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1.
Transplant Proc ; 53(1): 348-352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) has a poor prognosis without heart transplant, but post-transplant survival is unknown. PURPOSE: To describe the post-transplant survival of patients with GCM at a large transplant center. METHODS: Seven patients underwent heart transplant for histologically confirmed GCM of the explanted heart. The median age was 59 years, and 43% (3 of 7) were female. All patients had cardiogenic shock, multiorgan failure, elevated troponin, and recurrent ventricular tachycardia, and some required mechanical circulatory support. All patients received rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in the perioperative period at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg daily for 1 to 5 days and 4 received intravenous immunoglobulin 1 g/kg daily for 2 days after rATG. All patients had early initiation of tacrolimus by first to third postoperative day depending on renal function, early mycophenolate, and high dose steroid. All were maintained using tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisone. RESULTS: One patient had asymptomatic recurrence of GCM at 3 months, managed by up-titration of tacrolimus, and had asymptomatic 2R cellular rejection at 4 months, managed with steroid bolus. No patient had high-grade rejection. One patient died at 267 days, possibly of GCM. Six of 7 (86%) remain alive at a median of 842 days (2.3 years) post transplant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with GCM have excellent post-transplant survival with use of rATG and triple drug immunosuppressive therapy; however, some patients remain at risk for GCM recurrence after transplant, which may respond to augmented immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Miocardite/patologia , Miocardite/cirurgia , Adulto , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Células Gigantes/patologia , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva
2.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(3): 1048-1059.e3, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Right heart hemodynamic management is critical, because many post-heart transplantation (HTx) complications are related to right ventricular (RV) failure. However, current guidelines on size and sex matching rely primarily on weight matching, with recent literature using total ventricular mass (TVM), which places less emphasis on the impact of RV mass (RVM) matching. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship of RVM matching and survival after HTx. METHODS: We performed the retrospective analysis using the UNOS database of adult HTx performed between January 1997 and December 2017. Previously validated equations were used to calculate TVM and RVM. The percent difference in ventricular mass in the donor and recipient pair was used for the size mismatch. All donor-recipient pairs were divided into 4 RVM groups by their mismatch ratio. We analyzed RVM matching and explored how RVM undersizing impacted outcomes. The primary outcome measure was 1-year survival; secondary outcomes measured included stroke and dialysis within 1 year and functional status. RESULTS: A total of 38,740 donor-recipient pairs were included in our study. The 4 RVM match groupings were as follows: <0%, 0% to 20%, 20% to 40%, and >40%. Utilization of donors who were older and of female sex resulted in greater RVM undersizing. Survival analysis demonstrated patients with RVM undersizing had worse 1-year survival (P < .001). RVM undersizing was an independent predictor of higher 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.34; P < .001). RVM undersizing was also associated with higher rates of dialysis within 1-year of transplantation and poorer postoperative functional status. CONCLUSIONS: RVM undersizing is an independent predictor for worse 1-year survival. Donors who are older and female have lower absolute predicted RVM and may be predisposed to RVM undersizing. RVM-undersized transplantation requires careful risk/benefit considerations.


