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1.
J Immunol ; 207(4): 1078-1086, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341172

RESUMO

Emergency granulopoiesis, also known as demand-adapted granulopoiesis, is defined as the response of an organism to systemic bacterial infections, and it results in neutrophil mobilization from reservoir pools and increased myelopoiesis in the bone marrow. Indirect and direct initiating mechanisms of emergency granulopoiesis have been hypothesized. However, the detailed mechanism of hyperactive myelopoiesis in the bone marrow, which leads to granulocyte left shift, remains unknown. In this study, we report that TLR4 is expressed on granulo-monocytic progenitors, as well as mobilized human peripheral blood CD34+ cells, which account for 0.2% of monocytes in peripheral blood, and ∼ 10% in bone marrow. LPS, a component of Gram-negative bacteria that results in a systemic bacterial infection, induces the differentiation of peripheral blood CD34+ cells into myelocytes and monocytes in vitro via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Moreover, CD34+ cells directly responded to LPS stimulation by activating the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and they produced IL-6 that promotes emergency granulopoiesis by phosphorylating C/EBPα and C/EBPß, and this effect was suppressed by the action of an IL-6 receptor inhibitor. This work supports the finding that TLR is expressed on human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and it provides evidence that human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells can directly sense pathogens and produce cytokines exerting autocrine and/or paracrine effects, thereby promoting differentiation.


Assuntos
Granulócitos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Células Precursoras de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mielopoese/fisiologia
3.
Hematology ; 26(1): 620-627, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411497

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the main therapeutic agents currently used for the prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, it is associated with significant toxicity and considerable side effects in many patients, which lead to either early withdrawal or dose reductions that may expose patients to the risk of GvHD and graft failure. Folinic acid (FA) can bypass the inhibitory effects of MTX on folate availability and control MTX toxicity. However, concerns that FA might inhibit the anti-GvHD effect of MTX and limited reports on its clinical usefulness have led to reluctance in its inclusion in standard GvHD prophylaxis regimens. Additionally, universal dosing and timing guidelines are lacking. I discuss the available literature and evaluate the evidence for the effect of FA on MTX toxicity and its safety regarding GvHD development and graft rejection in both adult and pediatric patients. Although FA administration appears to be safe, its efficacy for routine use in all types of transplants in adult patients is unproven and further research is required to confirm its MTX toxicity-lowering effect, identify the individual parameters that influence its usefulness in clinical practice, and evaluate its potential when developing a personalized prophylaxis regimen.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361109

RESUMO

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative therapy for blood cancers and other haematological disorders. However, allo-HSCT leads to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a severe and often lethal immunological response, in the majority of transplant recipients. Current therapies for GVHD are limited and often reduce the effectiveness of allo-HSCT. Therefore, pro- and anti-inflammatory factors contributing to disease need to be explored in order to identify new treatment targets. Purinergic signalling plays important roles in haematopoiesis, inflammation and immunity, and recent evidence suggests that it can also affect haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and GVHD development. This review provides a detailed assessment of the emerging roles of purinergic receptors, most notably P2X7, P2Y2 and A2A receptors, and ectoenzymes, CD39 and CD73, in GVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Receptores Purinérgicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Transplante Homólogo
5.
Blood ; 138(3): 273-282, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292325

