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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692718

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis B is a major health concern in Ghana, where prevalence of the virus remains high and most chronic patients are infected during childhood or at birth. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main factors associated with mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B in the context of Ghana. Methods: In this cross-sectional pilot study, we tested infants born to hepatitis B positive mothers at a hospital in the Eastern Region of Ghana to determine the prevalence of mother-to-child transmission. A questionnaire was completed by hepatitis B positive mothers to investigate the association between factors surrounding the birth of the child and whether transmission had occurred. These factors were analyzed independently using Fisher's exact test. To investigate the relationship between mother's age at the time of delivery and viral transmission, a univariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The prevalence of mother-to-child transmission was 5.9%, with 51 hepatitis B positive mothers included in the study and three infants testing positive. A majority of infants received the standard hepatitis B vaccination schedule (96.1%) while two-thirds received the birth dose. There was no significant association observed between the clinical interventions reported in the study and mother-to-child transmission. No significant association was observed between the age of the mother at the time of delivery and viral transmission (OR: 1.077, 95% CI: 0.828 - 1.403, p = 0.58). Viral marker testing during pregnancy was absent in the population and could not be reliably assessed. Conclusion: There was a low prevalence of HBV mother-to-child transmission observed despite a clear absence of viral marker and viral load testing. It is recommended that viral profile analysis is performed for hepatitis B positive pregnancies to identify high risk cases.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Idade Materna , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1055-1058, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594145

RESUMO

The new research of intrauterine transmission of HBV includes intrauterine dominant infection and occult infection. Intrauterine dominant infection of HBV is the traditional intrauterine infection. Although intrauterine infection of HBV has been studied for decades, the intervention effects on HBV infection are very limited. As a result, mother to child transmission has become the main route of the transmission of HBV. With the development of science and technology, people's understand of intrauterine occult infection of HBV has been deepened, and the definition of intrauterine transmission of HBV has been further completed and expanded. The study of intrauterine occult infection of HBV will play an important role in prevention and control of hepatitis B in China through filling in a gap in the field of prevention and control of vertical transmission of HBV, exploring new research perspective and providing guideline for related decision-making.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Criança , China , DNA Viral , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Gravidez
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1341-1348, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607722

RESUMO

Background: To reduce the number of new HIV infections among children, retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices (MOP) has a huge role to play. Aims and Objectives: This study evaluated the HIV sero-positivity in labor among pregnant women who earlier tested negative in antenatal clinic, associated risk factors and the corresponding rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Methods: This was a prospective observational study where pregnant women in labor who had earlier tested HIV negative in the antenatal clinic at Imo State University Teaching Hospital Orlu, Imo state, Nigeria, were retested. The infants of the women who seroconverted were tested for HIV infection at 6 weeks using Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (DNA PCR) by collecting Dried Blood Sample. This study was conducted from October 2015 to March 2016. Result: Out of the 163 patients studied, 6 demonstrated HIV seroconversion giving a seroconversion rate of 3.7%. Deliveries from the seroconverted patients were 5 live births and 1 intrauterine fetal death. All the 5 live babies tested HIV negative at 6 weeks of age. Predictors of seroconversion in late pregnancy include spouse's HIV status and number of other sexual partners. Conclusion: Retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices has a huge role to play in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Parto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão
5.
Nature ; 574(7776): 117-121, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534227

RESUMO

Immediately after birth, newborn babies experience rapid colonization by microorganisms from their mothers and the surrounding environment1. Diseases in childhood and later in life are potentially mediated by the perturbation of the colonization of the infant gut microbiota2. However, the effects of delivery via caesarean section on the earliest stages of the acquisition and development of the gut microbiota, during the neonatal period (≤1 month), remain controversial3,4. Here we report the disrupted transmission of maternal Bacteroides strains, and high-level colonization by opportunistic pathogens associated with the hospital environment (including Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Klebsiella species), in babies delivered by caesarean section. These effects were also seen, to a lesser extent, in vaginally delivered babies whose mothers underwent antibiotic prophylaxis and in babies who were not breastfed during the neonatal period. We applied longitudinal sampling and whole-genome shotgun metagenomic analysis to 1,679 gut microbiota samples (taken at several time points during the neonatal period, and in infancy) from 596 full-term babies born in UK hospitals; for a subset of these babies, we collected additional matched samples from mothers (175 mothers paired with 178 babies). This analysis demonstrates that the mode of delivery is a significant factor that affects the composition of the gut microbiota throughout the neonatal period, and into infancy. Matched large-scale culturing and whole-genome sequencing of over 800 bacterial strains from these babies identified virulence factors and clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance in opportunistic pathogens that may predispose individuals to opportunistic infections. Our findings highlight the critical role of the local environment in establishing the gut microbiota in very early life, and identify colonization with antimicrobial-resistance-containing opportunistic pathogens as a previously underappreciated risk factor in hospital births.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções Oportunistas/congênito , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/etiologia , Gravidez
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 79, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448041

