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1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1337-1340, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597861

RESUMO

Various types of infectious complications could develop after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) due to the associated intensive immunosuppression. Cellular immunity is also impaired, resulting in a higher incidence of viral infections when compared with standard chemotherapy. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivates in seropositive patients under immunosuppression after allogeneic HSCT, causing complications, such as pneumonitis, gastroenteritis, and retinitis. Because intervention before the onset of disease, rather than after, can improve prognosis, preemptive therapy guided by early detection of CMV reactivation has been extensively used. Recently, the introduction of a less myelotoxic agent, letermovir, has enabled prophylactic therapy to be administered safely and effectively. In addition, prophylactic letermovir is expected to reduce transplant-related mortality. However, the onset of CMV infection/disease as either a breakthrough infection or after the discontinuation of letermovir is still problematic. In this section, the management tips for CMV infection after allogeneic HSCT have been summarized.


Assuntos
Acetatos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(666): 1825-1830, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599524

RESUMO

Viral infections are extremely common and generally self-restricted, thus antiviral therapy is limited to precise indications. Apart from HIV (not reviewed in this article), the principal treatable viruses are HSV 1 and 2, VZV, CMV, Influenza A and B, and hepatitis B and C. Vaccination is another cornerstone of viral infections control. This article summarizes actual and available therapy. New treatments arrived recently on the market or are being developed : HCV can now be treated with a high success rate, baloxavir against the flu, a new zoster vaccine will probably soon be available in Switzerland and letermovir improves CMV prophylaxis in the case of hematopoietic stem cell transplant.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Medicina Geral , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Clínicos Gerais , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Suíça , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574859

RESUMO

To investigate the cognitive and psychological outcomes of pediatric allogeneic HSCT survivors in China.A total of 135 3 to 18 years old children and adolescents who underwent allo-HSCT and survived at least 3 months post-HSCT were recruited and completed the assessments. Cognitive and psychological functions were assessed via age-appropriate standardized measures. Clinical information was extracted from the medical records.Forty one 3 to 6 years old children completed Psychological Questionnaires for 3 to 6 years Children. The scores of 21(51.2%) children in cognitive development dimension, 18(43.9%) in motor development dimension, 16(39.0%) in language development and social development dimension, 15(36.6%) in emotion and will dimension and 14(34.1%) in living habits dimension were less than the standard. Fifty six 8 to 16 years old children and adolescents completed the Depression Self-rating Scale for Children and 9 (16.1%) of these met the criteria of depression. Sixty nine 7 to 16 years old children and adolescents completed the screening for Child Anxiety Related Disorders and 7 (10.1%) of these met the criteria of anxiety, especially social phobia and school phobia. Eighty nine 6 to 18 years old children and adolescents completed the Symptom Checklist-90 and 43.8% to 77.5% of these experienced mild symptoms like obsession-compulsion (77.5%), hostility (64%), and interpersonal sensitivity (60.7%). Children treated with total body irradiation (TBI) showed more cognitive impairments like motor deficits than those without TBI. Also older children and adolescents had more symptoms like psychoticism.These findings demonstrated cognitive and psychological late effects of pediatric allo-HSCT survivors in a single center in China and highlighted that the survivors conditioned with TBI had more cognitive impairments and older children and adolescents had more symptoms. Early intervention in these children and adolescents might minimize the cognitive losses and psychological effects.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Disfunção Cognitiva , Depressão , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Psicológicas , Sobreviventes/psicologia
4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(12): 1136-1147, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maribavir is a benzimidazole riboside with activity against cytomegalovirus (CMV). The safety and efficacy of maribavir for preemptive treatment of CMV infection in transplant recipients is not known. METHODS: In a phase 2, open-label, maribavir dose-blinded trial, recipients of hematopoietic-cell or solid-organ transplants (≥18 years of age, with CMV reactivation [1000 to 100,000 DNA copies per milliliter]) were randomly assigned to receive maribavir at a dose of 400, 800, or 1200 mg twice daily or the standard dose of valganciclovir for no more than 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with a response to treatment, defined as confirmed undetectable CMV DNA in plasma, within 3 weeks and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. The primary safety end point was the incidence of adverse events that occurred or worsened during treatment. RESULTS: Of the 161 patients who underwent randomization, 159 received treatment, and 156 had postbaseline data available - 117 in the maribavir group and 39 in the valganciclovir group. The percentage of patients with postbaseline data available who had a response to treatment within 3 weeks was 62% among those who received maribavir and 56% among those who received valganciclovir. Within 6 weeks, 79% and 67% of patients, respectively, had a response (risk ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.51). The percentages of patients with a response to treatment were similar among the maribavir dose groups. Two patients who had a response to treatment had a recurrence of CMV infection within 6 weeks after starting maribavir at a dose of 800 mg twice daily; T409M resistance mutations in CMV UL97 protein kinase developed in both patients. The incidence of serious adverse events that occurred or worsened during treatment was higher in the maribavir group than in the valganciclovir group (52 of 119 patients [44%] vs. 13 of 40 [32%]). A greater percentage of patients in the maribavir group discontinued the trial medication because of an adverse event (27 of 119 [23%] vs. 5 of 40 [12%]). A higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events was reported with maribavir, and a higher incidence of neutropenia was reported with valganciclovir. CONCLUSIONS: Maribavir at a dose of at least 400 mg twice daily had efficacy similar to that of valganciclovir for clearing CMV viremia among recipients of hematopoietic-cell or solid-organ transplants. A higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events - notably dysgeusia - and a lower incidence of neutropenia were found in the maribavir group. (Funded by ViroPharma/Shire Development; EudraCT number, 2010-024247-32.).


