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1.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 29(3): 470, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830825
2.
Transplantation ; 104(9): 1929-1942, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver graft viability assessment has long been considered a limit of hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (HOPE). Aim of this study was assessing correlations of easily available perfusate parameters (PP) (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, lactate, and pH) with graft features and outcome. METHODS: In the period October 2018-February 2020, perfusate samples were obtained every 30 minutes during 50 dual-HOPE (D-HOPE) procedures. Correlations of PP with graft factors, 90-day graft loss, early allograft dysfunction (EAD), L-GrAFT score, acute kidney injury, and comprehensive complication index were analyzed using Pearson coefficient, receiver-operating characteristics analysis and by univariable and multivariable regression. RESULTS: Median D-HOPE time was 122 minutes. All parameters were normalized to liver weight. Only macrovesicular steatosis (MaS) significantly impacted PP levels and slope. Grafts with ≥30% MaS exhibited significantly different PP values and slope. Graft loss and EAD rate were 2% (n = 1) and 26% (n = 13). All PP except lactate correlated with EAD, 90-minute alanine aminotransferase showing the highest area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (0.84). However, at multivariable analysis, the only factor independently associated with EAD was MaS (odds ratio, 5.44; confidence interval, 1.05-28.21; P = 0.04). Ninety minutes lactate dehydrogenase had the strongest correlation with L-GrAFT (R = 0.70; P < 0.001). PP correlated poorly with comprehensive complication index and grades 2-3 acute kidney injury rate. CONCLUSIONS: PP were predictive of graft function after transplant, but their association with graft survival and clinical outcomes requires further evaluation. MaS influenced levels of PP and was the only independent predictor of EAD.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/análise , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative restrictive fluid management strategies might improve postoperative outcomes in liver transplantation. Effects of vasopressors within any hemodynamic management strategy are unclear. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study on adult liver transplant recipients between July 2008 and December 2017. We measured the effect of vasopressors infused at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) and total intraoperative fluid balance. Our primary outcome was 48-hour acute kidney injury (AKI) and our secondary outcomes were 7-day AKI, need for postoperative renal replacement therapy (RRT), time to extubation in the ICU, time to ICU discharge and survival up to 1 year. We fitted models adjusted for confounders using generalized estimating equations or survival models using robust standard errors. We reported results with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 532 patients. Vasopressors use was not associated with 48-hour or 7-day AKI but modified the effects of fluid balance on RRT and mortality. A higher fluid balance was associated with a higher need for RRT (OR = 1.52 [1.15, 2.01], p<0.001 for interaction) and lower survival (HR = 1.71 [1.26, 2.34], p<0.01 for interaction) only among patients without vasopressors. In patients with vasopressors, higher doses of vasopressors were associated with a higher mortality (HR = 1.29 [1.13, 1.49] per 10 µg/min of norepinephrine). CONCLUSION: The presence of any vasopressor at the end of surgery was not associated with AKI or RRT. The use of vasopressors might modify the harmful association between fluid balance and other postoperative outcomes. The liberal use of vasopressors to implement a restrictive fluid management strategy deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
7.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 83(2): 340-343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603060