RESUMO

Introduction: Family planning is a high impact strategy to reduce maternal mortality and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This study aims to describe contraceptive practices of HIV-infected women followed upon an ambulatory basis at the Treichville University Hospital. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive multicenter survey of people living with HIV in the ambulatory care units of the Treichville University Hospital from 1 April to 30 June 2016. During this period, all HIV positive patients of childbearing age attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Pneumophtisiology Department, the Department of Dermatovenereology and the Department of internal medicine were invited to complete a standardized questionnaire on the sociodemographic, medical characteristics and the contraceptive practices. Results: In total, 283 women agreed to participate in the study, their median age was 36 years with an average parity of 1.7. Patients were nulliparous in only 22.3% of cases and lived with a partner in 54.8% of cases. They had no child with the current partner in 68.2% of cases. The partner was informed about their HIV status in 51.6% of cases. They were under antiretroviral treatment in 92.9% of cases with a median mean CD4 of 382 cells/mL. The majority of patients (62.9%) declared that they were using a modern contraceptive method. They mainly used progestin injectable (45.5%) and contraceptive implant (32.6%). The practice of dual protection was reported by only 17.4% of them. Secondary and higher education (OR=2.23 [1,35-3,69], p=0.01), multiparity (OR=1.84 [1,11-3,06], p=0.002) and revelation of HIV positive status to the partner (OR=1.86 [1,14-3,03], p<0.01) were factors significantly associated with the use of contraception. Conclusion: Based on our experience, contraceptive practices in women infected with HIV are generally discouraging. It is essential to develop strategies to improve the integration of family planning into the management of HIV-infected women.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Costa do Marfim , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1172, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite an increased uptake of option B+ treatment among HIV- positive pregnant and breastfeeding women, retaining these women in care is still a major challenge. Previous studies have identified factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) in HIV care, however, the perspectives from HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women regarding their LTFU in option B+ needs further exploration. We explored reasons for LTFU and motivation to resume treatment among HIV-positive women initiated in option B+ in an Urban setting. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted at three public care and treatment clinics (CTC) (Buguruni health center, Sinza hospital, and Mbagala Rangitatu health center) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between February and May 2017. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women who were lost to follow up in the option B+ regimen. Analysis of data followed content analysis that was performed using NVivo 10 computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. RESULTS: Eleven women were lost to follow-up and did not resume Option B+, while 19 had resumed treatment. The study indicated a struggle with long term disease amongst HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women initiated in option B+ treatment. The reported reasons contributing to LTFU among these women appeared in three categories. The contribution of LTFU in the first category namely health-related factors included medication side effects and lack of disease symptoms. The second category highlighted the contribution of psychological factors such as loss of hope, fear of medication side effects and HIV-related stigma. The third category underscored the influence of socio-economic statuses such as financial constraints, lack of partner support, family conflicts, non-disclosure of HIV-positive status, and religious beliefs. Motivators to resume treatment after LTFU included support from health care providers and family members, a desire to protect the unborn child from HIV-infection and a need to maintain a healthy status. CONCLUSION: The study has highlighted the reasons for LTFU and motivation to resume treatment among women initiated in Option B+. Our results provide further evidence on the need for future interventions to focus on these factors in order to improve retention in life-long treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Perda de Seguimento , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
8.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2610-2617, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377894