Assuntos
Seleção do Doador , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Função Ventricular Direita , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bases de Dados Factuais , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
3.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 9(22): 486-490, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of recipient age on the occurrence of rejections, vasculopathy, and mortality after HTx. METHODS: Study population comprised all consecutive 291 patients who underwent HTx between 1991-2016 and were followed at our center. Patients were categorized by age tertiles: < 46 years (mean 31.4 ± 11.7, range 16-45, n=90), 46-57 years (mean 51.4 ± 3.2, range 46-56, n=92), and ≥ 57 years (mean 61.6 ± 3.4, range 57-73, n=109). RESULTS: Patients aged ≥ 57 years were more often males and had more pre-HTx co-morbidities including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and history of smoking (P < 0.05) compared to the younger age groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis by age tertiles showed the rates of major rejections and vasculopathy at 15 years were similar among the three age groups. Mortality rates at 15 years were directly related to the age groups (39%, 52%, 62% log-rank, P = 0.01). However, the association between age and mortality was no longer statistically significant after multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing HTx, recipient age does not significantly impact the risk of major rejections, vasculopathy, and long-term mortality.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Transplant Proc ; 52(5): 1394-1396, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric end-stage heart disease is surgically managed by heart transplantation. A major complication of primary transplantation (PTx) is coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV), a form of accelerated atherosclerosis. Retransplantation (RTx) has been the management of CAV; however, there is limited comprehensive literature on this subject. Here we report 25 years of single-center experience in managing CAV with RTx and place it in the context of recent studies. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken on patients who underwent PTx <18 years old and subsequent RTx due to CAV at the Heart Institute (InCor) University of São Paulo Medical School between 1992 and 2018. The maintenance immunosuppression protocol was double immunosuppression. For both PTx and RTx, quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted for transplantation indication, donor/recipient demographics, post-transplant survival, rejection, infection, and immunosuppression. RESULTS: Between 1992 and 2018, 200 children underwent heart transplantation. Ten re-transplantations were performed, for which 7 (70%) were for CAV. Ages at RTx ranged from 11.5 to 29.3 years (19.1 ± 5.68 years; median 18.2 years). The mean time between PTx and RTx was 12.9 ± 3.4 years (median 13.4 years). The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 1 month, 3 years, and 5 years was 85.7%, 71.5%, and 47.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cardiac RTx can be a management option for CAV in patients who have undergone PTx in childhood with double immunosuppression therapy.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Reoperação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Reoperação/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Card Surg ; 35(7): 1431-1438, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been associated with increased risk of mortality, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and de novo malignancy following heart transplantation in prior institutional reports. This study examines the impact of the recipient and donor CMV status on heart recipients in the United States. METHODS: Adult heart transplant recipients were identified in the OPTN registry between 2005-2016. Recipients were stratified based on the recipient (R) and donor (D) CMV serologic status (+/-). The primary endpoint was survival 5-years after transplantation. The secondary endpoint was cardiac allograft vasculopathy 5-years after transplantation. Separate Cox proportional hazards regression models were developed to evaluate independent associations between CMV status and each of the study endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 21 878 recipients met the inclusion criteria. The breakdown of study arms by CMV serologic status was R-/D- = 3412, R+/D- = 4939; R-/D+ = 5230, and R+/D+ = 8,297. Five-year survival estimates were similar across groups (77-79%). CMV status was associated with increased mortality at 5-years (23%-41% increased risk) which was most evident in the first 3 months. The use of valganciclovir was associated with decreased risk of mortality (HR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.52-0.60). The cumulative incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (R-/D- = 31%, R+/D- = 30%, R-/D+ = 31%, and R+/D+ = 30%) was similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS: CMV seropositivity at the time of transplantation is associated with increased long-term risk of mortality. Chemoprophylaxis with antivirals seems to mitigate this risk. There was no association with an increased risk of allograft vasculopathy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Valganciclovir/administração & dosagem
6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(4): e006811, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy after heart transplantation (HT) is a concern for many female recipients. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation has guidelines regarding reproductive health, but limited data exist regarding providers' attitudes and practices surrounding pregnancy post-HT. METHODS: We conducted an independent, confidential, voluntary, web-based survey sent electronically to 1643 United States heart transplant providers between June and August 2019. RESULTS: There were 122 responses, the majority from cardiologists (n=85, 70%) and nurse or transplant coordinators (n=22, 18%). Thirty-one percent (n=37) of respondents indicated that pregnancy should be avoided in all HT recipients, and only 43% (n=52) reported that their center had a formal policy regarding pregnancy following HT. The most commonly reported contraindications included nonadherence (n=109, 89%), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (n=104, 85%), coronary allograft vasculopathy (n=86, 70%), prior rejection (n=76, 62%), presence of donor-specific antibodies (n=69, 57%), and prior peripartum cardiomyopathy pretransplant (n=57, 47%). Respondent sex, specialty, transplant volume, or prior experience with pregnancy after HT were not associated with recommendations to avoid posttransplant pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant providers' attitudes regarding posttransplant pregnancy vary widely. Despite International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines, a significant proportion indicates that pregnancy is contraindicated in all recipients and the majority of programs have no center-specific policy to manage such pregnancies. While the low response rate limits the generalizability of the findings, they do suggest that education on the feasibility of pregnancy post-HT is indicated as many recipients are of, or survive to, childbearing age.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Transplantados , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(10): 1517-1523, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238278