RESUMO

Since January 2020, the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically impacted the world. In March 2020, the COVID-19 epidemic reached Belgium creating uncertainty towards all aspects of life. There has been an impressive capacity and solidarity of all healthcare professionals to acutely reconvert facilities to treat these patients. In the context of liver transplantation (LTx), concerns are raised about organ donation shortage and safety, the ethics of using limited healthcare resources for LTx, selection criteria for LTx during the epidemic and the risk of de novo COVID-19 infection on the waiting list and after LTx. BeLIAC makes several recommendations to try to mitigate the deleterious effect that this epidemic has/will have on donation and LTx, taking into account the available resources, and trying to maximize patients and healthcare professionals' safety.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Bélgica , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
8.
Int J Surg ; 80: 194-201, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After the emergence of Covid-19 in China, Hubei Province, the epidemic quickly spread to Europe. France was quickly hit and our institution was one of the first French university to receive patients infected with Sars-COV2. The predicted massive influx of patients motivated the cancellation of all elective surgical procedures planned to free hospitalization beds and to free intensive care beds. Nevertheless, we should properly select patients who will be canceled to avoid life-threatening. The retained surgical indications are surgical emergencies, oncologic surgery, and organ transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We describe the organization of our institution which allows the continuation of these surgical activities while limiting the exposure of our patients to the Sars Cov2. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of implementation of intra-hospital protocols for the control of the Covid-19 epidemic, 112 patients were operated on (104 oncology or emergency surgeries and 8 liver transplants). Only one case of post-operative contamination was observed. No mortality related to Covid-19 was noted. No cases of contamination of surgical care personnel have been reported. CONCLUSION: We found that the performance of oncological or emergency surgery is possible, safe for both patients and caregivers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Emergências , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Transplantation ; 104(9): 1943-1951, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) from controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) was initiated in France in 2015 under a protocol based on the use of normothermic regional perfusion (NRP) before organ procurement. The aim was to compare outcomes following cDCD LT with NRP and donation after brain death (DBD) LT. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study comparing cDCD LT with NRP and DBD LT. A case-matched study (1:2) was performed using the variables such as recipient and donor age, indication of LT. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients from the cDCD group were matched to 100 patients from the DBD group. From postoperative days 1-4, serum transaminase release was significantly lower in the cDCD group compared to the DBD group (P < 0.05). Early allograft dysfunction (cDCD: 18% versus DBD: 32%; P = 0.11), acute kidney injury (26% versus 33%; P = 0.49), 90-d graft loss (2% versus 5%; P = 0.66), and arterial (4% versus 12%; P = 0.19) and biliary (16% versus 17%; P = 0.94) complications were similar between the 2 groups. The 2-y graft survival was 88% for cDCD group and 85% for DBD group (P = 0.91). The 2-y patient survival was 90% for cDCD group and 88% for DBD group (P = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that cDCD LT following postmortem NRP can be safely and effectively performed in selected recipients with similar graft and patient survival outcomes, without increased rates of biliary complications and early graft dysfunction compared to DBD LT.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Doenças Biliares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e611-e619, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the primary risks of HIV-positive to HIV-positive organ transplantation is loss of virological control because of donor-derived HIV superinfection, which occurs when an HIV-positive individual becomes infected with a new distinct HIV strain. In this study, as part of the larger HIV Organ Policy Equity pilot study, HIV-positive to HIV-positive kidney and liver transplant recipients in the USA were examined for evidence of sustained donor-derived HIV superinfection. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational study, HIV-positive to HIV-positive kidney and liver transplant recipients were followed in three hospitals in the USA. Candidates with well controlled HIV infection on ART, no active opportunistic infections, and minimum CD4 T-cell counts (>100 cells per µL for liver and >200 cells per µL for kidney per federal guidelines) were eligible to receive a kidney or liver from deceased HIV-positive donors without active infections or neoplasm. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from donor-recipient pairs at the time of transplantation, and from recipients at several timepoints up to 3 years after transplantation. Donor samples were assessed for HIV RNA viral load, CD4 cell count, and antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations. Donor and recipient HIV proviral DNA, and viral RNA from the viraemic timepoint were sequenced using a site-directed next-generation sequencing assay for the reverse transcriptase and gp41 genes. Neighbour-joining phylogenetic trees and direct sequence comparison were used to detect the presence of HIV superinfection. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02602262. FINDINGS: 14 HIV-positive to HIV-positive kidney and eight liver transplant recipients were followed from March, 2016, to July, 2019. 17 recipients had adequate viral sequences allowing for HIV superinfection assessment. Eight donors were suppressed (viral load <400 copies per mL), and none had multiclass drug-resistant mutations detected. None of the recipients examined had evidence of HIV superinfection. One recipient had a viraemic episode (viral load of 2 080 000 copies per mL) 3 years after transplantation as a result of non-adherence to ART. Only recipient viral sequences were detected during the viraemic episode, suggesting that the donor virus, if present, was not reactivated despite temporary withdrawal of ART. INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that loss of HIV suppression due to donor-derived HIV superinfection might not be a significant clinical concern in carefully monitored ART suppressed HIV-positive organ recipients. FUNDING: US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Fígado , Superinfecção/epidemiologia , Superinfecção/etiologia , Idoso , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/imunologia , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Superinfecção/diagnóstico , Carga Viral , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
11.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(5): 275-282, jun.-jul. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the behavior of C-reactive protein (CRP) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) during the first postoperative days, and its usefulness as a marker of severe early allograft dysfunction (EAD). DESIGN: A prospective, single-center cohort study was carried out. SETTING: The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a regional hospital with a liver transplant program since 1997. PATIENTS: The study comprised a total of 183 patients admitted to our ICU immediately after liver transplantation between 2009 and 2015. VARIABLES OF INTEREST: C-reactive protein levels upon ICU admission and after 24 and 48h, severe EAD and hospital mortality. RESULTS: The CRP levels after OLT were: upon ICU admission 57.5 (51.6-63.3) mg/L, after 24h 80.1 (72.9-87.3)mg/L and after 48h 69.9 (62.5-77.4) mg/L. Severe EAD patients (14.2%) had higher mortality (23.1 vs 2.5; OR 11.48: 2.98-44.19) and lower CRP upon ICU admission (39.3 [29.8-48.7] mg/L) than the patients without EAD (0.5 [53.9-67.0]; p < 0.05] - the best cut-off point being 68mg/L (sensitivity 92.3%; specificity 40.1%; Youden index 0.33). Lower CRP upon ICU admission was correlated to higher mortality (24.5 [9.2-39.7] vs 59.4 [53.4-65.4]; p < 0.01, AUC 0.79 [0.65-0.92]). CONCLUSIÓN: Liver transplant is a strong inflammatory stimulus accompanied by high levels of C-reactive protein. A blunted rise in CRP on the first postoperative day after OLT may be a marker of poor allograft function and is related to hospital mortality