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Ribonucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Valganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Disgeusia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Ribonucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Ribonucleosídeos/farmacologia , Valganciclovir/efeitos adversos , Valganciclovir/farmacologia , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(11): 1017-1030, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478398

RESUMO

Introduction: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major contributor of morbidity and mortality, and its management is essential for the successful outcome of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Areas covered: This review discusses the safety profiles of currently available and emerging antiviral drugs and the other strategies for HCMV prevention and treatment after transplantation. Expert opinion: Strategies for management of HCMV rely largely on the use of antiviral agents that inhibit viral DNA polymerase (ganciclovir/valganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir/brincidofovir) and viral terminase complex (letermovir), with different types and degrees of adverse effects. An investigational agent, maribavir, exerts its anti-CMV effect through UL97 inhibition, and its safety profile is under clinical evaluation. In choosing the antiviral medication to use, it is important to consider these safety profiles in addition to overall efficacy. In addition to antiviral drugs, reduction of immunosuppression is often generally needed in the management of HCMV infection, but with a potential risk of allograft rejection or graft-versus-host disease. The use of HCMV-specific or non-specific intravenous immunoglobulins remains debated, while adoptive HCMV-specific T cell therapy remains investigational, and associated with unique set of adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções Oportunistas/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos
6.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(11): e573-e584, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of donors other than HLA-matched siblings has been a pivotal change in stem cell transplantation. We aimed to assess the evolution of outcomes within donor groups over time and explore whether donor-recipient HLA disparity might be advantageous in patients with aggressive disease. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicentre study, we assessed the outcomes for adult patients (≥18 years) with haematological malignancies who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between Jan 3, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The donor types studied were matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and cord blood donors. Unrelated non-cord-blood donors and recipients were typed at the allelic level for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. We evaluated trends in overall survival, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, progression-free survival, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and GVHD-free and relapse-free survival following transplantation from various donor types (matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and umbilical cord blood), and compared transplantation outcomes across three epochs (epoch 1: 2001-05; epoch 2: 2006-10; and epoch 3: 2011-15). We used Kaplan-Meier estimators for survival probabilities and cumulative incidence functions accounting for competing risks for probabilities of GHVD, relapse, and non-relapse mortality, using multiple imputations by chained equations to deal with missing data. In epoch 3, we directly compared outcomes by donor group, stratified by a novel three-level disease-risk scheme. FINDINGS: We included 106 188 patients in our analysis. The median follow-up was 4·1 years (IQR 1·7-7·7). Overall survival at 3 years increased with all donor groups between epochs 2 and 3 (matched sibling: 54·0% [95% CI 53·1-54·8] to 54·6% [53·6-55·6]; matched unrelated: 49·1% [48·0-50·2] to 51·6% [50·7-52·6]; mismatched unrelated: 37·4% [35·7-39·2] to 41·3% [39·5-43·1]; haploidentical: 34·5% [31·4-37·9] to 44·2% [42·1-46·3]; and cord blood 36·3% [33·9-39] to 43·7% [40·8-46·8]). Improvement in overall survival seems to be driven by a reduction in non-relapse mortality, except in cord blood HSCT recipients, who had a lower relapse incidence. Comparing donor groups across disease-risk strata using the novel disease-risk scheme, overall survival among recipients of matched sibling transplantations remained better than other donor groups except in high-risk disease, where overall survival with matched unrelated transplantations was not different. INTERPRETATION: Overall survival following allogeneic stem cell transplantation is improving with substantial progress among recipients of haploidentical and cord blood HSCT. Nonetheless, the traditional donor hierarchy of matched sibling donors followed by matched unrelated donors and then other donors holds. Our findings warrant further investigation and could inform decision making and the development of donor-selection algorithms. FUNDING: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center in Haemato-Oncology, Tel Aviv University, and the Shalvi Foundation for Research.