RESUMO

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and the postpartum period is necessary to prevent vertical HIV transmission and to secure the long-term health of an HIV-infected woman. Health behavior theory suggests that patients' attitudes towards medication can predict their medication-taking behaviour. This study sought to understand how women's attitudes towards ART changes between the pregnancy and postpartum periods, and the factors associated with these attitudes. The study enrolled 200 pregnant women living with HIV. Structured surveys were administered during pregnancy and at three and 6 months postpartum. Overall, attitudes towards ART were stable over time. More positive attitudes towards ART were associated with HIV acceptance, lower levels of depression, and lower levels of shame. Counselling interventions are needed to help HIV-infected women accept their status and reduce shameful emotions. Depression screening and treatment should be integrated into PMTCT services. This study emphasizes the importance of early attention to attitudes towards ART, in order to establish a trajectory of sustained care engagement.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2522-2531, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399793

RESUMO

The PROMISE trial enrolled asymptomatic HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women not eligible for antiretroviral treatment (ART) per local guidelines and randomly assigned proven antiretroviral strategies to assess relative efficacy for perinatal prevention plus maternal/infant safety and maternal health. The START study subsequently demonstrated clear benefit in initiating ART regardless of CD4 count. Active PROMISE participants were informed of results and women not receiving ART were strongly recommended to immediately initiate treatment to optimize their own health. We recorded their decision and the primary reason given for accepting or rejecting the universal ART offer after receiving the START information. One-third of participants did not initiate ART after the initial session, wanting more time to consider. Six sessions were required to attain 95% uptake. The slow uptake of universal ART highlights the need to prepare individuals and sensitize communities regarding the personal and population benefits of the "Treat All" strategy.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde Materna , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 65, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to providing free hepatitis B vaccine (HBvacc) series to all infants in China since 2005, the national programme on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) started providing free hepatitis B immunoglobulin for all new-borns born to hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers in 2010. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the PMTCT programme. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the outcomes of the programme and identify associated factors. METHOD: Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected data on 4112 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their children aged 7-22 months in four representative provinces through interviews and medical record review. We tested HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) of children by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at designated maternal and child hospital laboratories. We used logistic regression to analyse factors associated with child HBsAg and anti-HBs positivity. RESULTS: Thirty-five children were HBsAg positive, indicating the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate was 0.9% (0.6-1.1%). The anti-HBs positive rate was 96.8% (96.3-97.4%). Children receiving HBvacc between 12 and 24 h of birth were 2.9 times more likely to be infected than those vaccinated in less than 12 h (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-6.3, P = 0.01). Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) positivity was associated with higher MTCT rate (aOR = 79.1, 95% CI: 10.8-580.2, P <  0.001) and lower anti-HBs positive rate (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6, P <  0.001). Children with low birth weight (LBW) were 60% less likely to be anti-HBs positive than those with normal birth weight (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The MTCT rate was lower than the 2030 WHO elimination goal, which implies the programme is on track to achieve this target. As earlier HBvacc birth dose (HBvcc-BD) was associated with lower MTCT rate, we suggest that the PMTCT programme work with the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to modify the current recommendation for early HBvcc-BD to a requirement. Our finding that LBW was associated with lower anti-HBs positivity points to the need for further studies to understand factors associated with these risks and opportunities for program strengthening. The programme needs to ensure providing essential test to identify HBeAg-positive mothers and their infants and provide them with appropriate medical care and follow-up.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepatite B/transmissão , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 950, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advancement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) services, the rate of MTCT of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is still high. This is partly due to low retention of HIV positive mothers in HIV care. We sought to determine the level of retention and the factors associated with retention among HIV positive pregnant and breastfeeding mothers following accreditation of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic to offer full time ART services in one of the lower health facilities in rural Western Uganda. METHODS: This study was a mixed methods study conducted in 5 health centres in rural Western Uganda from 10th April to 10th May 2017. A total of 132 retained and non-retained HIV positive pregnant and breastfeeding mothers were recruited. A Mother was categorized as retained if she had not missed her ART appointments at antenatal or postnatal clinic for ≥3 consecutive months. Questionnaires were administered and four focus group discussions were held. We used descriptive statistics to understand characteristics of mothers and their levels of retention. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: About a third (35.6%) of the mothers were aged 18-24 with a median age of 26 (IQR 23, minimum age of 16 and maximum age of 39). More than half, 73 (55.3%) of all mothers were in HIV care for 3-24 months and about 116(87.9%) of all mothers were retained in HIV care. This was an improvement from 53% reported in 2015. We found lack of formal education, lack of disclosure of HIV status to the spouse, perceived lack of confidentiality and self stigmatization as factors hindering retention. The desire to have an HIV free baby, fear of death and opportunistic infections, support from significant others and community groups were factors associated with retention. CONCLUSIONS: We observed improved retention in lower health centres and to achieve 100% retention, we recommend interventions such as sensitizing HIV positive mothers on disclosure of HIV status to spouse, maintaining confidentiality of client information at the clinic, support to girl child education and formation of community support groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered with the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST), registration receipt number 10961 on the 9th March, 2018.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(7): 706-712, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288342

