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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46921

RESUMO

São Paulo é o terceiro município brasileiro a receber a Certificação de Eliminação da Transmissão Vertical (mãe para o bebê), o que coloca a capital paulista, com 12,1 milhões de habitantes, como a cidade com maior população no mundo a receber tal título.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692718

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis B is a major health concern in Ghana, where prevalence of the virus remains high and most chronic patients are infected during childhood or at birth. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main factors associated with mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B in the context of Ghana. Methods: In this cross-sectional pilot study, we tested infants born to hepatitis B positive mothers at a hospital in the Eastern Region of Ghana to determine the prevalence of mother-to-child transmission. A questionnaire was completed by hepatitis B positive mothers to investigate the association between factors surrounding the birth of the child and whether transmission had occurred. These factors were analyzed independently using Fisher's exact test. To investigate the relationship between mother's age at the time of delivery and viral transmission, a univariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The prevalence of mother-to-child transmission was 5.9%, with 51 hepatitis B positive mothers included in the study and three infants testing positive. A majority of infants received the standard hepatitis B vaccination schedule (96.1%) while two-thirds received the birth dose. There was no significant association observed between the clinical interventions reported in the study and mother-to-child transmission. No significant association was observed between the age of the mother at the time of delivery and viral transmission (OR: 1.077, 95% CI: 0.828 - 1.403, p = 0.58). Viral marker testing during pregnancy was absent in the population and could not be reliably assessed. Conclusion: There was a low prevalence of HBV mother-to-child transmission observed despite a clear absence of viral marker and viral load testing. It is recommended that viral profile analysis is performed for hepatitis B positive pregnancies to identify high risk cases.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Idade Materna , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
3.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(15): 977-981, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771493

RESUMO

Sub-Saharan Africa is home of 85 % of pregnant women living with HIV and 90 % of HIV-infected children. WHO issued the first prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) recommendations in 2000. These guidelines have been revised to incorporate new evidence and align with the goal of universal treatment access and zero infections among children. Currently, 82 % of HIV-infected pregnant women receive antiretroviral treatment, and infections among children have halved since 2010. However, in 2018, 160,000 children became infected. Reasons hindering the success of PMTCT are: a) non-universal HIV testing during pregnancy; b) low retention through the PMTCT cascade; and c) missed opportunities to diagnose women who acquire HIV while pregnant or breastfeeding. To address these gaps innovative strategies are needed.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez
4.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 199-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection in pregnant women is a known cause of low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). This study compared the birth weight for gestational age (GA) of HIV exposed and non-exposed babies in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, (NAUTH) Nnewi, Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective comparative appraisal of birth weights for GA of babies born to HIV- positive and negative women, over a 7-year period (January 2009-December 2015), was conducted. Data were abstracted from PMTCT database, ANC and Labor ward registers of NAUTH. RESULTS: A total of 3459 babies (1782 males, 1677 females) were enrolled, out of which 1829 were HIV- exposed and 1630 were not. GA spanned from 26-42 weeks (mean 38.7 ± 2.2 weeks) and birth weights (BW) from 400-5300g (mean 3072.5 ± 630g). The mean BW of exposed babies was significantly lower than the unexposed babies (p=0.048). LBW occurred in 12.0% of exposed and 13.5% of non-exposed babies (p<0.001). Using either percentile or Z-score cut-offs, HIV-exposed babies had twice the proportion of SGA compared to their non-exposed counterparts. Using Z-score, maternal antiretroviral use for >5 years was significantly associated with the lowest proportion of SGA compared to shorter duration of use. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV infection is associated with SGA. However, maternal ARV use in excess of 5 years is associated with better BW outcome. Targeted enhancement of maternal nutrition and strict adherence to ARV therapy prior to and during pregnancy will improve birth outcome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Soronegatividade para HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(8): 604-609, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594077