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adulto , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/mortalidade , Doenças Hematológicas/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas , Transplante Homólogo
7.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 189-192, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465189

RESUMO

Chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of the allogeneic stem cell transplant. One of most frequent manifestations of GVHD is the cutaneous compromise with the sclerodermatous variety being the most severe. We considered that the restrictive respiratory compromise and its evolution are not well characterized. We described the functional respiratory alterations of a patient with sclerodermatous chronic GVHD and considered differential diagnosis of pulmonary restriction in this type of patient. We reported the case of a 21-year-old woman with pulmonary restriction secondary to cutaneous sclerosis which was caused by chronic GVHD. This report illustrates the importance of utilizing both functional respiratory tests and diagnosis images to accurately characterize the cause of the respiratory compromise. We believe that the functional alterations described in this case could be caused by the cutaneous disorder found.


Assuntos
Dispneia/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etiologia , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/cirurgia
8.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(9): e480-e488, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for younger patients with acute myeloid leukaemia have moderately improved over the past two decades owing to better supportive care and recent introduction of novel targeted agents. Blocking PD-1 and its ligand's pathways enhances antileukaemia responses by enabling T cells in murine models. We aimed to assess the addition of nivolumab to frontline therapy with idarubicin and cytarabine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. METHODS: This single-arm, phase 2 part of the phase 1-2 study of nivolumab in combination with idarubicin and cytarabine was done at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). Eligible patients were aged 18-60 years (or >60 years if suitable for intensive chemotherapy), and had newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Induction included cytarabine 1·5 g/m2 by 24-h continuous infusion daily on days 1-4 (3 days in patients >60 years) and idarubicin 12 mg/m2 daily on days 1-3. Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was started on day 24 (range 22-26) and continued every 2 weeks for up to a year in responders. Responders received either up to five consolidation cycles of attenuated doses of idarubicin and cytarabine, or allogeneic stem cell transplantation if eligible. The primary endpoint was event-free survival. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. Secondary endpoints were relapse-free survival and overall survival. This ongoing trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02464657. FINDINGS: Between Aug 7, 2015, and June 2, 2018, 44 patients were enrolled of whom 22 (50%) had adverse genetic risk by European Leukaemia Network classification. All patients were evaluable for safety and efficacy. At a median follow-up of 17·25 months (IQR 0·50-30·40), median event-free survival was not reached (95% CI 7·93-NR). Median relapse-free survival of responders was 18·54 months (95% CI 8·20-23·22). The median overall survival was 18·54 months (95% CI 10·81-28·81). Six patients had seven grade 3-4 immune-related adverse events with two cases of rash, two of colitis, and one each of transaminitis, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis. 19 (43%) of 44 patients achieved a response and proceeded to allogeneic stem cell transplantation, with grade 3-4 graft-versus-host disease observed in five (26%). No treatment related deaths were attributed to nivolumab. INTERPRETATION: Addition of nivolumab to induction chemotherapy with idarubicin and cytarabine is feasible in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Post-transplant severe graft-versus-host disease could be improved, and earlier initiation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy is warranted in future studies. FUNDING: The MD Anderson Cancer Center Support Grant CA016672, and the MD Anderson Cancer Center Leukaemia SPORE CA100632 from