RESUMO

Posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has enabled haploidentical (Haplo) transplantation to be performed with results similar to those after matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation with traditional prophylaxis. The relative value of transplantation with MUD vs Haplo donors when both groups receive PTCy/calcineurin inhibitor/mycophenolate GVHD prophylaxis is not known. We compared outcomes after 2036 Haplo and 284 MUD transplantations with PTCy GVHD prophylaxis for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome in adults from 2011 through 2018. Cox regression models were built to compare outcomes between donor types. Recipients of myeloablative and reduced-intensity regimens were analyzed separately. Among recipients of reduced-intensity regimens, 2-year graft failure (3% vs 11%), acute grades 2 to 4 GVHD (hazards ratio [HR], 0.70; P = .022), acute grades 3 and 4 GVHD (HR, 0.41; P = .016), and nonrelapse mortality (HR, 0.43; P = .0008) were lower after MUD than with Haplo donor transplantation. Consequently, disease-free (HR, 0.74; P = .008; 55% vs 41%) and overall (HR, 0.65; P = .001; 67% vs 54%) survival were higher with MUD than with Haplo transplants. Among recipients of myeloablative regimens, day-100 platelet recovery (95% vs 88%) was higher and grades 3 and 4 acute (HR, 0.39; P = .07) and chronic GVHD (HR, 0.66; P = .05) were lower after MUD than with Haplo donor transplantation. There were no differences in graft failure, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and disease-free and overall survival between donor types with myeloablative conditioning regimens. These data extend and confirm the importance of donor-recipient HLA matching for allogeneic transplantation. A MUD is the preferred donor, especially for transplantations with reduced-intensity conditioning regimens.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Haploidêntico/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Doadores não Relacionados
6.
Int J Hematol ; 114(3): 363-372, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213732

RESUMO

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard of care in newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Several studies before the introduction of novel therapies in MM, demonstrated a pegylated G-CSF to be successful in mobilizing peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). Lipegfilgrastim is a novel long-acting G-CSF that is produced by the conjugation of a single 20-kDa polyethelene glycol to the natural O-glycosylation site of G-CSF. Twenty-four MM patients were included for PBSCs mobilization with a single SC injection of 6 mg lipegfilgrastim. PBSC collection was started when the CD34+ count was > 10 × 106 cells/L. The target progenitor cells were 6 × 106 cells/kg. The median day of apheresis was + 3 (range 2-5) following lipegfilgrastim. Median peripheral blood CD34+ count pre-mobilization was of 22.65 (range 3.36-105) × 106 cells/L. The median number of leukaphaeresis procedures was 2 (range 1-4). The median mobilized CD34+ cells/kg were 8.26 (range 0.77-12.42). One patient failed to mobilize and two patients mobilized < 6 × 106 cells/kg. Toxicity was mild and transient. Twenty-three patients underwent ASCT following high dose melphalan. All patients engrafted. As lipegfilgrastim is administered only once, it is conceivable that it improves both compliance and quality-of-life (NCT02488382).


Assuntos
Filgrastim/administração & dosagem , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Ann Hematol ; 100(9): 2381-2385, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230984

RESUMO

Haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Haplo-HSCT) has emerged as a novel strategy to treat patients suffering from severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who lack matched donors due to the availability and easy access to sources of donors. Anti-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) have been found to influence the outcome of Haplo-HSCT. Between March 2016 and March 2020, 7 SAA patients with DSAs underwent Haplo-HSCT in our center. We employed a modified protocol of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange aiming to decrease the levels of DSAs. All 7 patients successfully achieved hematopoietic reconstruction. The median follow-up is 31 (range, 8 to 45) months. They survived and were transfusion-independent in the absence of clonality. No occurrence of primary or secondary graft failure has been noted among any of the patients. There was no severe acute and chronic GVHD occurred. This protocol is effective for Haplo-HSCT in SAA patients with DSAs, which provides an option for the SAA patients without other alternative donor.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Transplante Haploidêntico/métodos , Adulto , Anemia Aplástica/imunologia , Anticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200975

