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1.
BMJ ; 370: m3176, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958461

RESUMO

Despite considerable advances in treatment approaches in the past two decades, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Treatments for myeloma continue to evolve with many emerging immunotherapies. The first immunotherapy used to treat hematologic cancers, including multiple myeloma, was an allogeneic stem cell transplant. In the mid-2000s, immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide, lenalidomide, and subsequently pomalidomide were proven to be effective in multiple myeloma and substantially improved survival. The next wave of immunotherapies for multiple myeloma included the monoclonal antibodies daratumumab and elotuzumab, which were approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2015. Subsequently, a variety of immunotherapies have been developed for multiple myeloma, including chimeric antigen receptor T cells, bispecific antibodies, antibody drug conjugates, and checkpoint inhibitors. Many of these emerging treatments target the B cell maturation antigen, which is expressed on plasma cells, although several other novel receptors are also being studied. This review summarizes the evidence of these various immunotherapies, their mechanism of action, and data from clinical trials regarding the treatments' safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco
2.
J Endod ; 46(9S): S135-S142, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950185

RESUMO

We showed the safety and efficacy of pulp regenerative therapy by the autologous transplantation of mobilized dental pulp stem cells with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in a pilot clinical study of young and middle-aged pulpectomized teeth. An experimental study in dogs further demonstrated an age-dependent decline in the amount of regenerated pulp tissue. In our society, in which people will soon live beyond 100 years, this therapy should be efficacious for contributing to the functional survival and endurance of the tooth not only for pulpectomized young teeth but also for aged teeth with periapical disease. However, there are 2 challenges: 1 is enhancing pulp regeneration in aged teeth, and another is complete disinfection before cell transplantation. Thus, this review presents trypsin pretreatment for the former and a novel irrigant, nanobubbles with antibacterial nanopolymers, for the latter, thus demonstrating potential utility for pulp regenerative therapy in aged teeth with periapical disease.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Envelhecimento , Animais , Cães , Regeneração
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e041276, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise current COVID-19-related research activities. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Clinical trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov testing interventions relevant to COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for COVID-19 and related terms to identify trials registered between 1 December 2019 and 1 May 2020 that test interventions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We classified trials according to intervention type, and report key trial characteristics including recruitment status, location, funder type, target enrolment number, intervention model (single group, randomised or sequential assignment) and projected completion date. RESULTS: Of the 630 identified clinical trials related to COVID-19, 509 (81%) involved the study of drugs or biological agents. Of these trials of drugs and biologics, 305 (60%) use an open-label design, 43 (8%) are single blinded (participant only) and 161 (32%) are double blinded (participant and investigator). 94 (18%) of the drug/biological trials are non-randomised. Either hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine is administered as part of the study protocol in 152 (30%) of the drug/biological trials. The total planned enrolment for these hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine trials is over 200 000 participants, which represents 65% of the total planned enrolment for all registered trials of drugs or biologics. There are also at least 25 registered trials of azithromycin (n=53), convalescent plasma (n=38), lopinavir/ritonavir (n=30), stem cell treatments (n=29) and tocilizumab (n=25). 142 trials were registered in the first 3 months of 2020, and 488 trials were registered between 1 April and 1 May 2020. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a robust research response to the COVID-19 pandemic, though many of the currently planned and ongoing trials focus on a small number of potential therapies, and many also lack essential design features and power necessary to provide accurate treatment effect estimates.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Método Simples-Cego
5.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 24(5): 472-474, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945803

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused many hospitals and treatment centers to temporarily restrict or prohibit visitors to control viral spread. This article presents a case study of a patient receiving a bone marrow transplantation who experienced psychological distress during hospitalization because of social isolation. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for distress management are used as a framework to outline a nursing plan of care for managing social isolation-related psychological distress in patients who are hospitalized during a worldwide pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Hospitalização , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1429-1432, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798439

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a kind of malignant hematological disease with high mortality. Patients 5-year survival rate is less than 25% and that of elderly patients is lower than 10%. Although the standardized chemotherapy or hematopoetic stem cell transplantation can significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy for AML, but disease recurrence is still a difficult problem in most patients. Chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy has been regarded as the most promising treatment for AML in recent years, but immunotherapy is prone to immune escape, which has become an important factor affecting the therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of immune escape of AML and taking corresponding measures in time to improve the therapeutic effect and reduce the recurrence of AML are of great significance. In this review, the important cells that cause immune escape, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), natural killer cells (NK), and cell surface inhibitory receptor PD-1 (programmed death 1), which mediate immune escape of AML cells are summarized, so as to provide valuable reference for research to improve the effect of AML immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Transplante de Células-Tronco
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5719-5743, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821098