the National Cancer Institute, Bristol Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Idarubicina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Colite/etiologia , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Exantema/etiologia , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Idarubicina/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(9): 1185-1192, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a potentially fatal complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Identifying its risk factors would enable the proper prophylaxis and management, which may significantly improve the general outcome of children treated with HSCT. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this single-center, retrospective cohort study was to assess the potential risk factors for grades II-IV of aGvHD in children after the 1st allo-HSCT from an unrelated donor (UD), performed as a result of an underlying malignant disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From among patients who received HSCT in our center in the years 2004-2015, 237 were included in the study cohort. All the patients received standard aGvHD prophylaxis consisting of cyclosporine (CsA) and a short course of methotrexate (MTX). Various clinical and epidemiological features, the transplant proceedings, graft composition, conditioning regimens, as well as the duration and coherence of aGvHD prophylaxis were analyzed as potential risk factors for aGvHD. RESULTS: The incidence of II-IV aGvHD in the study cohort was 58.6%. The median time of the diagnosis of aGvHD was 18 days post-HSCT. In the multivariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated with grades II-IV of aGvHD were: myeloablative conditioning regimen containing total body irradiation (TBI-MAC) (RR (relative risk): 1.69; p = 0.03), premature termination of CsA administration due to its toxicity (RR: 1.99; p = 0.0003) and HSCT performed before the year 2009 (RR: 1.97; p = 0.0001). Donor and recipient age, donor-recipient sex mismatch, stem cell source, risk of disease, and amount of infused CD34+ cells seem to be insignificant as risk factors for aGvHD. The overall survival (OS) of patients with aGvHD was noticeably worse that in those who were aGvHD-free: 60.8% vs 74.1% (p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The conditioning regimen and the proper aGvHD prophylaxis, including continuous CsA administration, have a major impact on aGvHD occurrence. According to our results, the termination of CsA therapy should be carefully considered, and avoided if possible.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Criança , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores não Relacionados
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16498, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335716

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Relapse is the main cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Unfortunately, there are no efficient methods to prevent relapse after allo-HSCT. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells have achieved favorable outcomes in the treatment of refractory/relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) because of their strong anti-leukemia activity. However, it is unclear whether the CAR-T cells constructed using viral systems can be used as preventive infusions to prevent relapse after haploidentical HSCT. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two patients with ALL with high risk received haploidentical HSCT. DIAGNOSES: Two patients were diagnosed with ALL with high risk. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received preventive infusion of donor-derived CAR-T cells constructed using viral systems on day 60 after haploidentical HSCT. OUTCOMES: The CAR-T cells were continually detected, and no graft versus host disease developed. The two patients survived with disease-free for 1 year and 6 months, respectively. LESSONS: Preventive infusion of donor-derived CAR-T cells after haploidentical HSCT may be safe and that immunosuppressors may not affect the proliferation of CAR-T cells.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Transplante Haploidêntico , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Doadores de Tecidos
11.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(6): 635-645, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281156

