but a countable number of cortical astrocytes in dot-patterned microislands, and recording synaptic transmission by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Neurons with a higher astrocytic density showed a higher amplitude of the evoked excitatory postsynaptic current than that of neurons with a lower astrocytic density. The size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles per neuron was significantly larger. The frequency of spontaneous synaptic transmission was higher, but the amplitude was unchanged. The number of morphologically identified glutamatergic synapses was comparable, but the percentage of functional ones was increased, indicating a lower ratio of presynaptically silent synapses. Taken together, the higher astrocytic density enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission by increasing the fraction of functional synapses through presynaptic un-silencing.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Animais , Astrócitos/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neurônios/patologia , Filogenia , Gravidez
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20254-20264, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747543

RESUMO

Correlated activation of cortical neurons often occurs in the brain and repetitive correlated neuronal firing could cause long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and intrinsic excitability. We found that repetitive optogenetic activation of neuronal populations in the mouse cortex caused enhancement of optogenetically evoked firing of local coactivated neurons as well as distant cortical neurons in both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. This global enhancement of evoked responses required coactivation of a sufficiently large population of neurons either within one cortical area or distributed in several areas. Enhancement of neuronal firing was saturable after repeated episodes of coactivation, diminished by inhibition of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors, and accompanied by elevated excitatory postsynaptic potentials, all consistent with activity-induced synaptic potentiation. Chemogenetic inhibition of neuronal activity of the thalamus decreased the enhancement effect, suggesting thalamic involvement. Thus, correlated excitation of large neuronal populations leads to global enhancement of neuronal excitability.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina , Excitabilidade Cortical , Corantes Fluorescentes , Masculino , Camundongos , Rede Nervosa , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3342, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620835

RESUMO

Subdivisions of mouse whisker somatosensory thalamus project to cortex in a region-specific and layer-specific manner. However, a clear anatomical dissection of these pathways and their functional properties during whisker sensation is lacking. Here, we use anterograde trans-synaptic viral vectors to identify three specific thalamic subpopulations based on their connectivity with brainstem. The principal trigeminal nucleus innervates ventral posterior medial thalamus, which conveys whisker-selective tactile information to layer 4 primary somatosensory cortex that is highly sensitive to self-initiated movements. The spinal trigeminal nucleus innervates a rostral part of the posterior medial (POm) thalamus, signaling whisker-selective sensory information, as well as decision-related information during a goal-directed behavior, to layer 4 secondary somatosensory cortex. A caudal part of the POm, which apparently does not receive brainstem input, innervates layer 1 and 5A, responding with little whisker selectivity, but showing decision-related modulation. Our results suggest the existence of complementary segregated information streams to somatosensory cortices.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Vibrissas/fisiologia , Animais , Tronco Encefálico/citologia , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/citologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Tálamo/citologia , Vibrissas/inervação
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3744, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719346

RESUMO

Epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are two distinct brain disorders but have a high rate of co-occurrence, suggesting shared pathogenic mechanisms. Neuroligins are cell adhesion molecules important in synaptic function and ASD, but their role in epilepsy remains unknown. In this study, we show that Neuroligin 2 (NLG2) knockout mice exhibit abnormal spike and wave discharges (SWDs) and behavioral arrests characteristic of absence seizures. The anti-absence seizure drug ethosuximide blocks SWDs and rescues behavioral arrests and social memory impairment in the knockout mice. Restoring GABAergic transmission either by optogenetic activation of the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) presynaptic terminals or postsynaptic NLG2 expression in the thalamic neurons reduces the SWDs and behavioral arrests in the knockout mice. These results indicate that NLG2-mediated GABAergic transmission at the nRT-thalamic circuit represents a common mechanism underlying both epileptic seizures and ASD.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/metabolismo , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/fisiopatologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Eletrodos , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Etossuximida , Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Locomoção , Memória , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
12.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(3): 203-210, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606205

RESUMO

Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, is experiencing a clinical resurgence as a fast-acting antidepressant. In the central nervous system, ketamine acts primarily by blocking NMDA receptor currents. Although it is generally safe in a clinical setting, it can be addictive, and several of its derivatives are being investigated as preferable alternatives. 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine (HNK), a ketamine metabolite, reproduces some of the therapeutic effects of ketamine and appears to lack abuse liability. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the effects of HNK on macroscopic responses elicited from recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We found that, like ketamine, HNK reduced NMDA receptor currents in a dose-, pH-, and voltage-dependent manner. Relative to ketamine, it had 100-fold-lower potency (46 µM at pH 7.2), 10-fold-slower inhibition onset, slower apparent dissociation rate, weaker voltage dependence, and complete competition by magnesium. Notably, HNK inhibition was fully effective when applied to resting receptors. These results revealed unexpected properties of hydroxynorketamine that warrant its further investigation as a possible therapeutic in pathologies associated with NMDA receptor dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: NMDA receptors are excitatory ion channels with fundamental roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity, and their dysfunction associates with severe neuropsychiatric disorders. 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine, a metabolite of ketamine, mimics some of the neuroactive properties of ketamine and may lack its abuse liability. Results show that 2R,6R-hydroxynorketamine blocks NMDA receptor currents with low affinity and weak voltage dependence and is effective when applied to resting receptors. These properties highlight its effectiveness to a subset of NMDA receptor responses and recommend it for further investigation.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Cicloexanos/farmacologia , Ketamina/análogos & derivados , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Cicloexanos/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706815