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the curative effect of antiviral therapy and related factors influencing the curative affect in children with immune-tolerant phase chronic hepatitis B. Methods: From May 2014 to April 2015, 46 children with chronic hepatitis B, aged 1 to 16 years with immune-tolerant phase were enrolled as the treatment group. All cases in the treated group either received interferon alpha (3-5 MIU/m(2), once daily) in lamivudine combination (if HBV DNA decreased < 2 log(10)) or repeatedly received interferon-alpha alone (if HBV DNA decreased >2 log(10)) for 12 weeks. Interferon was discontinued at 72 weeks and followed-up period was continued with lamivudine for 24 weeks. At the same time, data of 23 cases of untreated children with immune-tolerant phase chronic hepatitis B were collected as the control group. The treatment group and the control group were divided into two age groups: 1-7 years old and 7-15 years old. Data measurements were compared using t-test, analysis of variance and single factor analysis methods, and the count data were analyzed by χ (2) test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of different factors on response. Results: (1) There were 22 cases aged 1-7 years in the treatment group (47.8%) and 12 cases aged 1-7 years in the control group (52.2%). The cases of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in treatment and control group were 34 (73.9%) and 17 (73.9%), while children with normal baseline ALT in the treatment and control group were 18 (39.1%) and 10 (43.5%). (2) At the end of follow-up, 15 cases in the treatment group (32.6%) had HBeAg serological conversion. Among them, nine (19.6%) cases had HBsAg clearance or HB-Ag seroconversion with anti-HBs, and one (2.2%) case had HBsAg clearance, but both HBeAg and anti-HBe were positive. In the control group, one case had HBV DNA lower than the lower limit of detection level, and one case had HBeAg seroconversion without HBsAg clearance. (3) At the end of follow-up, the seroconversion rates of HBeAg in patients aged 1 to 7 years and patients aged 7 to 15 years were 45.5% and 20.8%, respectively (P = 0.078) and the clearance rates of HBsAg were 36.4% and 8.3% (P = 0.023). The serum conversion rates of normal and abnormal baseline alanine aminotransferase levels were 5.6% and 50.0% (P = 0.005), and the clearance rates of HBsAg were 5.6% and 32.1% (P = 0.077), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in gender, mother-to-child transmission, HBV DNA genotyping and baseline HBsAg level in antiviral efficacy among children (P > 0.05). (4) HBsAg and HBeAg clearance occurred in 100% of patients at the end of follow-up who had HBsAg < 3 000 IU/ml at 24 weeks of treatment. (5) Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum HBeAg conversion rate had relation with non-MTCT transmission and abnormal baseline alanine aminotransferase. Furthermore, HBsAg clearance rate was associated with the age of children. Conclusion: Sequential combination of interferon and lamivudine with a prolonged course can improve the HBV DNA negative conversion rate, HBeAg seroconversion rate, HBsAg loss rate and mild ALT abnormalities at baseline in children under the age of 7 years with immune-tolerant phase chronic hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1055-1058, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594145

RESUMO

The new research of intrauterine transmission of HBV includes intrauterine dominant infection and occult infection. Intrauterine dominant infection of HBV is the traditional intrauterine infection. Although intrauterine infection of HBV has been studied for decades, the intervention effects on HBV infection are very limited. As a result, mother to child transmission has become the main route of the transmission of HBV. With the development of science and technology, people's understand of intrauterine occult infection of HBV has been deepened, and the definition of intrauterine transmission of HBV has been further completed and expanded. The study of intrauterine occult infection of HBV will play an important role in prevention and control of hepatitis B in China through filling in a gap in the field of prevention and control of vertical transmission of HBV, exploring new research perspective and providing guideline for related decision-making.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Criança , China , DNA Viral , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1059-1064, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594146