RESUMO

Hereditary anemia has various manifestations, such as sickle cell disease (SCD), Fanconi anemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDD), and thalassemia. The available management strategies for these disorders are still unsatisfactory and do not eliminate the main causes. As genetic aberrations are the main causes of all forms of hereditary anemia, the optimal approach involves repairing the defective gene, possibly through the transplantation of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from a normal matching donor or through gene therapy approaches (either in vivo or ex vivo) to correct the patient's HSCs. To clearly illustrate the importance of cell and gene therapy in hereditary anemia, this paper provides a review of the genetic aberration, epidemiology, clinical features, current management, and cell and gene therapy endeavors related to SCD, thalassemia, Fanconi anemia, and G6PDD. Moreover, we expound the future research direction of HSC derivation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), strategies to edit HSCs, gene therapy risk mitigation, and their clinical perspectives. In conclusion, gene-corrected hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has promising outcomes for SCD, Fanconi anemia, and thalassemia, and it may overcome the limitation of the source of allogenic bone marrow transplantation.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Anemia/genética , Animais , Humanos
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3913, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162888

RESUMO

Human FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are central to immune tolerance. However, their heterogeneity and differentiation remain incompletely understood. Here we use single-cell RNA and T cell receptor sequencing to resolve Treg cells from healthy individuals and patients with or without acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) who undergo stem cell transplantation. These analyses, combined with functional assays, separate Treg cells into naïve, activated, and effector stages, and resolve the HLA-DRhi, LIMS1hi, highly suppressive FOXP3hi, and highly proliferative MKI67hi effector subsets. Trajectory analysis assembles Treg subsets into two differentiation paths (I/II) with distinctive phenotypic and functional programs, ending with the FOXP3hi and MKI67hi subsets, respectively. Transcription factors FOXP3 and SUB1 contribute to some Path I and Path II phenotypes, respectively. These FOXP3hi and MKI67hi subsets and two differentiation pathways are conserved in transplanted patients, despite having functional and migratory impairments under aGVHD. These findings expand the understanding of Treg cell heterogeneity and differentiation and provide a single-cell atlas for the dissection of Treg complexity in health and disease.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Western Blotting , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , RNA-Seq/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
10.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 82, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034795

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, most patients experience relapse after allo-HSCT, with a poor prognosis, and treatment options are limited. The lack of an ideal targetable antigen is a major obstacle for treating patients with relapsed AML. CD38 is known to be expressed on most AML and myeloma cells, and its lack of expression on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) renders it a potential therapeutic target for relapsed AML. To investigate the clinical therapeutic efficacy and safety of CD38-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T-38) cells, we enrolled 6 AML patients who experienced relapse post-allo-HSCT (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04351022). Prior to CAR-T-38 treatment, the blasts in the bone marrow of these patients exhibited a median of 95% (92-99%) CD38 positivity. Four weeks after the initial infusion of CAR-T-38 cells, four of six (66.7%) patients achieved complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi); the median CR or CRi time was 191 (range 117-261) days. The cumulative relapse rate at 6 months was 50%. The median overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) times were 7.9 and 6.4 months, respectively. One case relapsed 117 days after the first CAR-T-38 cell infusion, with remission achieved after the second CAR-T-38 cell infusion. All six patients experienced clinically manageable side effects. In addition, multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) revealed that CAR-T-38 cells eliminated CD38 positive blasts without off-target effects on monocytes and lymphocytes. Although this prospective study has a limited number of cases and a relatively short follow-up time, our preliminary data highlight the clinical utility and safety of CAR-T-38 cell therapy in treating relapsed AML post-allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Humanos
12.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 76, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using a mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) and cord blood transplantation (CBT) are valid alternatives for patients without a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. Here, we compared the allo-HCT outcomes of CBT versus single-allele-mismatched MMUD allo-HCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in acute myeloid leukemia. METHODS: Patients who underwent a first CBT without PTCy (N = 902) or allo-HCT from a (HLA 9/10) MMUD with PTCy (N = 280) were included in the study. A multivariate regression analysis was performed for the whole population. A matched-pair analysis was carried out by propensity score-based 1:1 matching of patients (177 pairs) with known cytogenetic risk. RESULTS: The incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 6 months was 36% versus 32% (p = 0.07) and 15% versus 11% (p = 0.16) for CBT and MMUD cohorts, respectively. CBT was associated with a higher incidence of graft failure (11% vs. 4%, p < 0.01) and higher 2-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) (30% vs. 16%, p < 0.01) compared to MMUD. In the multivariate analysis, CBT was associated with a higher risk of, NRM (HR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.46-2.99, p < 0.0001), and relapse (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1-1.83, p = 0.05), which resulted in worse leukemia-free survival (LFS) (HR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.34-2.12, p < 0.0001), overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.33-2.17, p < 0.0001), and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.21-1.83, p < 0.0001) compared to MMUD. The risk of grade II-IV acute GVHD (p = 0.052) and chronic GVHD (p = 0.69) did not differ significantly between the cohorts. These results were confirmed in a matched-pair analysis. CONCLUSIONS: CBT was associated with lower LFS, OS, and GRFS due to higher NRM, compared to MMUD allo-HCT with PTCy. In the absence of a fully matched donor, 9/10 MMUD with PTCy may be preferred over CBT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores não Relacionados , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Med ; 10(10): 3165-3176, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932107

