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1.
J Card Surg ; 36(3): 1148-1149, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448478

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 has created unprecedented challenges for society, and specifically the medical community. While the pandemic continues to unfold, the transplant community has had to pivot to keep recipients, donors, and institutional transplant teams safe given the unique circumstances inherent to solid organ transplantation.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Pandemias , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Transplantados , Comorbidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos
2.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 12(1): 17-26, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess changes in patterns of practice and outcomes over time, we reviewed all patients who underwent heart transplantation (HTx) at our institution and compared two consecutive eras with significantly different immunosuppressive protocols (cohort 1 [80 HTx, June 1995-June 2006]; cohort 2 [108 HTx, July 2006-September 2018]). METHODS: Retrospective study of 180 patients undergoing 188 HTx (June 1995-September 2018; 176 first time HTx, 10 second HTx, and 2 third HTx). In 2006, we commenced pre-HTx desensitization for highly sensitized patients and started using tacrolimus as our primary postoperative immunosuppressive agent. The primary outcome was mortality. Survival was modeled by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were created to identify prognostic factors for survival. RESULTS: Our 188 HTx included 18 neonates, 85 infants, 83 children, and 2 adults (>18 years). Median age was 260.0 days (range: 5 days-23.8 years). Median weight was 7.5 kg (range: 2.2-113 kg). Patients in cohort 1 were less likely to have been immunosensitized preoperatively (12.5% vs 28.7%, P = .017). Nevertheless, Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested superior survival in cohort 2 (P = .0045). Patients in cohort 2 were more likely to be alive one year, five years, and ten years after HTx. Multivariable analysis identified the earlier era (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval] for recent era = 0.32 [0.14-0.73]), transplantation after prior Norwood operation (HR = 4.44 [1.46-13.46]), and number of prior cardiac operations (HR = 1.33 [1.03-1.71]) as risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of 23 years of pediatric and congenital HTx reveals superior survival in the most recent 12-year era, despite the higher proportion of patients with elevated panel reactive antibody in the most recent era. This improvement was temporally associated with changes in our immunosuppressive strategy.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Procedimentos de Norwood/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(25): 2968-2976, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal dysfunction is a risk factor for mortality in patients with chronic tricuspid regurgitation due to acquired heart disease. Ebstein anomaly is the most common cause of primary tricuspid regurgitation in adults with congenital heart disease, but the prevalence and prognostic implications of hepatorenal dysfunction are unknown in this population. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors and prognostic implications of hepatorenal dysfunction, as measured primarily by the use of model for end-stage liver disease excluding international normalized ratio (MELD-XI score), as well as looking at other associated factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of adults with Ebstein anomaly who received care at Mayo Clinic from 2003 to 2018. RESULTS: Of 692 patients, the median MELD-XI score was 10.2 (interquartile range: 9.4 to 13.3); 53 (8%) died and 3 (0.4%) underwent heart transplant. MELD-XI was an independent predictor of death/transplant (hazard ratio: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 2.06; p < 0.001). In the subset of patients with serial MELD-XI scores (n = 416), temporal change in MELD-XI score (ΔMELD-XI) was also a predictor of death/transplant. In the subset of patients who underwent tricuspid valve surgery (n = 344), a post-operative improvement in MELD-XI score (ΔMELD-XI) was associated with improved long-term survival. Impaired right atrial (RA) reservoir strain and elevated estimated RA pressure were associated with worse baseline MELD-XI and ΔMELD-XI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatorenal dysfunction is a predictor of mortality in Ebstein anomaly, and RA dysfunction and hypertension are hemodynamic biomarkers that can identify patients at risk for deterioration in hepatorenal function and mortality. These data highlight the prognostic importance of noncardiac organ-system dysfunction, and provide complementary clinical risk stratification metrics for management of these patients.