OBJETIVO: Explorar el comportamiento de la proteína C reactiva (PCR) en el postoperatorio inmediato de trasplante hepático y su utilidad como marcador de disfunción grave del injerto hepático. DISEÑO: Estudio de cohortes prospectivo, unicéntrico. ÁMBITO: Unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) de un hospital regional. PACIENTES: Ciento ochenta y tres pacientes ingresados en nuestra UCI inmediatamente después del trasplante hepático entre 2009-2015. VARIABLES DE INTERÉS: Niveles de PCR al ingreso en UCI, 24 y 48h, disfunción grave del injerto hepático, mortalidad intrahospitalaria. RESULTADOS: Los niveles de PCR en el postoperatorio inmediato de trasplante fueron: al ingreso en UCI 57,5 (51,6-63,3) mg/L, a las 24h 80,1 (72,9-87,3) mg/L y a las 48h 69,9 (62,5-77,4) mg/L. Los pacientes con disfunción grave del injerto (14,2%) tuvieron una mayor mortalidad (23,1 vs. 2,5; OR 11,48: 2,98-44,19) y PCR más baja al ingreso en UCI (39,3 [29,8-48,7]mg/L) que los pacientes sin disfunción grave (0,5 [53,9-67]; p < 0,05), siendo el mejor punto de corte para la PCR de 68mg/L (sensibilidad 92,3%; especificidad 40,1%; índice de Youden 0,33). La PCR baja al ingreso tuvo correlación directa con la mortalidad (24,5 [9,2-39,7] vs. 59,4 [53,4-65,4]; p < 0,01, AUC 0,79 [0,65-0,92]). CONCLUSIÓN: El trasplante hepático es un estímulo inflamatorio intenso que se acompaña de niveles elevados de PCR. Un ascenso truncado de la PCR, en el primer día del postoperatorio de trasplante hepático, puede ser un marcador de funcionamiento inadecuado del injerto hepático y está relacionado con la mortalidad intrahospitalaria