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the current status and influence factors of HBV intrauterine transmission (BIT) in HBsAg-positive parturients and understand the outcome of HBV transmission and response to hepatitis B vaccine immunization in children in Xi'an. Methods: An epidemiological survey was conducted in 341 HBsAg-positive parturients who gave birth in Northwest Women and Children Hospital of Shaanxi Province from January 2015 to January 2018. Serological tests were performed by using venous blood from 344 newborns within 24 hours after birth and at the age of 1 year old. A nested case-control study was conducted to analyze the infection rates of intrauterine dominate HBV infection (DBI) and intrauterine occult HBV infection (OBI) in BIT and their influencing factors in newborns. The epidemiological survey was conducted to collect the information about the outcome of HBV transmission and the positive rate of HBsAb in children at high-risk from August 2016 to October 2018. Results: The BIT rate was 46.51%(160/344) in HBsAg-positive parturients, the DBI rate was 8.14% (28/344), the OBI rate was 38.37% (132/344), and the odds ratio of DBI and BIT in neonates of HBeAg-positive parturients were respectively 2.60 (95%CI: 1.19-5.70) and 2.21 (95%CI: 1.36-3.61) times higher than that of HBeAg-negative parturients. The odds ratio of BIT in neonates with maternal peripheral blood HBV DNA load ≥200, ≥10(3) and>10(6) copies/ml were 1.99 (95%CI: 1.29-3.08), 1.73 (95%CI: 1.11-2.69) and 2.33 (95%CI: 1.33-4.10) times higher than those in neonates with maternal peripheral blood HBV DNA<200,<10(3), and ≤10(6) copies/ml respectively. The incidence of DBI in neonates of parturients with placenta previa was 14.07 times higher than that of parturients without placenta previa (95%CI: 1.23-160.76). The incidence of BIT in neonates of parturients who received no hepatitis B immunoglobulin during pregnancy was 1.60 times higher than that in neonates of those who received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (95%CI: 1.02-2.53). Follow-up results showed that HBsAg negative conversion was found in 9 of 14 children with DBI, and 24.17%(22/91) of children had OBI. The overall rate of immune response to hepatitis B vaccine was 69.23%(63/91). The immune response rate in children with OBI was only 59.09%(13/22). Conclusion: Newborns of HBsAg-positive parturients had high rate of OBI and lower rate of immune response to hepatitis B vaccine detected in follow-up, indicating a gap in hepatitis B prevention and control. HBV monitoring and intervention in HBsAg-positive women of childbearing age and hepatitis B antibody monitoring in children at high-risk are important measures to control infection source and protect susceptible population.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China/epidemiologia , DNA Viral , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1065-1070, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594147

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the role of TLR 9 in intrauterine transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) through blood pathway and placenta. Methods: Epidemiological investigation was carried out in 290 HBsAg positive parturients and 45 normal parturients (control group) in Northwest Women and Children Hospital of Shaanxi Province. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect five serological makers of hepatitis B and TLR 9 levels in peripheral blood of pregnant women and newborns. HBV DNA was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Detection of TLR 9 expression in placenta by immunohistochemical method. A case-control study was conducted to analyze the difference of TLR 9 levels in placenta and peripheral blood of HBsAg- positive pregnant women with intrauterine transmission of HBV. Results: The incidence of dominant HBV infection (DBI), occult HBV infection (OBI) and intrauterine transmission of HBV were 9.28% (27/291), 40.21% (117/291) and 49.48% (144/291) respectively. (1) The level of TLR 9 in peripheral blood of HBsAg-positive parturients, non-HBV intrauterine transmission (NBIT) group and OBI group were significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.001). The level of TLR 9 in DBI group was significantly higher than those in NBIT group and OBI group (P=0.000). (2) The TLR 9 level in HBeAg-negative group was significantly lower than that in HBeAg-positive parturients in OBI group (P=0.01). (3) With the increased severity of intrauterine transmission of HBV in each HBV DNA load group, the TLR 9 level in maternal peripheral blood increased significantly (P<0.05). (4) With the increased severity of intrauterine transmission of HBV, the levels of TLR 9 increased significantly in antiviral therapy, immunoglobulin injection and non-hepatitis B vaccine groups (P<0.05). (5) The expression of TLR 9 in placenta tissues with DBI group was significantly higher than that in OBI group and NBIT group (P<0.05). Conclusions: HBV can inhibit the secretion of TLR 9 in parturient to some extent, but HBeAg can stimulate the secretion of TLR 9. However, with the increased severity of intrauterine transmission of HBV, the level of TLR 9 in parturients is increased by intra-group cross-differentiation. Therefore, TLR 9 is not an independent marker for screening and grouping, but it can be used as an reference indicator for the monitoring and management of HBsAg-positive parturients.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Receptor Toll-Like 9/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , DNA Viral , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Placenta , Gravidez
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1071-1076, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594148