RESUMO

Hypomagnesemia is commonly observed in heart transplant (HT) recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitors. Since low serum magnesium (s-Mg) has been implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis, potentially leading to worsening coronary heart disease, arrhythmias and sudden death, we investigated the association between s-Mg and HT outcomes. Between 2002 and 2017, 150 HT patients assessed for s-Mg were divided into high (≥1.7 mg/dL) and low s-Mg groups according to the median value of all s-Mg levels recorded during the first 3 months post-HT. Endpoints included survival, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), any-treated rejection (ATR) and NF-MACE. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that at 15 years after HT, both survival (76 vs 33%, log-rank p = 0.007) and freedom from CAV (75 vs 48%, log-rank p = 0.01) were higher in the high versus low s-Mg group. There were no significant differences in freedom from NF-MACE or ATR. Multivariate analyses consistently demonstrated that low s-Mg was independently associated with a significant 2.6-fold increased risk of mortality and 4-fold increased risk of CAV (95%CI 1.06 to 6.4, p = 0.04; 95%CI 1.12 to 14.42, p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, low s-Mg is independently associated with increased mortality and CAV in HT patients. Larger multi-center prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the effect of Mg supplementation.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Nefrocalcinose/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Erros Inatos do Transporte Tubular Renal/complicações , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Magnésio/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(4): e005447, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathy is a common complication among muscular dystrophy (MD) patients and often results in advanced heart failure and premature death. In spite of this, there is hesitancy to consider heart transplantation (HTx). This study describes the HTx outcomes in patients with MD in the United States. METHODS AND RESULTS: All HTx in the United Network for Organ Sharing database from October 1, 1987, to March 31, 2016, were identified. Two patient groups were created: MD cohort (n=81), and a cohort of all other cardiomyopathies, called cardiomyopathy-unmatched (n=41 317). Propensity score matching (ratio 1:2) was performed on transplant age, gender transplant year, renal function, and inotropic support at transplant to form a cardiomyopathy-matched cohort (n=162). Patient characteristics and posttransplant outcomes were compared. In the 81 patients with MD, Becker was the most common type (42%-52%). All the analyzed preoperative characteristics did not statistically differ between the MD and cardiomyopathy-matched cohorts except ventricular assist device use (16% versus 30%; P=0.017), ventilator support (0% versus 6%; P=0.031), and donor race mismatch (30% versus 55%; P<0.001). Median time on waitlist was not statistically different between the 2 groups (52 versus 59 days; P=0.12). Posttransplant survival of MD cohort was not statistically different compared with cardiomyopathy-matched cohort (P=0.18; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.71 [0.42-1.18]) and was better than the cardiomyopathy-unmatched cohort (P=0.004; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.34-0.82]). Among the types of MD, no statistical difference was observed in posttransplant survival of Becker MD versus non-Becker MD (P=0.12; hazard ratio [95% CI], 2.17 [0.79-6.01]). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MD undergoing HTx had similar long-term posttransplant survival compared with matched cardiomyopathy-related HTx recipients. HTx appears to be an effective treatment for a select group of muscular dystrophy patients with end-stage heart failure.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Distrofias Musculares/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distrofias Musculares/diagnóstico , Distrofias Musculares/mortalidade , Seleção de Pacientes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(3): 649-660, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The field of mechanical circulatory support has been impacted by the approval of new continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and changes to the United States heart allocation system. METHODS: Primary isolated continuous-flow LVAD implants in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Intermacs registry from January 2014 through September 2019 were evaluated. Survival and freedom from major adverse events were compared between axial-flow, centrifugal-flow with hybrid levitation (CF-HL), and centrifugal-flow with full magnetic levitation (CF-FML) devices. RESULTS: Of 2603 devices implanted in 2014, 1824 (70.1%) were axial flow and 1213 (46.6%) were destination therapy (DT); through September 2019, 1752 devices were implanted, but only 37 (2.1%) were axial flow and 1230 (70.2%) were DT. Implants were performed in 13,016 patients between 2014 and 2018. Patients receiving implants in 2017-2018 compared with 2014-2016 were more likely to be at Intermacs profile 1 (17.1% vs 14.3%, P < .001) and to have preimplant temporary mechanical circulatory support (34.8% vs 29.3%, P < .001). Overall survival and freedom from major adverse events were higher with CF-FML devices. In multivariable analysis of survival between CF-HL and CF-FML, device type was not a significant early hazard, but the use of CF-HL devices had a late hazard ratio for death of 3.01 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the past 5 years, centrifugal-flow LVADs have become the dominant technology and DT the most common implant strategy. While outcomes with CF-FML devices are promising, comparisons with other devices from nonrandomized registry studies should be made with caution.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Coração Auxiliar/tendências , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Alocação de Recursos/métodos , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgia Torácica , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera
10.