Assuntos
Anomalia de Ebstein , Transplante de Coração , Insuficiência Hepática , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Insuficiência Renal , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Adulto , Anomalia de Ebstein/complicações , Anomalia de Ebstein/mortalidade , Anomalia de Ebstein/fisiopatologia , Anomalia de Ebstein/cirurgia , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Hepática/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática/etiologia , Insuficiência Hepática/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044976

RESUMO

Demand for heart transplants far exceeds supply of donated organs. This is attributed to the high percentage of donor hearts that are discarded and to the narrow six-hour time window currently available for transplantation. Ex-vivo heart perfusion (EVHP) provides the opportunity for resuscitation of damaged organs and extended transplantation time window by enabling functional assessment of the hearts in a near-physiologic state. Present work investigates the fluid mechanics of the ex-vivo flow loop and corresponding impact on cardiac performance. A mechanical flow loop is developed that is analogous to the region of the EVHP system that mimics in-vivo systemic circulation, including the body's largest and most compliant artery, the aorta. This investigation is focused on determining the effect of mock aortic tubing compliance on pump performance. A custom-made silicone mock aorta was developed to simulate a range of in-vivo conditions and a physiological flow was generated using a commercial ventricular assist device (VAD). Monitored parameters, including pressure, tube distension and downstream velocity, acquired using time-resolved particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), were applied to an unsteady Bernoulli analysis of the flow in a novel way to evaluate pump performance as a proxy for cardiac workload. When compared to the rigid case, the compliant mock aorta case demonstrated healthier physiologic pressure waveforms, steadier downstream flow and reduced energetic demands on the pump. These results provide experimental verification of Windkessel theory and support the need for a compliant mock aorta in the EVHP system.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiologia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Circulação Extracorpórea , Coração Auxiliar , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Preservação de Órgãos/instrumentação , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão/instrumentação , Perfusão/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos
5.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2814-2816, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939787

RESUMO

OBJETIVES: ECMO is progressively being adopted as a last resort to stabilize patients receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECMO CPR). A significant number of these patients will present recovery of end-organ function, but evolve with brain death, accounting for only 30% of patients discharged from the hospital alive. Harvesting organs from donors on VA ECMO has recently been proposed as a strategy to expand the pool of available organs for transplantation. METHODS: We present a case of combined heart and kidney transplantation from a brain death donor with recent out of hospital cardiac arrest rescued with eCPR. RESULTS: A 31 year old male patient was admitted to local hospital with diagnosis of drowning after seizure episode. Patient received two rounds of CPR for 8 and 30 minutes respectively, and required emergency insertion of VA ECMO. Patient developed compartment syndrome of right lower extremity (RLE) with CPK = 30,720, prompting discontinuation of ECMO support within 48 hours as cardiac function had recovered, reflected on echocardiographic and enzymatic parameters. Patient was declared brain death and became organ donor. Multiple organ procurement was performed. Combined heart and right kidney transplant was then performed on a 61-year-old male with uneventful course, and with normal function of all implanted allografts at 3 months follow up. CONCLUSION: Our experience supports the concept that VA ECMO is not a contraindication for solid organ donation. Individual evaluation of organ function can lead to successful transplantation of multiple organs from donors with recent history of VA ECMO support.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Afogamento , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Adulto , Síndromes Compartimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(9): 894-903, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) recipients may be particularly vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OHT during the pandemic presents unique challenges in terms of feasibility and safety. METHODS: Chart review was performed for consecutive OHT recipients with COVID-19 and waitlisted patients who underwent OHT from March 1, 2020 to May 15, 2020. RESULTS: Of the approximately 400 OHT recipients followed at our institution, 22 acquired COVID-19. Clinical characteristics included median age 59 (range, 49-71) years, 14 (63.6%) were male, and median time from OHT to infection was 4.6 (2.5-20.6) years. Symptoms included fever (68.2%), gastrointestinal complaints (55%), and cough (46%). COVID-19 was severe or critical in 5 (23%). All patients had elevated inflammatory biomarkers. Immunosuppression was modified in 85% of patients. Most (n = 16, 86.4%) were hospitalized, 18% required intubation, and 14% required vasopressor support. Five patients (23%) expired. None of the patients requiring intubation survived. Five patients underwent OHT during the pandemic. They were all males, ranging from 30 to 59 years of age. Two were transplanted at United Network of Organ Sharing Status 1 or 2, 1 at Status 3, and 2 at Status 4. All were successfully discharged and are alive without allograft dysfunction or rejection. One contracted mild COVID-19 after the index hospitalization. CONCLUSION: OHT recipients with COVID-19 appear to have outcomes similar to the general population hospitalized with COVID-19. OHT during the pandemic is feasible when appropriate precautions are taken. Further study is needed to guide immunosuppression management in OHT recipients affected by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Transplantation ; 104(9): 1890-1898, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ex situ heart perfusion (ESHP) limits ischemic periods and enables continuous monitoring of donated hearts; however, a validated assessment method to predict cardiac performance has yet to be established. We compare biventricular contractile and metabolic parameters measured during ESHP to determine the best evaluation strategy to estimate cardiac function following transplantation. METHODS: Donor pigs were assigned to undergo beating-heart donation (n = 9) or donation after circulatory death (n = 8) induced by hypoxia. Hearts were preserved for 4 hours with ESHP while invasive and noninvasive (NI) biventricular contractile, and metabolic assessments were performed. Following transplantation, hearts were evaluated at 3 hours of reperfusion. Spearman correlation was used to determine the relationship between ESHP parameters and posttransplant function. RESULTS: We performed 17 transplants; 14 successfully weaned from bypass (beating-heart donation versus donation after circulatory death; P = 0.580). Left ventricular invasive preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) (r = 0.770; P = 0.009), NI PRSW (r = 0.730; P = 0.001), and NI maximum elastance (r = 0.706; P = 0.002) strongly correlated with cardiac index (CI) following transplantation. Right ventricular NI PRSW moderately correlated to CI following transplantation (r = 0.688; P = 0.003). Lactate levels were weakly correlated with CI following transplantation (r = -0.495; P = 0.043). None of the echocardiography measurements correlated with cardiac function following transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular functional parameters, especially ventricular work and reserve, provided the best estimation of myocardial performance following transplantation. Furthermore, simple NI estimates of ventricular function proved useful in this setting. Right ventricular and metabolic measurements were limited in their ability to correlate with myocardial recovery. This emphasizes the need for an ESHP platform capable of assessing myocardial contractility and suggests that metabolic parameters alone do not provide a reliable evaluation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão , Doadores de Tecidos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Animais , Ecocardiografia , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Suínos
8.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2020: 9835151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733172