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the expression of IL-18 in peripheral blood of HBsAg positive parturients in intrauterine transmission of HBV. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 282 HBsAg positive parturients and 43 health parturients (control group) in Northwest Women and Children Hospital of Shaanxi Province. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect five serological makers of hepatitis B, real time PCR was used to detect HBV DNA, and flow liquid chip method was used to detect IL-18 levels in peripheral blood of parturients and newborns. Results: The incidence of dominant HBV infection (DBI), occult HBV infection (OBI) and intrauterine transmission of HBV were 8.42% (24/285), 40.00% (114/285) and 48.42% (138/285), respectively. The level of IL-18 in peripheral blood of HBsAg-negative parturients were significantly lower than those of HBsAg-positive parturients (P=0.001), non-HBV intrauterine transmission (NBIT) group (P=0.001) and OBI group (P<0.001). The level of IL-18 in HBeAg negative group was significantly lower than that in HBeAg positive group (P=0.023). When HBV DNA load was ≥10(3) copies/ml, the level of IL-18 was significantly higher than that in HBsAg-negative group (P<0.01). With the increase of HBV DNA load in maternal blood, the level of IL-18 increased (P=0.024). When HBV DNA load was 10(3)-10(6) copies/ml, the level of IL-18 in DBI group was significantly lower than that in NBIT group (P=0.022), and increased with the increase of HBV DNA load in maternal blood (P=0.016). With the increased severity of intrauterine transmission of HBV, the level of IL-18 in non-hepatitis B vaccine group decreased significantly (P=0.044). The level of IL-18 in non-hepatitis B vaccine group and immunoglobulin injection group was significantly higher than that in NBIT group (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the linear relationship between maternal HBeAg status and maternal IL-18 levels had statistical significance (P=0.01). Conclusions: IL-18 is a higher level balance regulator of Th1/Th2 immune network. Monitoring the level of IL-18 in HBsAg-positive parturients can be used not only for predicting the probability of DBI and OBI, but also as an intervention mean, especially for those who are HBeAg-positive and had HBV DNA load ≥10(3) copies/ml, to improve maternal cellular immune function, which is conducive to interrupting intrauterine transmission and providing a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of HBV intrauterine transmission.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Correlação de Dados , DNA Viral , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1077-1083, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594149

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the influence of IFN-γ and IL-12 levels in prenatal peripheral blood of HBsAg-positive parturients on intrauterine transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 282 HBsAg positive parturients and 43 health parturients (control group) in Northwest Women and Children Hospital of Shaanxi Province. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect five serological makers of hepatitis B in peripheral blood of parturients. HBV DNA was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Detection of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12 levels were conducted with liquid chip-based flow cytometry method. The serum levels of five serological markers of hepatitis B and HBV DNA in 285 newborns were detected within 24 hours after birth. Results: The incidence of intrauterine dominant infection (DBI), occult infection (OBI) and intrauterine transmission of HBV in HBsAg positive parturients were 7.37% (21/285), 40.70% (116/285) and 48.07% (137/285), respectively. The level of IFN-γ in peripheral blood of HBsAg-negative parturients was significantly lower than those of HBsAg-positive parturients (t=-2.55, P=0.011), NBIT group (t=-2.54, P=0.012) and OBI group (t=-2.33, P=0.021). In HBV DNA load of 10(3)-10(6) copies/ml group, the levels of IFN-γ in the DBI group were significantly lower than those in OBI group and NBIT group (P<0.01). The level of IFN-γ in maternal peripheral blood decreased significantly with the increased severity of intrauterine transmission of HBV (χ(2)=6.40, P=0.041). In the antiviral treatment group, the level of IL-12 in maternal peripheral blood decreased significantly with the increased severity of intrauterine transmission of HBV (χ(2)=8.90, P=0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant linear relationship between maternal IFN-γ level and maternal age, placenta previa and hepatitis B vaccine injection (P<0.05). The linear relationship between the level of maternal IL-12 and the mode of rupture and hepatitis B vaccine injection had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusions: HBV can stimulate the expression of IFN-γ and inhibit the secretion of IL-12 in pregnant and lying-in women, but the expression of IFN-γ in HBsAg-positive parturients showed intra-group differentiation, and the maternal level of IFN-γ will decrease in HBeAg-positive and high-HBV DNA loadstatus. Increasing the levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in HBsAg-positive parturients is beneficial to block intrauterine transmission of HBV, especially DBI.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , DNA Viral , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Gravidez
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1111-1115, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594155