J Card Surg ; 35(4): 854-859, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The index for mortality prediction after cardiac transplantation (IMPACT) risk score incorporates 12 preoperative recipient-specific variables, and has been validated as an accurate predictor of short- and long-term mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHTx). We believe it can also be used to predict hospital costs, and we hypothesize that higher preoperative IMPACT risk scores are associated with increased hospital resource consumption. METHODS: All OHTx patients ≥18 years of age at our institution were reviewed from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2014. Total index hospitalization costs post-transplant were extracted and presented in 2014 consumer price index inflation-adjusted US dollars. Patients were stratified into quartiles (Q) according to IMPACT risk scores. Logarithmic transformation normalized cost data, and linear regression assessed for correlation. A comparison of cost between Q of IMPACT risk score was performed using rank-sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-six (n = 356) OHTx were performed during the study period. The median IMPACT score for the cohort was five (interquartile range [IQR] 3-6). Eight (2.2%) patients died within 30-days and 1-year Kaplan-Meier survival was 88.3%. The median length of stay (LOS) was 16 (IQR 14-24) days. The median hospital cost for index admission was $222 200 (IQR:$169 200-$313 700). Median LOS was longer in Q4 vs Q1 (18 days vs 15 days, P = .01) and index hospital costs in Q4 were significantly higher compared to Q1 patients ($280 400 vs $205 000, P < .01). There was a significant positive correlation between IMPACT risk score and cost (regression coefficient .04, P < .01). CONCLUSION: This is the first study in adult cardiac transplantation to identify a positive correlation between hospital cost and recipient risk using the IMPACT risk score. Cost and resource consumption for the index admission after OHTx were significantly higher in the highest IMPACT risk Q compared with patients in the lowest Q.


