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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD011557, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graft thrombosis is a well-recognised complication of solid organ transplantation and is one of the leading causes of graft failure. Currently there are no standardised protocols for thromboprophylaxis. Many transplant units use unfractionated heparin (UFH) and fractionated heparins (low molecular weight heparin; LMWH) as prophylaxis for thrombosis. Antiplatelet agents such as aspirin are routinely used as prophylaxis of other thrombotic conditions and may have a role in preventing graft thrombosis. However, any pharmacological thromboprophylaxis comes with the theoretical risk of increasing the risk of major blood loss following transplant. This review looks at benefits and harms of thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing solid organ transplantation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of instituting thromboprophylaxis to patients undergoing solid organ transplantation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 10 November 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs designed to examine interventions to prevent thrombosis in solid organ transplant recipients. All donor types were included (donor after circulatory (DCD) and brainstem death (DBD) and live transplantation). There was no upper age limit for recipients in our search. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The results of the literature search were screened and data collected by two independent authors. Dichotomous outcome results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Random effects models were used for data analysis. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two authors using the risk of bias assessment tool. Confidence in the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified nine studies (712 participants). Seven studies (544 participants) included kidney transplant recipients, and studies included liver transplant recipients. We did not identify any study enrolling heart, lung, pancreas, bowel, or any other solid organ transplant recipient. Selection bias was high or unclear in eight of the nine studies; five studies were at high risk of bias for performance and/or detection bias; while attrition and reporting biases were in general low or unclear. Three studies (180 participants) primarily investigated heparinisation in kidney transplantation. Only two studies reported on graft vessel thrombosis in kidney transplantation (144 participants). These small studies were at high risk of bias in several domains and reported only two graft thromboses between them; it therefore remains unclear whether heparin decreases the risk of early graft thrombosis or non-graft thrombosis (very low certainty). UFH may make little or no difference versus placebo to the rate of major bleeding events in kidney transplantation (3 studies, 155 participants: RR 2.92, 95% CI 0.89 to 9.56; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis using a fixed-effect model suggested that UFH may increase the risk of haemorrhagic events compared to placebo (RR 3.33, 95% CI 1.04 to 10.67, P = 0.04). Compared to control, any heparin (including LMWH) may make little or no difference to the number of major bleeding events (3 studies, 180 participants: RR 2.70, 95% CI 0.89 to 8.19; I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) and had an unclear effect on risk of readmission to intensive care (3 studies, 180 participants: RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.12 to 3.90, I² = 45%; very low certainty evidence). The effect of heparin on our other outcomes (including death, patient and graft survival, transfusion requirements) remains unclear (very low certainty evidence). Three studies (144 participants) investigated antiplatelet interventions in kidney transplantation: aspirin versus dipyridamole (1), and Lipo-PGE1 plus low-dose heparin to "control" in patients who had a diagnosis of acute rejection (2). None of these reported on early graft thromboses. The effect of aspirin, dipyridamole and Lipo PGE1 plus low-dose heparin on any outcomes is unclear (very low certainty evidence). Two studies (168 participants) assessed interventions in liver transplants. One compared warfarin versus aspirin in patients with pre-existing portal vein thrombosis and the other investigated plasmapheresis plus anticoagulation. Both studies were abstract-only publications, had high risk of bias in several domains, and no outcomes could be meta-analysed. Overall, the effect of any of these interventions on any of our outcomes remains unclear with no evidence to guide anti-thrombotic therapy in standard liver transplant recipients (very low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there is a paucity of research in the field of graft thrombosis prevention. Due to a lack of high quality evidence, it remains unclear whether any therapy is able to reduce the rate of early graft thrombosis in any type of solid organ transplant. UFH may increase the risk of major bleeding in kidney transplant recipients, however this is based on low certainty evidence. There is no evidence from RCTs to guide anti-thrombotic strategies in liver, heart, lung, or other solid organ transplants. Further studies are required in comparing anticoagulants, antiplatelets to placebo in solid organ transplantation. These should focus on outcomes such as early graft thrombosis, major haemorrhagic complications, return to theatre, and patient/graft survival.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Transplantados , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Viés , Dipiridamol/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25293, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787616