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the early infant diagnosis (EID) test rate and associated factors in HIV-exposed children in China during 2015-2017. Methods: The follow-up information cards of 12 096 HIV-exposed children for 18 months after birth during 2015-2017 were collected from the Management Information System of China's Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV for a retrospective analysis. The EID test characteristics of HIV exposed children and associated factors were analyzed. Results: From 2015 to 2017, the EID test rate in HIV exposed children increased from 65.6% to 83.4% in China (trend χ(2) P<0.001). The EID test rate within 8 weeks after birth increased from 61.1% to 76.8% (trend χ(2) P<0.001), but the EID positive rate decreased from 8.7% to 3.4% (trend χ(2) P<0.001). The EID positive rate in fatal HIV-exposed children was 47.7%, 36.9% and 36.3% during 2015-2017, respectively, the differences were not significant. EID test rate was associated with ethnic group, living area, survival status and the year reaching 18-month-old of the children. Conclusions: The performance of EID test has been standardized step by step in China. The positive rate of EID test decreased gradually with year. However, the EID test rates in children who were from minority ethnic groups, lived in areas with lower prevalence of HIV infection and died within 18 months after birth were relatively low.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1341-1348, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607722

RESUMO

Background: To reduce the number of new HIV infections among children, retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices (MOP) has a huge role to play. Aims and Objectives: This study evaluated the HIV sero-positivity in labor among pregnant women who earlier tested negative in antenatal clinic, associated risk factors and the corresponding rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Methods: This was a prospective observational study where pregnant women in labor who had earlier tested HIV negative in the antenatal clinic at Imo State University Teaching Hospital Orlu, Imo state, Nigeria, were retested. The infants of the women who seroconverted were tested for HIV infection at 6 weeks using Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (DNA PCR) by collecting Dried Blood Sample. This study was conducted from October 2015 to March 2016. Result: Out of the 163 patients studied, 6 demonstrated HIV seroconversion giving a seroconversion rate of 3.7%. Deliveries from the seroconverted patients were 5 live births and 1 intrauterine fetal death. All the 5 live babies tested HIV negative at 6 weeks of age. Predictors of seroconversion in late pregnancy include spouse's HIV status and number of other sexual partners. Conclusion: Retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices has a huge role to play in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Parto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão
13.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 367-372, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631605

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the clinical epidemiological characteristics of newly reported human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)in southwestern China from 2001 to 2017. Methods: Clinical data of newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS from 2001 to 2017 in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University were reviewed and analyze. Results: A total of 1 520 228 patients were screened for HIV, including 285 983 outpatient and emergency patients and 1 234 245 inpatients. About 4 037 (0.27%) patients were confirmed with HIV/AIDS. The confirmation rate increased from 2001 to 2013, followed by a slight decline from 2014 to 2017. The male to female sex ratio of confirmed HIV/AIDS was 3.49:1 from 2001 to 2017, ranging from 1.65:1 to 5.08:1. The majority of patients were identified as Han (88.23%), had low education (58.66%), and married (54.75%). Peasants/herdsman comprised 26.33% of the patients. The proportion of young (15-29 years old), and middle-aged (≥50 years old) patients and those who were unmarried and had high education (senior high school and above) increased over time. Heterosexual transmission remained stable at about 60% while homosexual transmission increased by about 15% ( χ 2=14.436, P<0.005) since 2008. Transmissions through drug abuse( χ 2=71.633, P<0.005) and blood( χ 2=16.672, P<0.005) decreased. Of the 899 female newly reported HIV/ADIS patients, 77.20% were infected through heterosexual relationship. In comparison, of the 3 138 male patients, 61.41% were infected through heterosexual and 18.10% through homosexual relationships. Homosexual transmissions decreased with age, but heterosexual transmissions increased with age. Mother-to-child transmissions were concentrated in those between 0 and 15 years old (100%). Conclusion: Newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases increased over the years in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University, in particular in those of young and middle-aged, highly educated and unmarried. Heterosexual transmissions remain the main route.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1924-1929, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656475