RESUMO

Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are states in which the electrical activity of the brain reacts steadily to repeated auditory stimuli. They are known to be useful for testing the functional integrity of neural circuits in the cortex, as well as for their capacity to generate synchronous activity in both human and animal models. Furthermore, abnormal gamma oscillations on ASSR are typically observed in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Changes in neural synchrony may reflect aberrations in cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. However, GABA's impact and effects related to ASSR are still unclear. Here, we examined the effect of a GABAa receptor antagonist, (+)-bicuculline, on ASSR in free-moving rats. (+)-Bicuculline (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, sc) markedly and dose-dependently reduced ASSR signals, consistent with current hypotheses. In particular, (+)-bicuculline significantly reduced event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) at 2 and 4 mg/kg between 10 and 30 minutes post-dose. Further, bicuculline (2 and 4 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently increased baseline gamma power. Furthermore, the occurrence of convulsions was consistent with the drug's pharmacokinetics. For example, high doses of (+)-bicuculline such as those greater than 880 ng/g in the brain induced convulsion. Additionally, time-dependent changes in ERSP with (+)-bicuculline were observed in accordance with drug concentration. This study partially unraveled the contribution of GABAa receptor signals to the generation of ASSR.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicuculina/administração & dosagem , Convulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/administração & dosagem , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bicuculina/farmacocinética , Convulsivantes/farmacocinética , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacocinética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19566-19577, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719118

RESUMO

The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) plays chief roles regulating energy and glucose homeostasis and is sexually dimorphic. We discovered that expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in the VMH is regulated by caloric status in normal mice and reduced in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mutants, which are severely obese and have diminished glucose balance control. These findings led us to investigate whether mGluR5 might act downstream of BDNF to critically regulate VMH neuronal activity and metabolic function. We found that mGluR5 depletion in VMH SF1 neurons did not affect energy balance regulation. However, it significantly impaired insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, lipid metabolism, and sympathetic output in females but not in males. These sex-specific deficits are linked to reductions in intrinsic excitability and firing rate of SF1 neurons. Abnormal excitatory and inhibitory synapse assembly and elevated expression of the GABAergic synthetic enzyme GAD67 also cooperate to decrease and potentiate the synaptic excitatory and inhibitory tone onto mutant SF1 neurons, respectively. Notably, these alterations arise from disrupted functional interactions of mGluR5 with estrogen receptors that switch the normally positive effects of estrogen on SF1 neuronal activity and glucose balance control to paradoxical and detrimental. The collective data inform an essential central mechanism regulating metabolic function in females and underlying the protective effects of estrogen against metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/fisiologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Homeostase , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Rede Nervosa , Inibição Neural , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais , Fator Esteroidogênico 1/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/citologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/metabolismo
15.
Adv Pharmacol ; 89: 3-41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616211

RESUMO

A single sub-anesthetic intravascular dose of the use-dependent NMDAR antagonist, ketamine, improves mood in patients with treatment resistant depression within hours that can last for days, creating an entirely new treatment strategy for the most seriously ill patients. However, the psychomimetic effects and abuse potential of ketamine require that new therapies be developed that maintain the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine without the unwanted side effects. This necessitates a detailed understanding of what cellular and synaptic mechanisms are immediately activated once ketamine reaches the brain that triggers the needed changes to elicit the improved behavior. Intense research has centered on the effects of ketamine, and the other rapidly acting antidepressants, on excitatory and inhibitory circuits in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex to determine common mechanisms, including key modifications in synaptic transmission and the precise location of the NMDARs that mediate the rapid and sustained antidepressant response. We review data comparing the effects of ketamine with other NMDAR receptor modulators and the muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor antagonist, scopolamine, together with evidence supporting the disinhibition hypothesis and the direct inhibition hypothesis of ketamine's mechanism of action on synaptic circuits using preclinical models.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Caracteres Sexuais
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14493-14502, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513685