RESUMO

Background: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the Achilles' heel of long-term survival after heart transplantation (HTx). The severity and extent of CAV is graded with conventional coronary angiography (COR) which has several limitations. Recently, vessel fractional flow reserve (vFFR) derived from COR has emerged as a diagnostic computational tool to quantify the functional severity of coronary artery disease. Purpose: The present study assessed the usefulness of vFFR to detect CAV in HTx recipients. Methods: In HTx patients referred for annual check-up, undergoing surveillance COR, the extent of CAV was graded according to the criteria proposed by the international society of heart and lung transplantation (ISHLT). In addition, three-dimensional coronary geometries were constructed from COR to calculate pressure losses using vFFR. Results: In 65 HTx patients with a mean age of 53.7 ± 10.1 years, 8.5 years (IQR 1.90, 15.2) years after HTx, a total number of 173 vessels (59 LAD, 61 LCX, and 53 RCA) were analyzed. The mean vFFR was 0.84 ± 0.15 and median was 0.88 (IQR 0.79, 0.94). A vFFR ≤ 0.80 was present in 24 patients (48 vessels). HTx patients with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP) had numerically lower vFFR as compared to those with non-ICMP (0.70 ± 0.22 vs. 0.79 ± 0.13, p = 0.06). The use of vFFR reclassified 31.9% of patients compared to the anatomical ISHLT criteria. Despite a CAV score of 0, a pathological vFFR ≤ 0.80 was detected in 8 patients (34.8%). Conclusion: The impairment in epicardial conductance assessed by vFFR in a subgroup of patients without CAV according to standard ISHLT criteria suggests the presence of a diffuse vasculopathy undetectable by conventional angiography. Therefore, we speculate that vFFR may be useful in risk stratification after HTx.