RESUMO

This review aims to summarize the methods that have been used till today, highlight methods that are currently being developed, and predict the future roadmap for anticancer therapy. In the beginning of this review, established approaches for anticancer therapy, such as conventional chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are summarized. To counteract the side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to increase limited anticancer efficacy, nanodrug- and stem cell-based therapies have been introduced. However, current level of understanding and strategies of nanodrug and stem cell-based therapies have limitations that make them inadequate for clinical application. Subsequently, this manuscript reviews methods with fewer side effects compared to those of the methods mentioned above which are currently being investigated and are already being applied in the clinic. The newer strategies that are already being clinically applied include cancer immunotherapy, especially T cell-mediated therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, and strategies that are gaining attention include the manipulation of the tumor microenvironment or the activation of dendritic cells. Tumor-associated macrophage repolarization is another potential strategy for cancer immunotherapy, a method which activates macrophages to immunologically attack malignant cells. At the end of this review, we discuss combination therapies, which are the future of cancer treatment. Nanoparticle-based anticancer immunotherapies seem to be effective, in that they effectively use nanodrugs to elicit a greater immune response. The combination of these therapies with others, such as photothermal or tumor vaccine therapy, can result in a greater anticancer effect. Thus, the future of anticancer therapy aims to increase the effectiveness of therapy using various therapies in a synergistic combination rather than individually.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Nanomedicina/tendências , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Cell Biol Int ; 44(11): 2182-2191, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767687

RESUMO

Since its eruption in China, novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been reported in most of the countries and territories (>200) of the world with ∼18 million confirmed cases (as of August 3, 2020). In most of the countries, COVID-19 upsurge is uncontrolled with a significant mortality rate. Currently, no treatment effective for COVID-19 is available in the form of vaccines or antiviral drugs and patients are currently treated symptomatically. Although the majority of the patients develop mild symptoms and recover without mechanical ventilation for respiratory management, severe respiratory illness develops in a significant portion of affected patients and may result in death. While the scientific community is working to develop vaccines and drugs against the COVID-19 pandemic, novel alternative therapies may reduce the mortality rate. Recent use of stem cells for critically ill COVID-19 patients in a small group of patients in China and subsequent Emergency Use Authorization of stem cells by Food and Drug Administration to Global Institute of Stem Cell Therapy and Research and Athersys has created excitement among the medical community. As a result, several clinical trials have been registered using stem cells for COVID-19 treatment that aim to use different cell sources, dosage, and importantly diverse targeted patient groups. In this brief review, the possibilities of stem cell use in COVID-19 patients and relevant challenges in their use have been discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Pandemias
9.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(6-7): 602-611, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855027

RESUMO

Mechanisms of late radio-induced lesions are the result of multiple and complex phenomena, with many entangled cellular and tissue factors. The biological continuum between acute and late radio-induced effects will be described, with firstly a break in homeostasis that leads to cellular redistributions. New insights into late toxicity will finally be addressed. Individual radiosensitivity is a primary factor for the development of late toxicity, and clinicians urgently need predictive tests to offer truly personalized radiation therapy. An update will be made on the various functional and genetic tests currently being validated. The management of radio-induced side effects remains a frequent issue for radiation oncologists, and an update will be made for certain specific clinical situations. Finally, an innovative management for patients with significant side effects after pelvic radiotherapy will be developed, involved mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, with the presentation of the "PRISME" protocol currently open to patients recruitment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Tolerância a Radiação , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013202, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a leading cause of mortality and long-term neurological sequelae, affecting thousands of children worldwide. Current therapies to treat HIE are limited to cooling. Stem cell-based therapies offer a potential therapeutic approach to repair or regenerate injured brain tissue. These preclinical findings have now culminated in ongoing human neonatal trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of stem cell-based interventions for the treatment of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborn infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 8 June 2020), Embase (1980 to 8 June 2020), and CINAHL (1982 to 8 June 2020). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials and cluster trials comparing 1) stem cell-based interventions (any type) compared to control (placebo or no treatment); 2) use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of type (e.g. number of doses or passages) or source (e.g. autologous versus allogeneic, or bone marrow versus cord) versus MSCs of other type or source; 3) use of stem cell-based interventions other than MSCs of type (e.g. mononuclear cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, neural stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and inducible pluripotent stem cells) or source (e.g. autologous versus allogeneic, or bone marrow versus cord) versus stem cell-based interventions other than MSCs of other type or source; or 4) MSCs versus stem cell-based interventions other than MSCs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For each of the included trials, two authors independently planned to extract data (e.g. number of participants, birth weight, gestational age, type and source of MSCs or other stem cell-based interventions) and assess the risk of bias (e.g. adequacy of randomisation, blinding, completeness of follow-up). The primary outcomes considered in this review are all-cause neonatal mortality, major neurodevelopmental disability, death or major neurodevelopmental disability assessed at 18 to 24 months of age. We planned to use the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Our search strategy yielded 616 references. Two review authors independently assessed all references for inclusion. We did not find any completed studies for inclusion. Fifteen RCTs are currently registered and ongoing. We describe the three studies we excluded. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently no evidence from randomised trials that assesses the benefit or harms of stem cell-based interventions for the prevention of morbidity and mortality following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in newborn infants.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido
11.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1793-1804, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613281