Assuntos
Humanos , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/complicações , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Biomarcadores/análise , Testes de Função Hepática
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2939, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546694

RESUMO

There is a limited access to liver transplantation, however, many organs are discarded based on subjective assessment only. Here we report the VITTAL clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02740608) outcomes, using normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) to objectively assess livers discarded by all UK centres meeting specific high-risk criteria. Thirty-one livers were enroled and assessed by viability criteria based on the lactate clearance to levels ≤2.5 mmol/L within 4 h. The viability was achieved by 22 (71%) organs, that were transplanted after a median preservation time of 18 h, with 100% 90-day survival. During the median follow up of 542 days, 4 (18%) patients developed biliary strictures requiring re-transplantation. This trial demonstrates that viability testing with NMP is feasible and in this study enabled successful transplantation of 71% of discarded livers, with 100% 90-day patient and graft survival; it does not seem to prevent non-anastomotic biliary strictures in livers donated after circulatory death with prolonged warm ischaemia.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Fígado/fisiologia , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Preservação de Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Perfusão/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(1): G43-G50, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508156

RESUMO

Liver transplantation is the standard treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, due to the ongoing disparity between supply and demand for optimal donor organs, there is increasing usage of extended criteria donor organs, including steatotic liver grafts. To mitigate the increased risks associated with extended criteria donor livers, ex situ oxygenated machine perfusion (MP) has received increasing attention in recent years as an emerging platform for dynamic preservation, reconditioning, and viability assessment to increase organ utilization. MP can be applied at different temperatures. During hypothermic MP (4-12°C), liver metabolism is reduced, while oxygenation restores the intracellular levels of adenosine triphosphate. The liver is quickly "recharged" to support metabolism when at normothermia (35-37°C) and to ameliorate the detrimental effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury during transplantation. During normothermia, MP can be applied to assess hepatocellular and cholangiocellular viability. MP at hyperthermic (>38°C) temperatures (HyMP), however, remains relatively understudied. The liver is an important component in the regulation of core body temperature and, as such, displays significant physiological and metabolic changes in response to different temperatures. Hyperthermia may promote vasodilation, increase aerobic metabolism and induce production of protective molecules such as heat shock proteins. Therefore, HyMP could provide an attractive reconditioning strategy for steatotic livers. In this review, we describe current literature on the physiological and metabolic effects of the liver at hyperthermia for human, rodents, and pigs and provide a rationale for using therapeutic HyMP during isolated liver machine perfusion to recondition extended criteria donor livers, including steatotic livers, before transplantation.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Hipertermia Induzida , Fígado/cirurgia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Temperatura , Animais , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Fígado/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado/métodos
14.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 119, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donor safety is the top priority in living-donor liver transplantation. Splenic hypertrophy and platelet count decrease after donor surgery are reported to correlate with the extent of hepatectomy, but other aftereffects of donor surgeries are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the surgical effects of donor hepatectomy on skeletal muscle depletion and their potential sex differences. METHODS: Among a total of 450 consecutive donor hepatectomies performed from April 2001 through March 2017, 277 donors who completed both preoperative and postoperative (60-119 days postsurgery) evaluation by computed tomography were the subjects of this study. Donors aged 45 years or older were considered elderly donors. Postoperative skeletal muscle depletion was assessed on the basis of the cross-sectional area of the psoas major muscle. Postoperative changes in the spleen volume and platelet count ratios were also analysed to evaluate the effects of major hepatectomy. RESULTS: The decrease in the postoperative skeletal muscle mass in the overall donor population was slight (99.4 ± 6.3%). Of the 277 donors, 59 (21.3%) exhibited skeletal muscle depletion (i.e., < 95% of the preoperative value). Multivariate analysis revealed that elderly donor (OR:2.30, 95% C.I.: 1.27-4.24) and female donor (OR: 1.94, 95% C.I. 1.04-3.59) were independent risk factors for postoperative skeletal muscle depletion. Stratification of the subjects into four groups by age and sex revealed that the elderly female donor group had significantly less skeletal muscle mass postoperatively compared with the preoperative values (95.6 ± 6.8%), while the other three groups showed no significant decrease. Due to their smaller physical characteristics, right liver donation was significantly more prevalent in the female groups than in the male groups (112/144, 77.8% vs 65/133, 48.9%; p < 0.001). The estimated liver resection rate correlated significantly with the splenic hypertrophy ratio (r = 0.528, p < 0.001) and the extent of the platelet count decrease (r = - 0.314, p < 0.001), but donor age and sex did not affect these parameters. CONCLUSION: Elderly female donors have a higher risk of postoperative skeletal muscle depletion. Additionally, female donors are more likely to donate a right liver graft, whose potential subclinical risks include postoperative splenic enlargement and a platelet count decrease.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Doadores Vivos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Contagem de Plaquetas , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
15.
Updates Surg ; 72(3): 659-669, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594369