RESUMO

A high rate of synaptic vesicle (SV) release is required at cerebellar mossy fiber terminals for rapid information processing. As the number of release sites is limited, fast SV reloading is necessary to achieve sustained release. However, rapid reloading has not been observed directly. Here, we visualize SV movements near presynaptic membrane using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Upon stimulation, SVs appeared in the TIRF-field and became tethered to the presynaptic membrane with unexpectedly rapid time course, almost as fast as SVs disappeared due to release. However, such stimulus-induced tethering was abolished by inhibiting exocytosis, suggesting that the tethering is tightly coupled to preceding exocytosis. The newly tethered vesicles became fusion competent not immediately but only 300 ms to 400 ms after tethering. Together with model simulations, we propose that rapid tethering leads to an immediate filling of vacated spaces and release sites within <100 nm of the active zone by SVs, which serve as precursors of readily releasable vesicles, thereby shortening delays during sustained activity.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Fibras Nervosas/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo , Animais , Cerebelo/citologia , Exocitose/fisiologia , Feminino , Microscopia Intravital , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Ratos , Wisteria
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14503-14511, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513712

RESUMO

The nanoscale co-organization of neurotransmitter receptors facing presynaptic release sites is a fundamental determinant of their coactivation and of synaptic physiology. At excitatory synapses, how endogenous AMPARs, NMDARs, and mGluRs are co-organized inside the synapse and their respective activation during glutamate release are still unclear. Combining single-molecule superresolution microscopy, electrophysiology, and modeling, we determined the average quantity of each glutamate receptor type, their nanoscale organization, and their respective activation. We observed that NMDARs form a unique cluster mainly at the center of the PSD, while AMPARs segregate in clusters surrounding the NMDARs. mGluR5 presents a different organization and is homogenously dispersed at the synaptic surface. From these results, we build a model predicting the synaptic transmission properties of a unitary synapse, allowing better understanding of synaptic physiology.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Microscopia Intravital , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Imagem Individual de Molécula
18.
Science ; 368(6496)2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527803

RESUMO

Regulation of neurotransmitter receptor content at synapses is achieved through a dynamic equilibrium between biogenesis and degradation pathways, receptor stabilization at synaptic sites, and receptor trafficking in and out synapses. In the past 20 years, the movements of receptors to and from synapses have emerged as a series of highly regulated processes that mediate postsynaptic plasticity. Our understanding of the properties and roles of receptor movements has benefited from technological advances in receptor labeling and tracking capacities, as well as from new methods to interfere with their movements. Focusing on two key glutamatergic receptors, we review here our latest understanding of the characteristics of receptor movements and their role in tuning the efficacy of synaptic transmission in health and brain disease.


Assuntos
Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia
19.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(3): 391-398, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572436

RESUMO

Under physiological conditions, the motility of smooth muscle in digestive tract is mainly regulated by enteric nervous system (ENS). However, how neural signal is transmitted to smooth muscle is not fully understood. Autonomic nerve endings in the smooth muscle layer form large number of varicosities which contain neurotransmitters. It was considered that nerve pulses arriving at the varicosities may cause the release of neurotransmitters, which may diffuse to the smooth muscle cells to induce contractile or relaxant responses. Over the past decade, a new understanding of the neurotransmission between ENS and smooth muscle has emerged, which emphasizes the role of a functional syncytium consisting of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α positive (PDGFRα+) cells and the smooth muscle cells. Within the syncytium, purine neurotransmitters bind to P2Y1 receptors on PDGFRα+ cells, activating small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) to hyperpolarize PDGFRα+ cells, and thus hyperpolarize smooth muscle cells through gap junction, resulting in relaxation of smooth muscle. In this paper, we review the research progress in the field of inhibitory purinergic neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Células Intersticiais de Cajal , Músculo Liso , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas , Transmissão Sináptica
20.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114715, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402713

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air are predominantly the less chlorinated congeners. Non-dioxin-like (NDL) low-chlorinated PCBs are more neurotoxic, and cause neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral alterations in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms for this neurodevelopmental toxicity remain unknown. In the present study, Wistar rats were treated by gavage with PCB52 (1 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 21. Both the body lengths and weights of the suckling rats at birth were significantly decreased by PCB52 treatment, suggesting developmental toxicity. Although no obvious histopathological changes were observed in the brain, using RNA-sequencing, 208 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the striatum of PCB52-treated male offspring, while just 13 DEGs were identified in female offspring, suggesting sex-specific effects. Furthermore, using Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, neurodevelopmental processes, neurobehavioral alterations, and neurotransmission changes were enriched from the 208 DEGs in male offspring. Similarly, using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis, neuroactive ligand receptor interactions and multiple synapse pathways were enriched in male offspring, implying dysfunction of the neurotransmission system. Reductions in the protein expressions of these ligand receptors were also identified in the striatum, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus using western blotting methods. Taken together, our findings indicate that PCB52 exposure during gestation and lactation results in the abnormal expression of neurotransmission ligand-receptors in male offspring with a sex bias, and that this may contribute to neurodevelopmental toxicity.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transmissão Sináptica
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