Assuntos
Aloenxertos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Aloenxertos/irrigação sanguínea , Aloenxertos/patologia , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4289, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855397

RESUMO

Older organs represent an untapped potential to close the gap between demand and supply in organ transplantation but are associated with age-specific responses to injury and increased immunogenicity, thereby aggravating transplant outcomes. Here we show that cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mt-DNA) released by senescent cells accumulates with aging and augments immunogenicity. Ischemia reperfusion injury induces a systemic increase of cf-mt-DNA that promotes dendritic cell-mediated, age-specific inflammatory responses. Comparable events are observed clinically, with the levels of cf-mt-DNA elevated in older deceased organ donors, and with the isolated cf-mt-DNA capable of activating human dendritic cells. In experimental models, treatment of old donor animals with senolytics clear senescent cells and diminish cf-mt-DNA release, thereby dampening age-specific immune responses and prolonging the survival of old cardiac allografts comparable to young donor organs. Collectively, we identify accumulating cf-mt-DNA as a key factor in inflamm-aging and present senolytics as a potential approach to improve transplant outcomes and availability.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Doadores de Tecidos
10.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658198

RESUMO

Murine cardiac transplantation has been performed for more than 40 years. With advancements in microsurgery, certain new techniques have been used to improve surgical efficiency. In our lab, we have optimized the cuff technique with two major steps. First, we used the inner tube technique to insert a temporary inner tube into the external jugular vein and carotid artery blood vessel to facilitate eversion of the vessel over the cuff. Second, we performed complete heterotopic cardiac transplantation through the collaboration of two experienced surgeons. These modifications effectively reduced the operation time to 25 minutes, with a success rate of 95%. In this report, we describe these procedures in detail and provide a supplemental video. We believe that this report on the improved cuff technique will offer practical guidance for murine heterotopic heart transplantation and will enhance the utility of this mouse model for basic research.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/métodos , Microcirurgia/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos
12.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2847-2852, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the limited number of available suitable donor hearts resulting in plateaued numbers of heart transplantations, short- and long-term mechanical circulatory support devices, including the implantation of total artificial hearts (TAHs) are modalities that are increasingly being used as treatment options for patients with end-stage heart failure. The superior vena cava syndrome has been described in this context in various disease processes. We report successful venoplasty for superior vena cava syndrome in a patient with a TAH. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man with a history of nonischemic cardiomyopathy had received a left ventricular assist device, and then 2 years later, underwent orthotopic heart transplantation using the bicaval anastomosis technique. The postprocedural course was complicated by primary graft failure, resulting in the need for implantation of a TAH. About 5 months after TAH implantation, he started to develop complications such as volume retention, swelling of the upper extremities, and was diagnosed to have a superior vena cava syndrome. The patient underwent a successful venoplasty of his superior vena cava by interventional radiology with resolution of upper body edema, normalization of renal, and liver function. CONCLUSION: Potential fatal complications caused by catheter or wire entrapment in the right-sided mechanical valve of a TAH have been reported. We describe a safe method for the treatment of superior vena cava syndrome in patients with TAH.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Coração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/etiologia , Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior/etiologia , Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Veia Cava Superior/cirurgia , Idoso , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia Intervencionista , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Veia Cava Superior/patologia
13.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(10): 1081-1088, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) in solid organ transplanted patients. We here report a series of heart transplanted patients with COVID-19 from two centers of Italy. METHODS: All heart transplanted patients of Transplant Centers of Bergamo and Torino with a microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Data collection included clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment and outcome. Follow-up was performed by visit or phone. RESULTS: From February to March 2020 twenty-six heart transplanted patients (age 62±12 years; 77% males; time from transplant 10±10 years; 69% with comorbidities) had a microbiologically confirmed COVID-19. The most frequent symptom was fever, followed by cough. Seventeen patients had a pneumonia, 8 of them severe pneumonia. Seven patients died (27%) and 17 (65%) were hospitalized. Discontinuation of immunosuppression was associated with death (71 vs 21%, p=0.02). Conversely, all patients receiving steroids survived (p<0.001). Patients who received heart transplantation during COVID-19 outbreak survived and no acute graft rejection occurred. Patients who died were older than survivors, had a longer time from transplant and a worse clinical presentation at diagnosis. The current regimen enabled the prolonged survival and function of orthotopic cardiac xenografts in altogether 6 of 8 baboons, of which 4 were now added. These results exceed the threshold set by the Advisory Board of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has a significant impact on long term heart transplanted patients. Conversely, SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to have a limited influence on more recent transplants. Our experience may suggest that heart transplantation programs can be maintained even during the pandemic phase if specific and tailored paths to prevent and to limit virus transmission are provided.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(11): 3073-3077, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660929