RESUMO

When the standard arterial reconstruction is not feasible during liver transplantation (LT), aorto-hepatic arterial reconstruction (AHAR) can be the only solution to save the graft. AHAR can be performed on the infrarenal (IR) or supraceliac (SC) tract of the aorta, but the possible effect on outcome of selecting SC versus IR reconstruction is still unclear. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients who underwent liver transplantation with AHAR in six European centres between January 2003 and December 2018 were retrospectively analysed to ascertain whether the incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) was influenced by the type of AHAR (IR-AHAR vs. SC-AHAR). In 56/120 (46.6%) cases, an IR anastomosis was performed, always using an interposition arterial conduit. In the other 64/120 (53.4%) cases, an SC anastomosis was performed; an arterial conduit was used in 45/64 (70.3%) cases. Incidence of early (≤ 30 days) HAT was in 6.2% (4/64) in the SC-AHAR and 10.7% (6/56) IR-AHAR group (p = 0.512) whilst incidence of late HAT was significantly lower in the SC-AHAR group (4.7% (3/64) vs 19.6% (11/56) - p = 0.024). IR-AHAR was the only independent risk factor for HAT (exp[B] = 3.915; 95% CI 1.400-10.951; p = 0.009). When AHAR is necessary at liver transplantation, the use of the supraceliac aorta significantly reduces the incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis and should therefore be recommended whenever possible.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Artéria Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 21(2): 69-75, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-355730

RESUMO

Liver transplantation is considered the ultimate solution for patients with end-stage chronic liver disease or acute liver failure. Patients with liver transplant need special care starting from preoperative preparation, surgical intervention ending with postoperative care. Transplanted patients have to receive immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection. Such a state of immune suppression could predispose to different types of infections in liver transplant recipients. Currently, the world is suffering a pandemic caused by a new strain of the coronavirus family called COVID-19. Certain infection control precautions are needed to protect immunocompromised and vulnerable patients, including liver transplant candidates and recipients from acquiring COVID-19 infection. Restricting non-transplant elective surgical procedures, managing transplant patients in separate outpatient clinics, and in-patient wards can prevent transmission of infection both to patients and healthcare workers. Telemedicine can help in the triage of patients to screen for symptoms of COVID-19 before their regular appointment. Management of immunosuppressive therapy and drug-drug interactions in liver transplant recipients infected with COVID-19 should be cautiously practiced to prevent rejection and effectively treat the underlying infection. In this report, we are trying to summarize available evidence about different aspects of the management of liver transplant candidates and recipients in the era of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Terminal , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Falência Hepática Aguda , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359683

RESUMO

Liver disease during pregnancy is one of the least studied topics, but it links the interests of hepatologists, gynaecologists and family physicians. Approximately 3% of pregnant woman experience some type of liver disease. Liver disease can occur as a result of pregnancy, before pregnancy and coincidence-related during pregnancy. Pregnancy in women with pre-existing liver disease is essential that the clinicians are familiar with this disorder so they can respond promptly and appropriately in all of these situations. So, because of the complications for both mother and child, it is important that liver disease is recognized in a timely manner to avoid undesirable outcomes.