RESUMO

Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure for leukaemia patients with unfavourable gene mutations who receive allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). There is no consensus on the indication of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for prophylaxis of relapse after allo-HSCT. To evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of prophylactic DLI in patients with unfavourable gene mutations such as FLT3-ITD, TP53, ASXL1, DNMT3A or TET2, we performed a prospective, single-arm study. Prophylactic use of decitabine followed by DLI was planned in patients with TP53 or epigenetic modifier gene mutations. The prophylaxis was planned in 46 recipients: it was administered in 28 patients and it was not administered in 18 patients due to contraindications. No DLI-associated pancytopenia was observed. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 100 days post-DLI were 25.8% and 11.0%, respectively. The rates of chronic GVHD, non-relapse mortality and relapse at 3 years post-DLI were 21.6%, 25.0% and 26.1%, respectively. The 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 48.9% and 48.2%, respectively. Acute GVHD (HR: 2.30, p = 0.016) and relapse (HR: 2.46, p = 0.003) after DLI were independently associated with inferior OS. Data in the current study showed the feasibility of prophylactic DLI with/without decitabine in the early stage after allo-HSCT in patients with unfavourable gene mutations.


Assuntos
Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Transfusão de Linfócitos/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Transfusion ; 61(6): 1830-1844, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is a widely used treatment option in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. The optimal graft cellular composition is not known. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Autograft cellular composition was analyzed after freezing by flow cytometry in 127 MM patients participating in a prospective multicenter study. The impact of graft cellular composition on hematologic recovery and outcome after auto-SCT was evaluated. RESULTS: A higher graft CD34+ cell content predicted faster platelet recovery after auto-SCT in both the short and long term. In patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, a higher graft CD34+ count (>2.5 × 106 /kg) was linked with shorter progression-free survival (PFS; 28 vs. 46 months, p = 0.04), but there was no difference in overall survival (OS) (p = 0.53). In a multivariate model, a higher graft CD34+ CD133+ CD38- (>0.065 × 106 /kg, p = 0.009) and NK cell count (>2.5 × 106 /kg, p = 0.026), lenalidomide maintenance and standard-risk cytogenetics predicted better PFS. In contrast, a higher CD34+ count (>2.5 × 106 /kg, p = 0.015) predicted worse PFS. A very low CD3+ cell count (≤20 × 106 /kg, p = 0.001) in the infused graft and high-risk cytogenetics remained predictive of worse OS. CONCLUSIONS: Autograft cellular composition may impact outcome in MM patients after auto-SCT. More studies are needed to define optimal graft composition.