RESUMO

Background: Neanatal comploications are the commonest problems facing babies in Tanzania. An attempt has been made to investigate determinants of neonatal outcomes among postnatal women. Methods: Using a case-contrrol study design, 165 women were selected from 3 health facilities, where they had had antenatal care (ANC), labour, delivery and post natal care. Results: Chi- square test revealed that gestational age (p-value, 0.01), HIV status (p-value, 0.000) and malaria (p-value, 0.001<0.05) were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: The study concluded that implementation of community-based intervention is needed to ensure survival of newborns.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Malária/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Paridade , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with HIV and syphilis testing during pregnancy in Brazil. METHODS: This was an ecological study covering all Brazilian municipalities evaluated by the second cycle of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, 2013-2014. The dependent variables were based on prenatal care access: prenatal care appointments, and HIV and syphilis tests during prenatal care. The independent variables were compared with demographic and social characteristics. Bivariate analysis was performed assessing the three outcomes with the independent variables. Variables with significant associations in this bivariate analysis were fit in a Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance to obtain adjusted estimates. RESULT: Poisson regression analysis showed a statistically significant association with the variables "less than eight years of study" [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.31; 95%CI 1.19-1.45; p < 0.001] and "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 0.80; 95%CI 0.72-0.88; p < 0.001) for the outcome of "having less than six prenatal care appointments" and individual variables. A statistically significant association was found for "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.19-1.72; p < 0.001) regarding the outcome from the comparison between HIV testing absence during prenatal care and demographic and social characteristics. The absence of syphilis testing during prenatal care, and demographic and social characteristics presented a statistically significant association for the education level variable "less than eight years of study" (PR =1.75; 95%CI 1.56-1.96; p < 0.001) and "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.07-1.36; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The individual factors were associated with prenatal care appointments and HIV and syphilis tests in Brazilian pregnant women. They show missed opportunities for diagnosing HIV and syphilis infection during prenatal care and indicate weaknesses in the quality of maternal health care services to eliminate mother-to-child transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia
16.
Nature ; 574(7776): 117-121, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534227

RESUMO

Immediately after birth, newborn babies experience rapid colonization by microorganisms from their mothers and the surrounding environment1. Diseases in childhood and later in life are potentially mediated by the perturbation of the colonization of the infant gut microbiota2. However, the effects of delivery via caesarean section on the earliest stages of the acquisition and development of the gut microbiota, during the neonatal period (≤1 month), remain controversial3,4. Here we report the disrupted transmission of maternal Bacteroides strains, and high-level colonization by opportunistic pathogens associated with the hospital environment (including Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Klebsiella species), in babies delivered by caesarean section. These effects were also seen, to a lesser extent, in vaginally delivered babies whose mothers underwent antibiotic prophylaxis and in babies who were not breastfed during the neonatal period. We applied longitudinal sampling and whole-genome shotgun metagenomic analysis to 1,679 gut microbiota samples (taken at several time points during the neonatal period, and in infancy) from 596 full-term babies born in UK hospitals; for a subset of these babies, we collected additional matched samples from mothers (175 mothers paired with 178 babies). This analysis demonstrates that the mode of delivery is a significant factor that affects the composition of the gut microbiota throughout the neonatal period, and into infancy. Matched large-scale culturing and whole-genome sequencing of over 800 bacterial strains from these babies identified virulence factors and clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance in opportunistic pathogens that may predispose individuals to opportunistic infections. Our findings highlight the critical role of the local environment in establishing the gut microbiota in very early life, and identify colonization with antimicrobial-resistance-containing opportunistic pathogens as a previously underappreciated risk factor in hospital births.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções Oportunistas/congênito , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/etiologia , Gravidez
17.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(3): 681-690, Jul.-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041087