RESUMO

The phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM3 study (NCT02181413) demonstrated improved progression-free survival with ixazomib maintenance versus placebo post autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in multiple myeloma patients. We report additional safety data from TOURMALINE-MM3 to inform adverse event (AE) management recommendations. Patients were randomized 3:2 to receive ixazomib (n = 395) or placebo (n = 261) on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles for ~ 2 years or until progressive disease/toxicity. The initial 3-mg ixazomib dose was escalated to 4 mg in cycle 5, if tolerated in cycles 1-4. Safety was a secondary endpoint assessed in all treated patients; AEs were graded using Common Terminology Criteria for AEs v4.03. The rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs was higher in the ixazomib arm (19%) than in the placebo arm (5%), but the rate of discontinuation due to AEs was similar (7% vs. 5%). For AEs of clinical interest, rates were higher with ixazomib versus placebo: nausea 39% versus 15%, vomiting 27% versus 11%, diarrhea 35% versus 24%, thrombocytopenia 13% versus 3%, and peripheral neuropathy 19% versus 15%. However, the majority of events were low-grade, manageable with supportive therapy or dose reduction, and reversible, and did not result in discontinuation. There was no evidence of cumulative, long-term, or late-onset toxicity with ixazomib maintenance. Ixazomib is an efficacious and tolerable option for post-ASCT maintenance. AEs associated with ixazomib maintenance can be managed in the context of routine post-ASCT supportive care due to the limited additional toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02181413.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Autoenxertos , Compostos de Boro/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Boro/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Silicatos/administração & dosagem , Silicatos/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
JAMA ; 324(1): 79-89, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633805

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with systemic amyloidosis are underdiagnosed. Overall, 25% of patients with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis die within 6 months of diagnosis and 25% of patients with amyloid transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis die within 24 months of diagnosis. Effective therapy exists but is ineffective if end-organ damage is severe. Objective: To provide evidence-based recommendations that could allow clinicians to diagnose this rare set of diseases earlier and enable accurate staging and counseling about prognosis. Evidence Review: A comprehensive literature search was conducted by a reference librarian with publication dates from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2019. Key search terms included amyloid, amyloidosis, nephrotic syndrome, heart failure preserved ejection fraction, and peripheral neuropathy. Exclusion criteria included case reports, non-English-language text, and case series of fewer than 10 patients. The authors independently selected and appraised relevant literature. Findings: There was a total of 1769 studies in the final data set. Eighty-one articles were included in this review, of which 12 were randomized clinical trials of therapy that included 3074 patients, 9 were case series, and 3 were cohort studies. The incidence of AL amyloidosis is approximately 12 cases per million persons per year and there is an estimated prevalence of 30 000 to 45 000 cases in the US and European Union. The incidence of variant ATTR amyloidosis is estimated to be 0.3 cases per year per million persons with a prevalence estimate of 5.2 cases per million persons. Wild-type ATTR is estimated to have a prevalence of 155 to 191 cases per million persons. Amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult nondiabetic nephrotic syndrome; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, particularly if restrictive features are present; unexplained hepatomegaly without imaging abnormalities; peripheral neuropathy with distal sensory symptoms, such as numbness, paresthesia, and dysesthesias (although the autonomic manifestations occasionally may be the presenting feature); and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with atypical clinical features. Staging can be performed using blood testing only. Therapeutic decision-making for AL amyloidosis involves choosing between high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant or bortezomib-based chemotherapy. There are 3 therapies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for managing ATTR amyloidosis, depending on clinical phenotype. Conclusions and Relevance: All forms of amyloidosis are underdiagnosed. All forms now have approved therapies that have been demonstrated to improve either survival or disability and quality of life. The diagnosis should be considered in patients that have a multisystem disorder involving the heart, kidney, liver, or nervous system.