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of current strategy for preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of hepatitis B virus. Methods: A decision tree model with the Markov process was developed and simulated over the lifetime of a birth cohort in Zhejiang Province in 2016. The current PMTCT strategy was compared with universal vaccination and non-vaccination. Costs were assessed from social perspective. Benefits were the savings from reduced costs associated with disease and effectiveness were measured by quality-adjusted of life-years (QALY) gained. The net present value (NPV), cost-benefit ratio (BCR) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. Univariate and Probabilistic Sensitivity Analyses (PSA) were performed to assess parameter uncertainties. The parameters of costs and utilities value of hepatitis B-related disease came from the results of the field survey, which were obtained by face-to-face questionnaire survey combined with inpatient medical records, including eight county and municipal hospitals in Jinhua, Jiaxing and Taizhou. A total of 626 outpatients and 523 inpatient patients were investigated. The annual total costs of infection was calculated by combining the costs of outpatient and inpatient. Results: The PMTCT strategy showed a net-gain as 38 323.78 CNY per person, with BCR as 21.10, which was higher than 36 357.80 CNY per person and 13.58 respectively of universal vaccination. Compared with universal vaccination, the PMTCT strategy would save 2 787.07 CNY per additional QALY gained for every person, indicating that PMTCT would be cost-saving. The most important parameters that could affect BCR and ICER were the vaccine coverage rate and costs of hepatitis B related diseases respectively. The PSA showed the PMTCT strategy was preferable as it would gain more QALY and save costs. Conclusions: The PMTCT strategy appeared as highly cost-beneficial and highly cost-effective. High vaccination rate was a key factor of high economic value.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/economia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/economia , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Hepatite B/economia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/economia , Gravidez , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 770-774, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357796

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the influence of antiretroviral prophylaxis on the growth and development of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Guangzhou. Methods: Data were from the national information system for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection, syphilis and hepatitis B. After excluding death and perinatal HIV infection cases, 564 HIV-exposed uninfected infants were included. The infants were divided into three groups, nevirapine (NVP) group, zidovudine (AZT) group and untreated group. The influences of antiretroviral prophylaxis on the body weight and height of the HIV-exposed uninfected infants were analyzed by using generalized estimating equations. Results: The HIV-exposed uninfected infants at 1-month old had lower Z scores of body weight-for-age and body height-for-age than the World Health Organization's reference standard. The prevalence of wasting in AZT group (17.5%) was higher than that in NVP group (6.2%) for 1-month old infants. Taking NVP or AZT was a protective factor for Z score of body length-for-age (P<0.05). Intrauterine exposure to triple antiviral drugs was a risk factor for the Z scores of body weight-for-age and body length-for-age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The physical growth and development of HIV-exposed uninfected infants at 1-month old was not well, and HIV-exposed uninfected infants who taking AZT had a higher incidence of wasting. Attention should be paid to these infants.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312290

RESUMO

Introduction: hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, by exchange of saliva during kissing and also to newborns of infected mothers. In the Global Burden of Diseases 2010, 786,000 deaths were attributed to HBV. Studies in Cameroon, reported the prevalence of HBV as high as 10.1% and 12% among blood donors in hospital blood banks. This study therefore, aims at determining the prevalence of HBsAg, knowledge and practices of pregnant women on HBV prevention and transmission in the Limbe Health District (LHD) and Muyuka Health District (MHD). Methods: ANC registers were exploited from the health centers for a period of three years (2014-2016) in order to determine the prevalence of HBV infection. 270 women attending ANC were selected by exhaustive sampling. Knowledge and practices of participants on HBV prevention and transmission was assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results: the prevalence of HBV in the LHD and MHD were 5.7% and 7.5% respectively. Pregnant women in the LHD demonstrated good knowledge but adopted poor practices whereas in the MHD, pregnant women demonstrated poor knowledge and adopted poor practices regarding the mode of transmission and prevention of HBV infection. There was a significant association between the prevalence of HBsAg and marital status (p = 0.000) in the LHD and age (p = 0.022) in the MHD. Conclusion: this study indicated a high prevalence of HBV among pregnant women in the LHD and MHD, knowledge and practices were identified as potential risk factors.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312293