Assuntos
Hepatite Autoimune/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prognóstico
18.
Transplantation ; 104(9): 1917-1928, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) bears the potential for significant prolongation of liver preservation before transplantation. Although safety and feasibility have been recently published, no data are available describing the significant challenges of establishing NMP programs outside clinical studies. We herein present our experience and propose a multidisciplinary approach for liver NMP in the clinical routine. METHODS: In February 2018, liver NMP was introduced for routine use in marginal organs, logistic challenges, and complex recipients at our institution. In a multidisciplinary effort among transplant coordinators, perfusionists, transplant surgeons, anesthesia, nurses, blood bank as well as laboratory staff, a clinical routine was established and 34 NMP cases were performed without critical incidents or organ loss. RESULTS: Nine livers were discarded due to poor organ quality and function observed during NMP. Twenty-five livers were successfully transplanted after preservation of up to 38 h. The extended criteria donors rate was 100% and 92% in discarded and transplanted livers, respectively. Nighttime procedures and parallel transplantations were eventually omitted. Graft and patient survival was 88% at 20 mo. No cholangiopathy was observed despite the use of extended criteria donor organs in 92% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: NMP in a multidisciplinary approach enables a safe prolongation of liver preservation and overnight organ care. A first field test of NMP indicates safety and benefit of this approach.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Transplantation ; 104(9): 1804-1812, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433236

RESUMO

Machine perfusion (MP) is at the forefront of innovation in modern liver transplantation. Several approaches, mainly varying the temperature at which the graft is perfused, have shown benefit in preclinical models and nonrandomized clinical trials. Given the recent randomized controlled trial by Nasralla et al demonstrating the efficacy of normothermic MP over static cold storage, MP is likely here to stay for the foreseeable future. We are only beginning to explore the possibilities of this technology, including the prediction of graft function and modification of suboptimal livers. This has the potential to both increase the donor pool and improve the quality of grafts provided to recipients. Beyond transplantation, there may be a role for MP in extracorporeal liver support, cancer research and therapeutics, and pharmaceutical testing. In this review, we provide the rationale and explore the relevant preclinical studies that support the use of ex situ liver perfusion for these extended applications.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Neoplasias/terapia , Toxicologia/métodos
20.
Clin Imaging ; 65: 85-93, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387801

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of attenuation measurement function (ATT), a newly developed quantitative ultrasonography(US) method based on measurement of the attenuation coefficient, using unenhanced computerized tomography(CT) attenuation values as a reference standard, for the detection and measurement of hepatosteatosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 98 patients were analyzed. The diagnostic ability of ATT was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the correlation between liver attenuation index (LAI), the liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio (CTL/S), liver attenuation value (CTL), and ATT was determined. RESULTS: ATT is negatively correlated with LAI (r = -0.571, p < 0.001), CTL/S (r = -0.532, p < 0.001), and mean CTL (r = -0.50, p < 0.001). A significant difference was found between ATT values of patients with different grades of hepatosteatosis (p < 0.001). A significant difference was found between ATT values of patients with LAI < -10 and LAI > -10, CTL < 40 and CTL > 40, and CTL/S < 1 and CTL/S > 1 (p < 0.001). An ATT ≥ 0.665 showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90% in diagnosing moderate-severe steatosis. The corresponding area under the ROC curve(AUROC) was 0.935. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the interobserver variability of ATT was 0.907 (95% CI, 0.85-0.95). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ATT values for evaluation of hepatosteatosis was closely correlated with the degree of hepatosteatosis and liver fat content. It can be used as a noninvasive method in the diagnosis and follow-up.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia
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