Assuntos
Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Benzoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Inativação Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/mortalidade , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/fisiopatologia , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Proteinúria/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco
13.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1813-1822, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607596

RESUMO

Infection is associated with great morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), but evidence for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is lacking. We aimed to investigate risk factors for IFI in MM patients and to determine its impact on patients' survival. We retrospectively analyzed MM patients at Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan between January 2002 and October 2018. MM was diagnosed according to the International Myeloma Working Group criteria. IFI was defined according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. All risk factors of IFI in MM patients were estimated using Cox regression models in the univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 623 patients recruited, 22 (3.5%) were diagnosed with proven or probable IFI. Light chain disease (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 6.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10-21.66), hemoglobin less than 8 g/dl (adjusted HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.32-8.42), serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl (adjusted HR 3.24, 95% CI 1.09-9.68), and having received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) (adjusted HR 5.98, 95% CI 1.62-22.03) were significantly associated with IFI in the multivariate analysis. Contracting IFI was in turn associated with early mortality (adjusted HR 11.60, 95% CI 1.26-106.74). Light chain disease, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and receiving allo-SCT were independent predictors of IFI in MM patients. The early mortality risk is much higher in those encountering IFI. Physicians must be aware of the rare but potentially lethal infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/terapia , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aloenxertos , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/sangue , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3369, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632153

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons are an expected source for cell-based therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD). The regulatory criteria for the clinical application of these therapies, however, have not been established. Here we show the results of our pre-clinical study, in which we evaluate the safety and efficacy of dopaminergic progenitors (DAPs) derived from a clinical-grade human iPSC line. We confirm the characteristics of DAPs by in vitro analyses. We also verify that the DAP population include no residual undifferentiated iPSCs or early neural stem cells and have no genetic aberration in cancer-related genes. Furthermore, in vivo studies using immunodeficient mice reveal no tumorigenicity or toxicity of the cells. When the DAPs are transplanted into the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the animals show behavioral improvement. Based on these results, we started a clinical trial to treat PD patients in 2018.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/transplante , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos Nus , Transplante Heterólogo
15.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 19(7): 463-479, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612263

RESUMO

Naturally occurring stem cells isolated from humans have been used therapeutically for decades. This has primarily involved the transplantation of primary cells such as haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells and, more recently, derivatives of pluripotent stem cells. However, the advent of cell-engineering approaches is ushering in a new generation of stem cell-based therapies, greatly expanding their therapeutic utility. These next-generation stem cells are being used as 'Trojan horses' to improve the delivery of drugs and oncolytic viruses to intractable tumours and are also being engineered with angiogenic, neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory molecules to accelerate the repair of injured or diseased tissues. Moreover, gene therapy and gene editing technologies are being used to create stem cell derivatives with improved functionality, specificity and responsiveness compared with their natural counterparts. Here, we review these engineering approaches and areas in which they will help broaden the utility and clinical applicability of stem cells.


Assuntos
Engenharia Celular/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos
17.
Life Sci ; 257: 118091, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668325