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Data on the overall epidemiology and temporal trends of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis in Korea are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis in Korea between 2002 and 2017.Using the National Health Insurance Service database, we analyzed data from the entire Korean population between 2002 and 2017. Hemodialysis patients were identified using rare incurable disease codes (V001) or prescription of medical fee codes of hemodialysis (O7020 and O7021). We only included patients who had been maintained on hemodialysis for more than 90 days from the date of dialysis initiation, to exclude patients who required short-term dialysis for acute kidney injury, conversion to peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation.During the 16-year follow-up, the number of hemodialysis patients in Korea has steadily increased from 11,215 in 2002 to 67,486 in 2017. The mean age of these patients has gradually increased from 55.57 ±â€Š13.31 years in 2002 to 62.13 ±â€Š13.23 years in 2017. In 2017, the crude prevalence rate of hemodialysis was 1303.4 per million population. Overall, the number of men tended to be somewhat higher than that of women, and the proportion of men increased slightly from 55.56% in 2002 to 58.45% in 2017. The proportion of diabetic patients increased rapidly from 23.84% to 47.84%, and the percentage of dyslipidemic patients rose from 18.9% to 86.7%. The number of incident hemodialysis patients increased significantly from 4406 in 2003 to 12,134 in 2014, and then decreased to 8090 in 2017. In the incident cases of hemodialysis, the observed increase in the proportion of male patients and in diabetes and dyslipidemia were similar to that of prevalent patients. The more recent era of hemodialysis initiation, the better 5-year survival rates were observed.The prevalence and incidence of hemodialysis in Korea gradually increased between 2002 and 2017. The proportion of men, and patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia requiring hemodialysis also increased continuously. The survival rate of hemodialysis patients was gradually improving. These findings may serve as a reference for future epidemiological studies on hemodialysis in Korea.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the critical shortage of kidneys for transplantation, the identification of modifiable factors related to graft failure is highly desirable. The role of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in graft failure remains undetermined. Here, we investigated the clinical utility of TMAO and its dietary determinants for graft failure prediction in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). METHODS: We included 448 RTRs who participated in the TransplantLines Cohort Study. Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were performed to study the association of plasma TMAO with graft failure. Net Benefit, which is a decision analysis method, was performed to evaluate the clinical utility of TMAO and dietary information in the prediction of graft failure. RESULTS: Among RTRs (age 52.7 ± 13.1 years; 53% males), the baseline median TMAO was 5.6 (3.0-10.2) µmol/L. In multivariable regression analysis, the most important dietary determinants of TMAO were egg intake (Std. ß = 0.09 [95%CI, 0.01; 0.18]; p = 0.03), fiber intake (Std. ß = -0.14 [95%CI, -0.22, -0.05]; p = 0.002), and fish and seafood intake (Std. ß = 0.12 [95%CI, 0.03,0.21]; p = 0.01). After a median follow-up of 5.3 (4.5-6.0) years, graft failure was observed in 58 subjects. TMAO was associated with an increased risk of graft failure, independent of age, sex, the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, albuminuria, and the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) (Hazard Ratio per 1-SD increase of TMAO, 1.62 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22; 2.14, p < 0.001)). A TMAO and dietary enhanced prediction model offered approximately double the Net Benefit compared to a previously reported, validated prediction model for future graft failure, allowing the detection of 21 RTRs per 100 RTRs tested, with no false positives versus 10 RTRs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A predictive model for graft failure, enriched with TMAO and its dietary determinants, yielded a higher Net Benefit compared with an already validated model. This study suggests that TMAO and its dietary determinants are associated with an increased risk of graft failure and that it is clinically meaningful.


Assuntos
Dieta , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Metilaminas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(1): 143-151, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, COVID-19 infections began to rise exponentially in the USA, placing substantial burden on the healthcare system. As a result, there was a rapid change in transplant practices and policies, with cessation of most procedures. Our goal was to understand changes to pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) at the national level during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: Using SRTR data, we examined changes in pediatric waitlist registration, waitlist removal or inactivation, and deceased donor and living donor (DDKT/LDKT) events during the start of the disease transmission in the USA compared with the same time the previous year. RESULTS: We saw an initial decrease in DDKT and LDKT by 47% and 82% compared with expected events and then a continual increase, with numbers reaching expected prepandemic levels by May 2020. In the early phase of the pandemic, waitlist inactivation and removals due to death or deteriorating condition rose above expected values by 152% and 189%, respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in new waitlist additions (IRR 0.49 0.65 0.85) and LDKT (IRR 0.17 0.38 0.84) in states with high vs. low COVID activity. Transplant recipients during the pandemic were more likely to have received a DDKT, but had similar calculated panel-reactive antibody (cPRA) values, waitlist time, and cause of kidney failure as before the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic initially reduced access to kidney transplantation among pediatric patients in the USA but has not had a sustained effect.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores Vivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 419, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, overwhelming healthcare systems globally. Preliminary reports suggest a high incidence of infection and mortality with SARS-CoV-2 in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT). The aims of this study are to report characteristics, rates and outcomes of all patients affected by infection with SARS-CoV-2 undergoing KRT in Scotland. METHODS: Study design was an observational cohort study. Data were linked between the Scottish Renal Registry, Health Protection Scotland and the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group national data sets using a unique patient identifier (Community Health Index (CHI)) for each individual by the Public Health and Intelligence unit of Public Health, Scotland. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: During the period 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020, 110 patients receiving KRT tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 amounting to 2% of the prevalent KRT population. Of those affected, 86 were receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and 24 had a renal transplant. Patients who tested positive were older and more likely to reside in more deprived postcodes. Mortality was high at 26.7% in the dialysis patients and 29.2% in the transplant patients. CONCLUSION: The rate of detected SARS-CoV-2 in people receiving KRT in Scotland was relatively low but with a high mortality for those demonstrating infection. Although impossible to confirm, it appears that the measures taken within dialysis units coupled with the national shielding policy, have been effective in protecting this population from infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus , Falência Renal Crônica , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Escócia/epidemiologia