RESUMO

Worldwide, the majority of heart transplant organs are from donation after brain death. However, the shortage of suitable donors places severe limitations on this route. One option to increase the donor pool is to use organs from donation after circulatory death (DCD). Transplant centers for solid organs have been using DCD organs for years. At this time, 40% of solid organ transplantation in the United Kingdom uses organs from DCD. Use of DCD for solid organ transplants in Canada is also rising. Recently, there has been interest in using DCD organs for heart transplantation. The authors will discuss their experience of 4 heart transplants with organs from DCD donors after normothermic regional perfusion (NRP). The authors' first heart transplant using a DCD organ was in January 2020, and the fourth was in March 2020, just before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The authors' protocol using NRP allows adequate evaluation of the donor heart to confidently determine organ acceptance. The co-location of the donor and the recipient in neighboring operating rooms limits ischemic times. Avoidance of an expensive ex vivo organ perfusion machine is an additional benefit for programs that may not have the resources required to purchase and maintain the machine. Some hospitals may not have the resources and space to be able to co-locate both the donor and recipient. Use of cold storage may be an option to transport the procured organ, similar to donation after brain death organs. The authors hope that this technique of NRP in DCD donors can help further increase the donor pool for heart transplantation in the United States.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribução , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2976, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532991

RESUMO

Pre-clinical heart transplantation studies have shown that ex vivo non-ischemic heart preservation (NIHP) can be safely used for 24 h. Here we perform a prospective, open-label, non-randomized phase II study comparing NIHP to static cold preservation (SCS), the current standard for adult heart transplantation. All adult recipients on waiting lists for heart transplantation were included in the study, unless they met any exclusion criteria. The same standard acceptance criteria for donor hearts were used in both study arms. NIHP was scheduled in advance based on availability of device and trained team members. The primary endpoint was a composite of survival free of severe primary graft dysfunction, free of ECMO use within 7 days, and free of acute cellular rejection ≥2R within 180 days. Secondary endpoints were I/R-tissue injury, immediate graft function, and adverse events. Of the 31 eligible patients, six were assigned to NIHP and 25 to SCS. The median preservation time was 223 min (IQR, 202-263) for NIHP and 194 min (IQR, 164-223) for SCS. Over the first six months, all of the patients assigned to NIHP achieved event-free survival, compared with 18 of those assigned to SCS (Kaplan-Meier estimate of event free survival 72.0% [95% CI 50.0-86.0%]). CK-MB assessed 6 ± 2 h after ending perfusion was 76 (IQR, 50-101) ng/mL for NIHP compared with 138 (IQR, 72-198) ng/mL for SCS. Four deaths within six months after transplantation and three cardiac-related adverse events were reported in the SCS group compared with no deaths or cardiac-related adverse events in the NIHP group. This first-in-human study shows the feasibility and safety of NIHP for clinical use in heart transplantation. ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT03150147.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto , Transplante de Coração/instrumentação , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Perfusão , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Doadores de Tecidos , Listas de Espera
17.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(2): e1115, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149898

RESUMO

Introducción: En la supervivencia del corazón trasplantado son de importancia el empleo de los anticuerpos contra el sistema principal de histocompatibilidad (anticuerpos anti-HLA). Hace seis años se introdujo en Cuba el porcentaje de anticuerpos anti-HLA frente a panel (PRA) por método de ensayo de inmunoabsorción ligado a enzima (ELISA) como parte de las pruebas de compatibilidad pretrasplante de los receptores de trasplante cardiaco. Objetivo: Caracterizar los anticuerpos anti-HLA en pacientes receptores cubanos de trasplante cardiaco. Métodos: Entre septiembre de 2013 y abril de 2017 se les realizó el PRA por ELISA a 38 muestras de pacientes recibidas en el laboratorio de histocompatibilidad del Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología. Se utilizó la comparación de proporciones para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: El 47,4 por ciento de los pacientes estudiados presentó anticuerpos anti-HLA, fueron los más frecuentes los de clase I. La proporción de pacientes con PRA del 0 por ciento fue mayor en PRA clase II que en I (p: 0,0027). Mientras que fue mayor la proporción de pacientes con PRA clase I entre el 20 y el 75 por ciento (p: 0,0046). El 77,8 por ciento de los pacientes tuvo un PRA clase I mayor al 10 por ciento y en el PRA clase II alcanzó el 80 por ciento. Conclusiones: El porcentaje de anticuerpos anti-HLA frente a panel por método de ensayo de inmunoabsorción ligado a enzima permitió una mejor caracterización de los anticuerpos anti-HLA, lo que contribuyó a mejorar la compatibilidad en este tipo de paciente(AU)