RESUMO

AIM: Inflammatory and oxidative microenvironment at diabetic' wound site hinder the therapeutic efficacy of cell-based therapies in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to explore the competence of curcumin preconditioned human adipose derived cells (hASCs) in combination with platelet rich plasma (PRP) for the repair of wounds in diabetic rats. MAIN METHODS: The cytoprotective effect of curcumin preconditioning for hASCs against hyperglycemic stress was evaluated through analysis of cell morphology, viability, cytotoxicity, senescence, and scratch wound healing assays. Subsequently, the healing capacity of curcumin preconditioned hASCs (Cur-hASCs) added to PRP was examined in excisional wounded diabetic rat model. Healed skin biopsies were excised to analyze gene and protein expression of wound healing markers by qPCR and western blotting. Histopathological changes were observed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. KEY FINDINGS: We found that Cur-hASCs counteract the glucose stress much better than non-preconditioned hASCs by maintaining their cellular morphology and viability as well as metabolic potential. Further in vivo results revealed that, Cur-hASCs co-injected with PRP resulted in faster wound closure, improved fibroblast proliferation, increased neovascularization, marked reduction in inflammatory cells, and compact extracellular matrix with completely covered thick epithelium. Moreover, Cur-hASCs + PRP treatment significantly improved the expression of key healing markers such as pro-angiogenic (Vegf), dermal matrix deposition (Col1α1), cell migration (bFgf) and cell proliferation (Pcna) at wound site. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings propose a combinatorial therapy (Cur-hASCs + PRP) as a novel modality to improve the efficacy of hASCs-based therapy for diabetic wounds.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658201

RESUMO

Neural stem cell (NSC) therapy is an emerging innovative treatment for stroke, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders. As compared to intracranial delivery, intra-arterial administration of NSCs is less invasive and produces a more diffuse distribution of NSCs within the brain parenchyma. Further, intra-arterial delivery allows the first-pass effect in the brain circulation, lessening the potential for trapping of cells in peripheral organs, such as liver and spleen, a complication associated with peripheral injections. Here, we detail the methodology, in both mice and rats, for delivery of NSCs through the common carotid artery (mouse) or external carotid artery (rat) to the ipsilateral hemisphere after an ischemic stroke. Using GFP-labeled NSCs, we illustrate the widespread distribution achieved throughout the rodent ipsilateral hemisphere at 1 d, 1 week and 4 weeks after postischemic delivery, with a higher density in or near the ischemic injury site. In addition to long-term survival, we show evidence of differentiation of GFP-labeled cells at 4 weeks. The intra-arterial delivery approach described here for NSCs can also be used for administration of therapeutic compounds, and thus has broad applicability to varied CNS injury and disease models across multiple species.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Injeções Intra-Arteriais/métodos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 163-179, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706206