RESUMO

In patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection directly or indirectly increases all-cause and non-relapse mortality rates. Although preemptive therapy suppresses CMV infection, it does not improve non-relapse mortality rates in patients with CMV reactivation compared to patients with no CMV reactivation. According to the World Health Organization International Standards (WHO IS), quantitative polymerase chain reaction has been recently adopted as the global standard for monitoring CMV, and maribavir, brincidofovir, and letermovir have been developed as new antiviral drugs for the treatment of CMV infection. Letermovir, a first-class anti-CMV agent, strongly inhibits the CMV DNA terminase complex, which is required for viral DNA cleavage and packaging. It significantly suppressed CMV infection in a phase III clinical trial, thereby improving the overall survival of patients who undergo HSCT. Vaccines and cell therapies for CMV must be further developed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Humanos , Transplante Homólogo
12.
Cornea ; 38(9): 1169-1174, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Meibum is considered to be a key component of tears that serve to protect the eye, and conformational changes in meibum have not been studied extensively within the population of patients who had hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this study was to determine possible lipid conformational changes in the meibum of patients who had HSCT. METHODS: Participants who had HSCT were randomly sampled for this prospective comparative study. Control participants did not have dry eye or had not undergone allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to measure meibum phase transition. RESULTS: Meibum was collected from both eyes of 36 donors without dry eye (Mc) and from 22 patients who had undergone HSCT (MHSCT). There were no significant differences between the phase transition parameters based on gender or race. The following were the significant differences (P < 0.0001) between the parameters for Mc compared with MHSCT : lipid order (% trans) at 33.4°C increased from 40 (1) to 54 (2), cooperativity decreased from 7.9 (0.4) to 5.4 (0.3), the phase transition temperature (C) increased from 30.3 (0.4) to 34.2 (0.9), and the magnitude of the phase transition (cm) increased from 4.0 (0.1) to 4.7 (0.5) (standard error of the mean). CONCLUSIONS: Conformational and thermodynamic differences were observed between Mc and MHSCT. The changes observed in the lipid conformation of meibum from patients receiving HSCTs suggest that meibum composition changes after stem cell transplantation, and clinicians should consider treating the meibomian glands to improve the ocular surface.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/análise , Glândulas Tarsais/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(6): 423-427, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159520