Introduction: In survival after heart transplantation, the use of antibodies against the main histocompatibility system (anti-HLA antibodies) is important. Six years ago, the percentage of anti-HLA antibodies against panel (PRA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was introduced in Cuba as part of the pre-transplant compatibility tests of heart transplant recipients. Objective: To characterize anti-HLA antibodies in Cuban heart transplant recipients. Methods: Between September 2013 and April 2017, PRA by ELISA was performed on 38 patient samples received in the histocompatibility laboratory of the Institute of Hematology and Immunology. Comparison of proportions was used for statistical analysis. Results: 47.4 percent of the study patients presented anti-HLA antibodies; those in class were the most frequent. The proportion of patients with PRA of 0 percent was higher in PRA class II than in class I (p=0.0027). The proportion of patients with PRA class I was greater, accounting for 20-75 percent (p=0.0046). 77.8 percent of the patients had a class I PRA greater than 10 percent, while in class II PRA it reached 80 percent. Conclusions: The percentage of anti-HLA antibodies versus a panel of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method allowed better characterization of anti-HLA antibodies, which contributed to improving compatibility in this type of patient(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Transplantados , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida , Cuba
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436668

RESUMO

The first orthotopic heart transplant was performed in 1967. Following on from this achievement, the first major evolution in heart transplantation was the transition from biatrial anastomosis to separate caval anastomoses, in 1991. Various strategies for myocardial protection have been used for this. This video tutorial describes heart procurement for a bicaval anastomosis technique in a case of multi-organ procurement.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos
19.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449721

RESUMO

Heterotopic heart transplantation in rats has been a commonly used model for diverse immunological studies for more than 50 years. Several modifications have been reported since the first description in 1964. After 30 years of performing heterotopic heart transplantation in rats, we have developed a simplified surgical approach, which can be easily taught and performed without further surgical training or background. After dissection of the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery and ligation of superior and inferior caval and pulmonary veins, the donor heart is harvested and subsequently perfused with ice-cold saline solution supplemented with heparin. After clamping and incising the recipient abdominal vessels, the donor ascending aorta and pulmonary artery are anastomosed to the recipient abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava, respectively, using continuous running sutures. Depending on different donor-recipient combinations, this model allows analyses of either acute or chronic rejection of allografts. The immunological significance of this model is further enhanced by a novel approach of in-ear injection of vital cardiac muscle cells and subsequent analysis of draining cervical lymphatic tissue.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/métodos , Modelos Imunológicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/imunologia , Animais , Masculino , Ratos
20.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 25(3): 241-247, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374575

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing number of patients with end-stage heart failure and those with improved survivorship from selective utilization of implantable mechanical circulatory support devices have added further burden and complexity to the transplant waitlist and on the rate-limiting availability of donor hearts from the standard pathway of donation after brain death. Unlike this conventional route, the increasing clinical use of donation after circulatory death (DCD) donor hearts necessitates a closer understanding of the logistics involved in the DCD process as well as of the risks associated with the unique pathophysiological consequences in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Notwithstanding a higher incidence of delayed graft function, the clinical utilization of DCD hearts for cardiac transplantation over the past five years has demonstrated this to be a well-tolerated and strategic alternative with excellent medium-term clinical outcomes. SUMMARY: The uptake of DCD heart transplantation remains selective and currently confined to Australia, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and more recently the USA. A more significant adoption will only come about through: a concerted effort to resolve the ethical and clinical controversies; a better understanding of postconditioning strategies; continued resolve to reduce the obligatory period of warm ischemia; and from better extracorporeal platforms that permit functional viability assessment of the DCD donor heart.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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