Assuntos
Autoenxertos/citologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Antígeno AC133/análise , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/análise , Idoso , Antígenos CD34/análise , Complexo CD3/análise , Feminino , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante Autólogo/métodos
15.
Transfusion ; 61(6): 1856-1866, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various processing methodologies are routinely used to reduce volume and red blood cell content of umbilical cord blood (UCB) units collected for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There is limited information regarding effects of UCB processing techniques on clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective data analysis compared laboratory and clinical outcomes following single-unit UCB transplantation performed between 1999 and 2015. All UCB units were from St. Louis Cord Blood Bank and all were manually processed with either Hetastarch processed cord blood units (HCB) (n = 661) or PrepaCyte processed cord blood units (PCB) (n = 84). Additional sensitivity analysis focused on units transplanted from 2010 to 2015 and included 105 HCB and 84 PCB. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the two groups. Pre-freeze total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts, cell doses/kg of recipient weight, and total colony-forming units (CFUs) were higher in PCB compared with HCB. Post-thaw, the PCB group had a significantly better total nucleated cell recovery, while there were no significant differences in cell viability, CFU recovery, or CD34+ cell recovery. Primary analysis demonstrated faster neutrophil and platelet engraftment for PCB but no differences in overall survival (OS), whereas sensitivity analysis found no effect of processing method on engraftment, but better OS in the HCB group compared with PCB group. CONCLUSION: The UCB processing method had no significant impact on engraftment. However, we cannot completely exclude the effect of processing method on OS. Additional studies may be warranted to investigate the potential impact of the PCB processing method on clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Contagem de Eritrócitos , Sangue Fetal/transplante , Adolescente , Antígenos CD34/análise , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Criança , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Eritrócitos/citologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido , Indicadores e Reagentes , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 605766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025637

RESUMO

Patients often undergo consolidation allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) to maintain long-term remission following chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. Comparisons of safety and efficacy of allo-HSCT following complete remission (CR) achieved by CAR-T therapy versus by chemotherapy for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) has not been reported. We performed a parallel comparison of transplant outcomes in 105 consecutive B-ALL patients who received allo-HSCT after achieving CR with CAR-T therapy (n=27) or with chemotherapy (n=78). The CAR-T-allo-HSCT group had more patients in second CR compared to the chemotherapy-allo-HSCT group (78% vs. 37%; p<0.01) and more with complex cytogenetics (44% vs. 6%; p<0.001) but the proportion of patients with pre-transplant minimal residual disease (MRD) was similar. The median follow-up time was 49 months (range: 25-54 months). The CAR-T cohort had a higher incidence of Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD 48.1% [95% CI: 46.1-50.1%] vs. 25.6% [95%CI: 25.2-26.0%]; p=0.016). The incidence of Grade III-IV aGVHD was similar in both groups (11.1% vs.11.5%, p=0.945). The overall incidence of chronic GVHD in the CAR-T group was higher compared to the chemotherapy group (73.3% [95%CI: 71.3-75.3%] vs. 55.0% [95%CI: 54.2-55.8%], p=0.107), but the rate of extensive chronic GVHD was similar (11.1% vs.11.9%, p=0.964). Efficacy measures 4 years following transplant were all similar in the CAR-T vs. the chemotherapy groups: cumulative incidences of relapse (CIR; 11.1% vs.12.8%; p=0.84), cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality (NRM; 18.7% vs. 23.1%; p=0.641) leukemia-free survival (LFS; 70.2% vs. 64.1%; p=0.63) and overall survival (OS; 70.2% vs. 65.4%; p=0.681). We found that pre-transplant MRD-negative CR predicted a lower CIR and a higher LFS compared with MRD-positive CR. In conclusion, our data indicate that, in B-ALL patients, similar clinical safety outcomes could be achieved with either CD19 CAR T-cell therapy followed by allo-HSCT or chemotherapy followed by allo-HSCT. Despite the inclusion of more patients with advanced diseases in the CAR-T group, the 4-year LFS and OS achieved with CAR T-cells followed by allo-HSCT were as remarkable as those achieved with chemotherapy followed by allo-HSCT. Further confirmation of these results requires larger, randomized clinical trials.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Adolescente , Antígenos CD19 , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Recidiva , Retratamento , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Hematol ; 100(6): 1377-1389, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954817