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: to estimate the detection rate on prenatal screening pathologies on paper filter in the South and Southwest in the State of Bahia, as well as to delineate the epidemiological profile of these pregnant women, calculate and estimate the rate of adherence and the coverage of the Program. Methods: a descriptive study was carried out from August 2013 to August 2015, and the data were obtained from the Labimuno/ICS/UFBA. Results: 64,743 pregnant women were included; the mean ages were 25 years for the Southwest macro-region and 23 for the South. The results on the screening tests showed positivity of 0.13% and 0.29% for HBsAg, 0.17% and 0.22% for cytomegalovirus, 0.07% and 0.09% for HCV, 0.13% and 0.38% for HTLV, 0.04% and 0.19% for HIV, 1.2% and 2.84% for syphilis, and 0.54% and 0.73% for toxoplasmosis in the Southwest and South macro-regions, respectively. The estimates on coverage were considered satisfactory. Sickle cell anemia showed positivity of 0.02% and of 0.04% and 5% and 6.3% presented sickle cell trait in the Southwest and South macro-regions, respectively. Conclusions: the frequencies of infections in maternal-fetal health were considered low, highlighting on syphilis and the presence for sickle cell trait.


Resumo Objetivos: estimar a taxa de detecção de patologias da TPN em papel de filtro nas regiões Sul e Sudoeste do Estado da Bahia, bem como delinear o perfil epidemiológico dessas gestantes, calcular e estimar a taxa de adesão e abrangência de cobertura do Programa. Métodos: estudo descritivo, de agosto 2013 a agosto de 2015, de dados obtidos do Labimuno/ICS/UFBA. Resultados: foram incluídas 64.743 gestantes; as médias das idades foram de 25 anos para a macrorregião Sudoeste e 23 para Sul. Os resultados de exames de triagem mostraram positividade de 0,13% e 0,29% para AgHBs, 0,17% e 0,22% para citomegalovírus, 0,07% e 0,09% para VHC, 0,13% e 0,38% para HTLV, 0,04% e 0,19% para HIV, 1,2% e 2,84% para sífilis, e 0,54% e 0,73% para toxoplasmose, para a macrorregião Sudoeste e Sul, respectivamente. As estimativas de cobertura foram consideradas satisfatórias. A anemia falciforme mostrou positividade de 0,02% e de 0,04% e 5% e 6,3% apresentaram o traço falcêmico, macrorregião Sudoeste e Sul, respectivamente. Conclusões: as frequências das infecções na saúde materno-fetal foram consideradas baixas, com destaque para sífilis e para a presença do traço falcêmico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Triagem Neonatal , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Perfil de Saúde , Brasil , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
19.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2522-2531, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399793

RESUMO

The PROMISE trial enrolled asymptomatic HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women not eligible for antiretroviral treatment (ART) per local guidelines and randomly assigned proven antiretroviral strategies to assess relative efficacy for perinatal prevention plus maternal/infant safety and maternal health. The START study subsequently demonstrated clear benefit in initiating ART regardless of CD4 count. Active PROMISE participants were informed of results and women not receiving ART were strongly recommended to immediately initiate treatment to optimize their own health. We recorded their decision and the primary reason given for accepting or rejecting the universal ART offer after receiving the START information. One-third of participants did not initiate ART after the initial session, wanting more time to consider. Six sessions were required to attain 95% uptake. The slow uptake of universal ART highlights the need to prepare individuals and sensitize communities regarding the personal and population benefits of the "Treat All" strategy.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde Materna , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
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