Assuntos
Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/economia , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Custos Hospitalares , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Transplant Proc ; 52(2): 580-583, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) represents a marker of bad prognosis in left heart disease. Nonetheless, the effect on survival after heart transplant remains controversial. The objective was to study the impact of preoperative PAH on survival in patients undergoing elective heart transplant. METHODS: A retrospective study of 173 transplant recipients was conducted at a single hospital from January 2009 to December 2018. Congenital etiology and emergent heart transplant were exclusion criteria as well as those patients without enough data in the hemodynamic study. Two groups were considered: A (without PAH) and B (with HTP). PAH was classified as mild (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP] 25-34 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR] 2.5-3.4 Wood units and/or transpulmonary gradient [TPG] 13-16 mm Hg), moderate (mPAP 35-44 mm Hg, PVR 3.5-4.9 Wood units and/or TPG 17-19 mm Hg), and severe (mPAP > 44 mm Hg, PVR > 4.9 Wood units and/or TPG > 19 mm Hg). RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were enrolled; 71.6% were male and average age was 52.3 (SD, 10.02) years. The main etiology was ischemic cardiomyopathy; 13.7% underwent previous heart operations. A total of 61 patients (59.8%) had PAH prior to heart transplant: 25 mild, 34 moderate, and 2 severe. Mean overall survival after transplant was 79.9 (SD, 5.68) months, without differences between the 2 groups (P = .82). One-month survival was 89% (the main cause of mortality was primary graft dysfunction), and 1-year survival was 78%. Four patients required mechanical circulatory support during early post-transplant period. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative PAH does not have a significant impact on survival in elective heart transplant.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Transplant Proc ; 52(2): 577-579, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is the leading cause of death in grown-up congenital heart disease patients (GUCH). Although heart transplantation (OHT) remains the gold standard in end-stage heart failure, the ratio of GUCH patients undergoing this procedure remains low. OBJECTIVE: Describe the cohort of GUCH patients undergoing heart transplantation at a third-level hospital. METHODS: A retrospective review of GUCH patients undergoing OHT between 1997 and 2019 was conducted at a single tertiary university hospital. We included different preoperative (demographic and clinical data, cardiac catheterization data from the last routine hemodynamic monitoring) and postoperative variables (complications, survival). RESULTS: Fourteen patients were enrolled. The median age was 25.5 years (range, 20.7-32.2). Eight patients (57.1%) were male. The median preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was 37% (range, 22.5%-55%). As for preoperative hemodynamic evaluation, the median for the mean arterial pulmonary pressure was 19 mm Hg (range, 12-22.5), for the capillary wedge pressure was 16 mm Hg (range, 13.5-19.5), and for pulmonary vascular resistance was 1.83 Wood units (range, 1-4). After OHT, 6 patients (42.9%) suffered an infection, the most common of which was respiratory (3 out of 6). Four patients (28.6%) needed renal replacement therapy, and 4 patients (28.6%) presented liver failure. Four patients (28.6%) developed graft failure, thus requiring mechanical support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during a median of 6 days (range, 1-17.5). Survival rate of patients under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was 50%, and overall survival rate was 78.6%. CONCLUSION: OHT represents a good option for GUCH patients, with good overall survival rates.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
13.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(3): 210-218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035125

RESUMO

Anticoagulation before, during, and after heart transplantation (HT) presents unique challenges to clinicians. Bleeding and thrombotic morbidity continues to affect this patient population throughout all phases of the HT journey. Reversal is commonly required since patients are commonly bridged to HT with left ventricular assist devices, which require chronic anti platelet and anticoagulation. Caution must be exercised in patients requiring cardiopulmonary bypass during surgery who are at risk of complications from heparin induced thrombocytopenia. The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism following HT is high, particularly during the first post-HT year, most likely due to surgery, biopsies, specific immunosuppression (mTOR inhibitors) and immobilization. It is crucial to maintain long-term oral anticoagulation after the first venous thromboembolism event, especially when risk factors exist. A major issue, and one for which there remains considerable debate, is the optimal treatment of such complications, particularly upper extremity venous thrombosis. For both warfarin and the thrombin inhibitors or Factor Xa inhibitors, the clinician must determine potential drug interactions based on the HT drug regimen, and then develop a patient-specific management strategy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Coração , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
14.