RESUMO

Patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) are given a real chance of cure, but at the same time are confronted with a considerable risk of mortality and of severe long-term impediments. This narrative, non-systematic literature review aims to describe the supportive and palliative care needs of allo-SCT recipients, including long-term survivors or those relapsing or dying after transplantation. It also evaluates the feasibility and effectivity of integrating palliative care early in transplant procedures. In this appraisal of available literature, the main findings relate to symptoms like fatigue and psychological distress, which appear to be very common in the whole allo-SCT trajectory and might even persist many years post-transplantation. Chronic GvHD has a major negative impact on quality of life. Overall, there is a paucity of research on further issues in the context of allo-SCT, like the distress related to the frequently unpredictable post-transplant trajectory and prognosis, as well as the end-of-life phase. First randomized controlled results support the effectiveness of early integration of specialized palliative care expertise into transplant algorithms. Barriers to this implementation are discussed.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Cuidados Paliativos , Transplante Homólogo , Doença Crônica , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 642198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868276

RESUMO

Humanized immune system (HIS) mouse models are useful tools for the in vivo investigation of human hematopoiesis. However, the majority of HIS models currently in use are biased towards lymphocyte development and fail to support long-term multilineage leucocytes and erythrocytes. Those that achieve successful multilineage reconstitution often require preconditioning steps which are expensive, cause animal morbidity, are technically demanding, and poorly reproducible. In this study, we address this challenge by using HSPC-NBSGW mice, in which NOD,B6.SCID IL-2rγ -/-KitW41/W41 (NBSGW) mice are engrafted with human CD133+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) without the need for preconditioning by sublethal irradiation. These HSPCs are enriched in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), while NBSGW mice are permissive to human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment, thus reducing the cell number required for successful HIS development. B cells reconstitute with the greatest efficiency, including mature B cells capable of class-switching following allogeneic stimulation and, within lymphoid organs and peripheral blood, T cells at a spectrum of stages of maturation. In the thymus, human thymocytes are identified at all major stages of development. Phenotypically distinct subsets of myeloid cells, including dendritic cells and mature monocytes, engraft to a variable degree in the bone marrow and spleen, and circulate in peripheral blood. Finally, we observe human erythrocytes which persist in the periphery at high levels following macrophage clearance. The HSPC-NBSGW model therefore provides a useful platform for the study of human hematological and immunological processes and pathologies.


Assuntos
Hematopoese/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Xenoenxertos , Modelos Animais , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID
20.
Leuk Res ; 105: 106568, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the standard induction regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this single center retrospective study, we assessed outcomes of 99 consecutive adult AML patients treated with a risk-adapted strategy with a median follow-up of 35.5 months. RESULTS: We identified 24 (24 %), 55 (56 %) and 20 (20 %) patients classified as favorable-, intermediate-, and adverse- risk group respectively, according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 classification. Patients either received idarubicin and cytarabine induction chemotherapy with or without FLT3 inhibitors or hypomethylating agents based on age and comorbidity. The complete response (CR) rate was 76 % (82 % and 61 % in patients aged < 60 and ≥ 60, respectively). For the whole cohort, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 53 %, being 62 % and 30 % in patients aged < 60 and ≥ 60, respectively. The 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 54 %, with 56 % and 45 % in patients aged < 60 and ≥ 60, respectively. The 3-year LFS were 58 %, 62 % and 25 % for patients within ELN favorable-, intermediate-, and adverse-risk groups respectively. Twenty-seven (36 %) out of 75 patients with intermediate- and adverse-risk disease underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in first CR with 92 % of them receiving post-transplant maintenance consisting of azacitidine in 19 (76 %) patients or sorafenib in 6 (24 %) patients. Of these patients younger than 60 years, the 3-year OS and LFS were 85 % and 69 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results indicate an improved OS for AML patients especially in intermediate-risk category who were treated with a total therapy consisting of induction chemotherapy followed by allo-HCT and post-transplant maintenance.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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