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and fatal lung disease of multifactorial etiology. Most of the available drugs and FDA-approved therapies for treating pulmonary hypertension attempt to overcome the imbalance between vasoactive and vasodilator mediators, and restore the endothelial cell function. Traditional medications for treating PAH include the prostacyclin analogs and receptor agonists, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, endothelin-receptor antagonists, and cGMP activators. While the current FDA-approved drugs showed improvements in quality of life and hemodynamic parameters, they have shown only very limited beneficial effects on survival and disease progression. None of them offers a cure against PAH, and the median survival rate remains less than three years from diagnosis. Extensive research efforts have led to the emergence of innovative therapeutic approaches in the area of PAH. In this review, we provide an overview of the current FDA-approved therapies in PAH and discuss the associated clinical trials and reported-side effects. As recent studies have led to the emergence of innovative therapeutic approaches in the area of PAH, we also focus on the latest promising therapies in preclinical studies such as stem cell-based therapies, gene transfer, and epigenetic therapies.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/terapia , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/mortalidade , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 520, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and therapeutic effects of allogeneic human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in treating severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single centre, two arm ratio 1:1, triple blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty serious COVID-19 cases will be enrolled in the trial from April 6th to December 31st 2020. INCLUSION CRITERIA: hospitalised patients at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University satisfy all criteria as below: 1)Adults aged 18-65 years;2)Voluntarily participate in this clinical trial and sign the "informed consent form" or have consent from a legal representative.3)Diagnosed with severe pneumonia of COVID-19: nucleic acid test SARS-CoV-2 positive; respiratory distress (respiratory rate > 30 times / min); hypoxia (resting oxygen saturation < 93% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen concentration < 300 mmHg).4)COVID-19 featured lung lesions in chest X-ray image. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients will be excluded from the study if they meet any of the following criteria. 1.Patients have received other experimental treatment for COVID-19 within the last 30 days;2.Patients have severe liver condition (e.g., Child Pugh score >=C or AST> 5 times of the upper limit);3.Patients with severe renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate <=30mL / min/1.73 m2) or patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis;4.Patients who are co-infected with HIV, hepatitis B, tuberculosis, influenza virus, adenovirus or other respiratory infection viruses;5.Female patients who have no sexual protection in the last 30 days prior to the screening assessment;6.Pregnant or lactating women or women using estrogen contraception;7.Patients who are planning to become pregnant during the study period or within 6 months after the end of the study period;8.Other conditions that the researchers consider not suitable for participating in this clinical trial. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: There will be two study groups: experimental and control. Both will receive all necessary routine treatment for COVID-19. The experimental group will receive an intravenous injection of dental pulp stem cells suspension (3.0x107 human DPSCs in 30ml saline solution) on day 1, 4 and 7; The control group will receive an equal amount of saline (placebo) on the same days. Clinical and laboratory observations will be performed for analysis during a period of 28 days for each case since the commencement of the study. MAIN OUTCOMES: 1. Primary outcome The primary outcome is Time To Clinical Improvement (TTCI). By definition, TTCI is the time (days) it takes to downgrade two levels from the following six ordered grades [(grade 1) discharge to (grade 6) death] in the clinical state of admission to the start of study treatments (hDPSCs or placebo). Six grades of ordered variables: GradeDescriptionGrade 1:Discharged of patient;Grade 2:Hospitalized without oxygen supplement;Grade 3:Hospitalized, oxygen supplement is required, but NIV / HFNC is not required;Grade 4:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, and NIV / HFNC treatment is required;Grade 5:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, requiring ECMO and/or IMV;Grade 6:Death. ABBREVIATIONS: NIV, non-invasive mechanical ventilation; HFNC, high-flow nasal catheter; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation. 2. Secondary outcomes 2.1 vital signs: heart rate, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure). During the screening period, hospitalization every day (additional time points of D1, D4, D7 30min before injection, 2h ± 30min, 24h ± 30min after the injection) and follow-up period D90 ± 3 days. 2.2 Laboratory examinations: during the screening period, 30 minutes before D1, D4, D7 infusion, 2h ± 30min, 24h ± 30min after the end of infusion, D10, D14, D28 during hospitalization or discharge day and follow-up period D90 ± 3 days. 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate. 2.5 Inflammation indicators: hypersensitive C-reactive protein, serum amyloid (SAA); 2.6 Infectious disease testing: Hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb), Hepatitis C (Anti-HCV), AIDS (HIVcombin), syphilis (Anti-TP), cytomegalovirus CMV-IgM, cytomegalovirus CMV-IgG; only during the screening period and follow-up period D90 ± 3. 2.7 Immunological testing: Collect peripheral blood to detect the phenotype of T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, natural killer cell, Macrophage and neutrophil by using flow cytometry. Collect peripheral blood to detect the gene profile of mononuclear cells by using single-cell analyses. Collect peripheral blood serum to detect various immunoglobulin changes: IgA, IgG, IgM, total IgE; Collect peripheral blood serum to explore the changes of cytokines, Th1 cytokines (IL-1 ß, IL-2, TNF-a, ITN-γ), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL -10). 2.8 Pregnancy test: blood ß-HCG, female subjects before menopause are examined during the screening period and follow-up period D90 ± 3. 2.9 Urine routine: color, clarity, urine sugar, bilirubin, ketone bodies, specific gravity, pH, urobilinogen, nitrite, protein, occult blood, leukocyte enzymes, red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, non-squamous epithelial cells , Transparent cast, pathological cast, crystal, fungus; 2.10 Stool Routine: color, traits, white blood cells, red blood cells, fat globules, eggs of parasites, fungi, occult blood (chemical method), occult blood (immune method), transferrin (2h ± 30min after the injection and not detected after discharge). RANDOMIZATION: Block randomization method will be applied by computer to allocate the participants into experimental and control groups. The random ratio is 1:1. BLINDING (MASKING): Participants, outcomes assessors and investigators (including personnel in laboratory and imaging department who issue the sample report or image observations) will be blinded. Injections of cell suspension and saline will be coded in accordance with the patient's randomisation group. The blind strategy is kept by an investigator who does not deliver the medical care or assess primary outcome results. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Twenty participants will be randomized to the experimental and control groups (10 per group). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version number, hDPSC-CoVID-2019-02-2020 Version 2.0, March 13, 2020. Patients screening commenced on 16th April and an estimated date of the recruitment of the final participants will be around end of July. . TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration: World Health Organization Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000031319; March 27,2020. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04336254; April 7, 2020 Other Study ID Numbers: hDPSC-CoVID-2019-02-2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Transplante de Células-Tronco/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
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