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinical features, efficacy and outcomes in patients with transplantation associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA). Methods: The clinical data of 9 patients who developed TA-TMA after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) were retrospectively analyzed from January 2011 to August 2018 in Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Results: There were 6 male and 3 female patiens with a median age of 31 (12-38) years. The median time from transplantation to TA-TMA was 76 (24-155) days. The baseline blood and biochemical parameters at diagnosis of TA-TMA included median hemoglobin (Hb) 66 (58-77) g/L,platelet (PLT) count 22 (4-38) × 10(9)/L,serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) 655 (305-4 238) U/L,blood urine nitrogen (BUN) level 15.9 (4.8-26.2) mmol/L,blood creatinine (Cr) level 118 (24-380) µmol/L. The proportion of median peripheral blood schistocytes was 2.6%(1.2%-9%). All patients had positive urinary occult blood tests,and urinary protein was seen in 4 patients. Three patients had mental symptoms. Coombs tests were all negative. The main treatments of TA-TMA composed of reduction and withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitor,steroids and plasma exchange. Response was seen in 4 patients. Patients who did not response to the treatment had a higher proportion of schistocytes,more severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD),more elevated serum LDH and other transplant-related complications. Conclusions: TA-TMA after allo-HSCT is a serious complication with high mortality rate. The proportion of schistocytes in peripheral blood, serum LDH level and comorbidities are prognostic factors of clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Plasmática , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/patologia
15.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(8): e409-e418, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) after non-myeloablative human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, unrelated donor, allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. This trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding sirolimus to the standard cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil prophylaxis therapy for preventing acute GVHD in this setting. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial took place at nine HSCT centres based in the USA, Denmark, and Germany. Eligible patients were diagnosed with advanced haematological malignancies treatable by allogeneic HSCT, had a Karnofsky score greater than or equal to 60, were aged older than 50 years, or if they were aged 50 years or younger, were considered at high risk of regimen-related toxicity associated with a high-dose pre-transplantation conditioning regimen. Patients were randomly allocated by an adaptive randomisation scheme stratified by transplantation centre to receive either the standard GVHD prophylaxis regimen (cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil) or the triple-drug combination regimen (cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus). Patients and physicians were not masked to treatment. All patients were prepared for HSCT with fludarabine (30 mg/m2 per day) 4, 3, and 2 days before receiving 2 or 3 Gy total body irradiation on the day of HSCT (day 0). In both study groups, 5·0 mg/kg of cyclosporine was administered orally twice daily starting 3 days before HSCT, and (in the absence of GVHD) tapered from day 96 through to day 150. In the standard GVHD prophylaxis group, 15 mg/kg of mycophenolate mofetil was given orally three times daily from day 0 until day 30, then twice daily until day 150, and (in the absence of GVHD) tapered off by day 180. In the triple-drug group, mycophenolate mofetil doses were the same as in the standard group, but the drug was discontinued on day 40. Sirolimus was started 3 days before HSCT, taken orally at 2 mg once daily and adjusted to maintain trough concentrations between 3-12 ng/mL through to day 150, and (in the absence of GVHD) tapered off by day 180. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD at day 100 post-transplantation. Secondary endpoints were non-relapse mortality, overall survival, progression-free survival, cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 acute GVHD, and cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD. Efficacy and safety analyses were per protocol, including all patients who received conditioning treatment and underwent transplantation. Toxic effects were measured according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The current study was closed prematurely by recommendation of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board on July 27, 2016, after 168 patients received the allocated intervention, based on the results of a prespecified interim analysis for futility. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01231412. FINDINGS: Participants were recruited between Nov 1, 2010, and July 27, 2016. Of 180 patients enrolled in the study, 167 received the complete study intervention and were included in safety and efficacy analyses: 77 patients in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group and 90 in the triple-drug group. At the time of analysis, median follow-up was 48 months (IQR 31-60). The cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD at day 100 was lower in the triple-drug group compared with the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (26% [95% CI 17-35] in the triple-drug group vs 52% [41-63] in the standard group; HR 0·45 [95% CI 0·28-0·73]; p=0·0013). After 1 and 4 years, non-relapse mortality increased to 4% (95% CI 0-9) and 16% (8-24) in the triple-drug group and 16% (8-24) and 32% (21-43) in the standard group (HR 0·48 [0·26-0·90]; p=0·021). Overall survival at 1 year was 86% (95% CI 78-93) in the triple-drug group and 70% in the standard group (60-80) and at 4 years it was 64% in the triple-drug group (54-75) and 46% in the standard group (34-57%; HR 0·62 [0·40-0·97]; p=0·035). Progression-free survival at 1 year was 77% (95% CI 68-85) in the triple-drug group and 64% (53-74) in the standard drug group, and at 4 years it was 59% in the triple-drug group (49-70) and 41% in the standard group (30-53%; HR 0·64 [0·42-0·99]; p=0·045). We observed no difference in the cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 acute GVHD (2% [0-5] in the triple-drug group vs 8% [2-14] in the standard group; HR 0·55 [0·16-1·96]; p=0·36) and chronic GVHD (49% [39-59] in triple-drug group vs 50% [39-61] in the standard group; HR 0·94 [0·62-1·40]; p=0·74). In both groups the most common CTCAE grade 4 or higher toxic effects were pulmonary. INTERPRETATION: Adding sirolimus to cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil resulted in a significantly lower proportion of patients developing acute GVHD compared with patients treated with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil alone. Based on these results, the combination of cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus has become the new standard GVHD prophylaxis regimen for patients treated with non-myeloablative conditioning and HLA-matched unrelated HSCT at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Irradiação Corporal Total
16.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 40(5): 404-410, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207706