RESUMO

Introduction: Early diagnosis and treatment of paediatric HIV is key as mortality of untreated patients is very high in the first two years of life, and reaches 80% by four years. Case finding efforts for children especially outside Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is inadequate. Targeting siblings of index HIV-exposed and infected children is an important way of improving identification and enrolment into care thereby reducing paediatric mortality. The study therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among siblings of HIV positive children in care in Calabar. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged six weeks to 15 years who are siblings of HIV positive children receiving care. Parental consent and child assent were obtained, the children were tested for HIV at their homes irrespective of their prior test results. Ethical clearance certificates were obtained from the health institutions. Results: Siblings of 401 index patients were tested for HIV, four were positive giving a prevalence rate of 1%. Three hundred and sixty-seven 367(91.5%) had been tested previously while 34(8.5%) never had HIV test. Among the siblings who were HIV positive, 1(0.3%) was a male while 3(0.7%) were females. There were more HIV positive siblings in the 11-15 years age group. Conclusion: All the four HIV positive siblings were from the lower socioeconomic class (p=0.022). The routine screening of siblings of HIV positive children should be sustained with focus on adolescents from the lower socioeconomic class. This will improve early identification and enrolment into care thereby reducing paediatric mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Irmãos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16329, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over one-third of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women are clinically depressed, increasing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, as well as negative birth and child development outcomes. This study will evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an evidence-based stepped care treatment model for perinatal depression (maternal depression treatment in HIV [M-DEPTH]) to improve adherence to prevention of MTCT care among HIV+ women in Uganda. METHODS: Eight antenatal care (ANC) clinics in Uganda will be randomized to implement either M-DEPTH (n=4) or usual care (n=4) for perinatal depression among 400 pregnant women (n=50 per clinic) between June 2019 and August 2022. At each site, women who screen positive for potential depression will be enrolled and followed for 18 months post-delivery, assessed in 6-month intervals: baseline, within 1 month of child delivery or pregnancy termination, and months 6, 12, and 18 following delivery. Primary outcomes include adherence to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care continuum-including maternal antiretroviral therapy and infant antiretrovial prophylaxis, and maternal virologic suppression; while secondary outcomes will include infant HIV status, post-natal maternal and child health outcomes, and depression treatment uptake and response. Repeated-measures multivariable regression analyses will be conducted to compare outcomes between M-DEPTH and usual care, using 2-tailed tests and an alpha cut-off of P <.05. Using a micro-costing approach, the research team will relate costs to outcomes, examining the incremental cost-effectiveness ration (ICER) of M-DEPTH relative to care as usual. DISCUSSION: This cluster randomized controlled trial will be one of the first to compare the effects of an evidence-based depression care model versus usual care on adherence to each step of the PMTCT care continuum. If determined to be efficacious and cost-effective, this study will provide a model for integrating depression care into ANC clinics and promoting adherence to PMTCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NIH Clinical Trial Registry NCT03892915 (clinicaltrials.gov).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Gravidez , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 614, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of telbivudine in chronic hepatitis B women during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. METHODS: The week 12-34 of pregnant women were screened in this prospective non-intervention study, with HBV DNA > 106 IU/mL and alanine aminotransferase > 50 IU/L. The patients were received telbivudine treatment as a treatment group or without antiviral treatment as a control group. All infants were received recombinant hepatitis B vaccine 10 µg within 12 h of birth, at week 4 and week 24, immunoglobulin G within 12 h of birth and were detected HBV markers at the range from 7 to 12 months after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients were finally enrolled, 139 patients in telbivudine group and 102 patients in control group. HBsAg negative rate of infants was 99.3% (135/136) in telbivudine group and was 91.9% (91/99) in control group after 7 months (P = 0.005), respectively. The incidence of undetectable HBV DNA levels (47.5%) was significantly lower in telbivudine-treated mothers than that in the controls (0%), and 75.5% patients alanine aminotransferase returned to normal in telbivudine group, and 51% in control group at delivery (P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Telbivudine can safely reduce mother-to-child transmission in chronic hepatitis B women after 12 weeks of gestation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Telbivudina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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