Transplant Proc ; 52(2): 575-576, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe right ventricular failure (RVF) has a significant incidence among cardiac transplant patients. It is a serious complication and an independent risk factor for postoperative mortality. In this setting, ventricular assist devices (VADs) must be considered if conservative medical management fails. This study sought to examine our series of patients with early RVF after heart transplantation requiring VAD support. METHOD: We analyzed consecutive, adult heart transplant recipients at a third level intensive care unit who underwent transplantation from January 2011 to March 2019 requiring post-transplant mechanical circulatory support for RVF. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, complications, and survival rates were collected. RESULTS: Ten patients were included. Median age was 50 years (range, 31.7-57). Eight patients (80%) were male. The most frequent indication for heart transplantation was ischemic heart disease (4 patients) followed by dilated cardiomyopathy and congenital heart disease (2 patients). Preoperative pulmonary hypertension was present in 6 patients. Three patients required a VAD before transplant. Whole survival rate was 60%. After heart transplantation, 7 patients required renal replacement therapy, 2 patients suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, and 5 patients needed a tracheostomy for long-term ventilation. CONCLUSION: Patients who develop RVF after transplantation have an increased incidence of complications and high mortality after surgery. VADs could be implanted immediately after heart transplantation in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Coração Auxiliar , Adulto , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 159(3): 865-896, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983522
16.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 159(6): 2418-2425.e1, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Improvements in surgical technique, critical care, and early repair for congenital heart disease (CHD) have led to improved outcomes with heart transplantation, often used as a salvage procedure after failed palliation, especially in infants. These patients, however, often have several risk factors for poor posttransplant survival. We aimed to identify the reality of survival after heart transplantation in patients "limping to transplant" with common risk factors. METHODS: All heart transplant recipients younger than 18 years were identified from the UNOS data set from 2000 to 2017. Modifiable risk factors (MRFs) of mechanical ventilation, renal dysfunction, and liver dysfunction at transplant and nonmodifiable risk factors of infancy at listing or CHD were examined. One-year posttransplant survival was analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 4101 transplants, 1459 patients (36%) had 1 or more MRFs. There was a decrease in 1-year survival with additional MRFs up to a 9.1-times increased risk of death in an infant with CHD. A noninfant without CHD and no MRFs had a 95% 1-year survival, in contrast to an intubated patient with CHD without other end-organ dysfunction, who had 1-year survival of 76%, which decreased to 58% if they were an infant and also had renal dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Patients "limping to transplant" with multiple risk factors demonstrates decreasing early survival relative to those without other end-organ dysfunction. It is imperative that we have transparent discussions about expected outcomes with these families and identify ways to optimize patients' conditions through other supportive avenues to improve posttransplant outcomes.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Listas de Espera
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(8): 2427-2432, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776860

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Combined heart-liver transplantation (CHLT) has resulted in acceptable survival rates compared to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) alone and orthotopic heart transplantation alone. Using the US transplant registry, we compared outcomes following sequential and combined HLT. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. De-identified data were obtained from the United Network Organ Sharing Registry. The primary outcome was patient survival from the date of OLT. Secondary outcomes included liver allograft survival and heart allograft survival. RESULTS: The study cohort included 301 CHLT recipients and six sequential heart-liver transplantation (SHLT) recipients. Patient survival after CHLT was 88% at 1 year, 84% at 3 years, and 82% at 5 years compared to 83%, 67%, and 50% in the SHLT group (p = 0.010). Liver allograft survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 88%,83% and 82%, respectively, in the CHLT group compared to 83% and 67%, and 50%, respectively, in the SHLT group (p = 0.009). After OLT, heart allograft survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 86%, 79%, and 74% in the CHLT group, respectively, compared to 83%, 67%, and 50% in the SHLT group (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limited size of the SHLT cohort, we found that CHLT was superior to SHLT in survival rate and graft survival. The better outcomes noted in CHLT may relate to immunoprotection provided by liver transplantation from the same donor.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Card Surg ; 35(2): 397-404, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Due to the shortage of donor pool, there has been a need for organs with prolonged cold ischemic time. This study aims to evaluate the short-term results of different cold ischemic times in orthotopic heart transplantation based on a single-center experience in China. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of the heart transplant patients from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2017. The recipient population was divided into four groups. Group 1: cold ischemic time greater than 8 hours; group 2: the cold ischemic time between 6 and 8 hours; group 3: the cold ischemic time between 4 and 6 hours; and group 4: cold ischemic time less than 4 hours. Efficacy indicators included after transplant survival, infection rate, rejection rate, and complications. RESULTS: The four groups have similar donor and recipient baseline characteristics (P > .05). Cold ischemic time greater than 8 hours had more cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time (127.62 ± 50.23 minutes; P = .003), CPB-assist time (86.14 ± 36.74 minutes; P = .047), and higher intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) usage rate postoperatively (47.36%; P = .010). Cold ischemic time greater than 8 hours witnessed a relatively higher mortality rate compared with the other three groups (P = .115, P = .078, and P = .114) during the 2-year follow-up. Survival rates of 1 and 2 years for the four groups were 78.95%, 87.13%, 87.32%, and 87.50% and 68.42%, 85.14%, 85.92%, and 83.93%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cold ischemic time less than 8 hours can be reasonably applied to expand the heart transplantation donor pool. Cold ischemic time greater than 8 hours might result in longer CPB time, CPB-assist time, and higher IABP usage postoperatively. It might also affect the in-hospital and 2-years survival rate.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Transplante de Coração , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Doadores de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(1 Pt 1): 109-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of serial assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) by rubidium Rb 82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET) in heart transplantation (HT) patients. BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is a major determinant of late mortality in HT recipients. The long-term prognostic value of serial CFR quantification by PET imaging in HT patients is unknown. METHODS: A total of 89 patients with history of HT (71% men, 7.0 ± 5.7 years post-HT, age 57 ± 11 years) scheduled for dynamic rest and stress (dipyridamole) 82Rb PET between March 1, 2008 and July 31, 2009 (PET-1) were prospectively enrolled in a single-center study. PET myocardial perfusion studies were reprocessed using U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved software (Corridor 4DM, version 2017) for calculation of CFR. Follow-up PET (PET-2) imaging was performed in 69 patients at 1.9 ± 0.3 years following PET-1. Patients were categorized based on CFR values considering CFR ≤1.5 as low and CFR >1.5 as high CFR. RESULTS: Forty deaths occurred during the median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Low CFR at PET-1 was associated with a 2.77-fold increase in all-cause mortality (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34 to 5.74; p = 0.004). CFR decreased over time in patients with follow-up imaging (PET-1: 2.11 ± 0.74 vs. PET-2: 1.81 ± 0.61; p = 0.003). Twenty-five patients were reclassified based on PET-1 and PET-2 (high to low CFR: n = 18, low to high CFR: n = 7). Overall survival was similar in patients reclassified from high to low as patients with low to low CFR, whereas patients reclassified from low to high had similar survival as patients with high to high CFR. In multivariate Cox regression of patients with PET-2, higher baseline CFR (hazard ratio [HR] for a 0.73 unit (one SD) increase: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.82) and reduction in CFR from PET-1 to PET-2 (HR for a 0.79 unit (one SD) decrease: 1.50 to 7.84) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Serial assessment of CFR by 82Rb PET independently predicts long-term mortality in HT patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos de Rubídio/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Chest ; 157(1): 151-161, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the recent 6th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the definition of PH was redefined to include lower pulmonary artery pressures in the setting of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). However, the relevance of this change to subjects with PH due to left-heart disease as well as the preoperative assessment of heart transplant (HT) recipients is unknown. METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried to identify adult recipients who underwent primary HT from 1996 to 2015. Recipients were subdivided into those with mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) < 25 mm Hg and ≥ 25 mm Hg. Exploratory univariable analysis was undertaken to identify candidate risk factors associated with 30-day and 1-year survival (conditional on 30-day survival) in recipients with mPAP < 25 mm Hg, and subsequently, parsimonious multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to assess the independent association with PVR. RESULTS: Over the study period, 32,465 patients underwent HT, including 12,257 (38%) with mPAP < 25 mm Hg. The median age was 55 years (interquartile range, 47-62) and the median PVR was 1.5 Wood units (WU) (interquartile range, 1-2.2) in recipients with mPAP < 25 mm Hg. After controlling for confounders, PVR was independently associated with increased risk for 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.27; P < .01), but not conditional 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94-1.12; P = .55). PVR ≥ 3 WU was associated with an absolute 1.9% increase in 30-day mortality in those with mPAP < 25 mm Hg, a similar risk to recipients with PVR ≥ 3 WU and mPAP ≥ 25 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated PVR remains associated with a significant increase in the hazard for 30-day mortality after cardiac transplantation, even in the setting of lower pulmonary artery pressures. These data support the validity of the new definition of pulmonary hypertension.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/classificação , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resistência Vascular
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