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence, risk factors and survival of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in patients who had undergone haplo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) . Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 444 consecutive patients who underwent haplo-HSCT and survived at least 100 days after transplantation in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University between January 2013 and December 2015. Results: By the end of follow-up on January 1, 2018, 25 patients (5.63%) had BOS (BOS group) . The median onset time of BOS was 448 (165-845) d post transplantation, the 1-year, 2-year and 3-year cumulative incidence of BOS was 1.6% (95%CI 1.5%-1.6%) , 4.8% (95%CI 4.7%-4.8%) and 5.8% (95%CI 5.7%-5.8%) , respectively. Among patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) , the cumulative incidence at the same intervals was 2.8% (95%CI 2.7%-2.8%) , 9.5% (95%CI 9.4%-9.5%) and 11.5% (95%CI 11.4%-11.6%) , respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors for BOS were high-risk primary disease, Ⅱ-Ⅳ aGVHD and preceding cGVHD with other organs. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was lower among patients with than those without BOS, but the difference was not significant [71.8% (95%CI 53.9%-89.6%) vs 72.4% (95%CI 68.1%-76.7%) , P=0.400]. Overall 1-year, 3-year survival of patients with BOS from the time of diagnosis was 78.4% (95%CI 61.5%-95.3%) and 37.0% (95%CI 2.5%-71.5%) , respectively, significantly less than those without (93.9% and 89.3%, from day 448 after transplantation, respectively, P<0.001) . Furthermore, we found a significantly higher incidence of transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in patients with compared with patients without BOS (28.2% vs 10.9%, P<0.001) . The main risk factor for OS of BOS patients was the severity of pulmonary impairment at the time of diagnosis. Patients who developed severe BOS had a worse OS than those with moderate and mild BOS (P=0.049) . Conclusion: BOS is a severe pulmonary complication of haplo-HSCT. High-risk primary disease, Ⅱ-Ⅳ aGVHD and preceding cGVHD were independent risk factors for BOS. Patients who developed BOS had a worse OS than those without BOS. The main risk factor for OS of BOS patients was the severity of pulmonary impairment.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Obliterante , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Bronquiolite Obliterante/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pulmão , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 471, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scans are commonly used as part of the clinical criteria in diagnostic workup of invasive fungal diseases like invasive aspergillosis, and may identify radiographic abnormalities, such as halo signs or air-crescent signs. We assessed the diagnostic utility of CT assessment in patients with hematologic malignancies or those who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in whom invasive aspergillosis was suspected. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis assessed data from a prospective, multicenter, international trial of voriconazole (with and without anidulafungin) in patients with suspected invasive aspergillosis (IA; proven, probable, or possible, using 2008 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group criteria) [NCT00531479]. Eligible patients received at least one baseline lung CT scan. RESULTS: Of 395 patients included in this post-hoc analysis, 240 patients (60.8%) had 'confirmed' proven (9/240, 3.8%) or probable (231/240, 96.3%) invasive aspergillosis (cIA) and 155 patients (39.2%) had 'non-confirmed' invasive aspergillosis (all nIA; all possible IA (de Pauw et al., Clin Infect Dis 46:1813-21, 2008)). Mean age was 52.3 and 50.5 years, 56.3 and 60.0% of patients were male, and most patients were white (71.7 and 71.0%) in the cIA and nIA populations, respectively. Median baseline galactomannan was 1.4 (cIA) and 0.2 (nIA), mean Karnofsky score was 65.3 (cIA) and 66.8 (nIA), and mean baseline platelet count was 48.0 (cIA) and 314.1 (nIA). Pulmonary nodules (46.8% of all patients), bilateral lung lesions (37.5%), unilateral lung lesions (28.4%), and consolidation (24.8%) were the most common radiographic abnormalities. Ground-glass attenuation (cIA: 24.2%; nIA: 11.6%; P < 0.01) and pulmonary nodules (cIA: 52.5%; nIA: 38.1%; P < 0.01) were associated with cIA. Other chest CT scan abnormalities (including halo signs and air-crescent signs) at baseline in patients with hematologic malignancy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and suspected IA, were not associated with cIA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the limitations in the sensitivity of chest CT scans for the diagnosis of IA, and reinforce the importance of incorporating other available clinical data to guide management decisions on individual patients, including whether empirical treatment is reasonable, pending full evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00531479 (First posted on ClinicalTrials.gov on September 18, 2007).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/microbiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Anidulafungina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/mortalidade , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Mananas/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Prospectivos , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
18.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(5): 537-541, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075084

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been newly identified as an etiology underlying acquired lipodystrophy (ALD). We report about two children with leukemia who underwent HSCT and later manifested aberrant fat distributions consistent with acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL). Both patients manifested graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), suggesting that GVHD may trigger lipodystrophy. The patients exhibited diabetic blood glucose patterns in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with high homeostasis model assessment ratios (HOMA-Rs), hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and decreased serum leptin and adiponectin levels. Both patients were diagnosed with APL with metabolic disease. A review of the data of patients with ALD after HSCT revealed common clinical features, including aberrant fat distribution, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes and dyslipidemia. Based on previous reports and our two cases, we speculate that GVHD in the adipose tissue supports the development of ALD after HSCT. In conclusion, children may develop APL after HSCT. Therefore, evaluations of fat distribution and metabolic disease may be important during the long-term follow-up of these patients.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Lipodistrofia/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Criança , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/patologia , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Lipodistrofia/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prognóstico
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 388, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The compound letermovir (LMV) has recently been approved for the prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adult CMV seropositive recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. LMV inhibits CMV replication by binding to the viral terminase complex. However, first cases of clinical LMV resistance have been occurred. Here we report a fast breakthrough of resistant cytomegalovirus during secondary LMV prophylaxis in a hematopoietic-cell transplant recipient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experienced a CMV-reactivation within the first 4 weeks of allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation. Administration of LMV was initiated at day + 34. Due to increasing viral loads, LMV treatment was discontinued after 8 days. The patient was then administered with valganciclovir (valGCV) until viral DNA was undetectable. Due to neutropenia, valGCV treatment was switched to LMV secondary prophylaxis. For 4 weeks, the patient maintain virologic suppression. Then, CMV viral loads increased with a fast kinetic. Genotypic testing of the viral polymerase UL54, the kinase UL97 as well as the viral terminase UL56 and UL89 revealed the mutation C325Y in UL56, which is associated with the high level LMV resistance. CONCLUSION: It is known that Letermovir is approved for prophylactic purposes. However, it may be used for some patients with CMV infection who either have failed prior therapies or are unable to tolerate other anti-CMV compounds. Particularly, the administration of LMV should be avoided in patients with detectable viral loads. When this is not possible, viral load must be routinely monitored along with UL56 genotyping. Furthermore, LMV administration at high virus loads may foster the rapid selection of resistant CMV mutants.


Assuntos
Acetatos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Prevenção Secundária , Valganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
20.
Mycoses ; 62(7): 576-583, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034703

RESUMO

False positivity of antigen immunoassays used as an early diagnostic tool to detect invasive fungal infections is known. Interpretation of the assay needs the identification of sources which could affect the specificity of the test. We focused on the influence of parenteral nutrition (PN) and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) on fungal immunoassays. Measurable amounts of Candida antigen mannan were detected in several compounds of PN and TZP in a previous in vitro study. In the current study, 84 patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation receiving either TZP, PN or both were monitored with Aspergillus and Candida antigen assay. Six patients were analysed closer in a kinetic analysis with more frequent blood sampling to detect mannan. PN in diverse compositions as well as TZP did not increase significantly the amount of mannan and the Aspergillus antigen in serum. We could not confirm the positive results of the in vitro study. Physicians should be aware that mannan antigenemia due to drug infusion could be a transient issue and should be considered in the interpretation of fungal immunoassays, although we could not find clinically relevant effects on mannan levels.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Fungos/sangue , Candidíase Invasiva/diagnóstico , Reações Falso-Positivas , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Nutrição Parenteral , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Inibidores de beta-Lactamases/administração & dosagem
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