9.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E483-E488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mannitol and furosemide have been used as diuretics intraoperatively to facilitate early renal allograft function and reduce delayed graft function. As the evidence of any efficacy of these agents is limited, we sought to characterize the use of diuretics among transplant surgeons. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was sent to all Canadian transplant programs where kidney transplants are routinely performed. Questions were related to the use and indications for mannitol and furosemide. Responses were collected and analyzed as counts and percentages of respondents. We used χ2 analysis to assess the relationship between demographic factors and survey responses. RESULTS: Thirty-five surgeons completed the survey (response rate 50%). Seventy per cent of respondents reported performing 26 or more transplants per year, 88% had formal transplant fellowship training and 67% indicated that they currently train fellows. Only 24% and 12% reported believing that delayed graft function is reduced by mannitol and furosemide use, respectively. However, 73% routinely gave mannitol to patients and 53% routinely gave furosemide. The most common justification given for mannitol use was to induce diuresis (54%); 37% of respondents reported using mannitol because of training dogma. Likewise, 57% used furosemide for diuresis, with 23% reporting that their use of this agent was based on dogma. No relationship emerged between fellowship training, case volume or training program status and the use of any agent. Interestingly, 71% of respondents indicated that a randomized controlled trial evaluating the utility of intraoperative diuretics is needed and that they were interested in participating in such a trial. CONCLUSION: Use of intraoperative diuretics and the rationale for their use vary among surgeons. A substantial proportion of surgeons use these medications on the basis of dogma alone. A randomized controlled trial is needed to clarify the role of intraoperative diuretics in kidney transplant surgery.


Assuntos
Função Retardada do Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Reperfusão/métodos , Aloenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Aloenxertos/fisiologia , Canadá , Função Retardada do Enxerto/etiologia , Função Retardada do Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Diurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurese/fisiologia , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiologia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Reperfusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1591-1603, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT) improves survival for liver transplant recipients with renal dysfunction; however, the tenuous perioperative hemodynamic and metabolic milieu in high-acuity CLKT recipients increases delayed graft function and kidney allograft failure. We sought to analyze whether delayed KT through pumping would improve kidney outcomes following CLKT. METHODS: A retrospective analysis (University of California Los Angeles [n = 145], Houston Methodist Hospital [n = 79]) was performed in all adults receiving CLKT at 2 high-volume transplant centers from February 2004 to January 2017, and recipients were analyzed for patient and allograft survival as well as renal outcomes following CLKT. RESULTS: A total of 63 patients (28.1%) underwent delayed implantation of pumped kidneys during CLKT (dCLKT) and 161 patients (71.9%) received early implantation of nonpumped kidneys during CLKT (eCLKT). Most recipients were high-acuity with median biologic model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of, 35 for dCLKT and 34 for eCLKT (P = ns). Pretransplant, dCLKT had longer intensive care unit stay, were more often intubated, and had greater vasopressor use. Despite this, dCLKT exhibited improved 1-, 3-, and 5-year patient and kidney survival (P = 0.02) and decreased length of stay (P = 0.001), kidney allograft failure (P = 0.012), and dialysis duration (P = 0.031). This reduced kidney allograft futility (death or continued need for hemodialysis within 3 mo posttransplant) for dCLKT (6.3%) compared with eCLKT (19.9%) (P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed implantation of pumped kidneys is associated with improved patient and renal allograft survival and decreased hospital length of stay despite longer kidney cold ischemia. These data should inform the ethical debate as to the futility of performing CLKT in high-acuity recipients.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Idoso , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribução , Isquemia Fria/instrumentação , Isquemia Fria/métodos , Isquemia Fria/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Rim/imunologia , Transplante de Rim/ética , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Fígado/ética , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Futilidade Médica/ética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preservação de Órgãos/instrumentação , Preservação de Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Perfusão/instrumentação , Perfusão/métodos , Perfusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/ética , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Transplantation ; 104(8): e236-e242, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proper care of young children in need of kidney transplant (KT) requires many skilled professionals and an expensive hospital structure. Small children have lesser access to KT. METHODS: We describe a strategy performed in Brazil to enable and accelerate KT in children ≤15 kg based on the establishment of one specialized transplant center, focused on small children, and cooperating with distant centers throughout the country. Actions on 3 fronts were implemented: (a) providing excellent medical assistance, (b) coordinating educational activities to disseminate expertise and establish a professional network, and (c) fostering research to promote scientific knowledge. We presented the number and outcomes of small children KT as a result of this strategy. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-six pediatric KTs were performed in the specialized center from 2009 to 2017, being 130 in children ≤15 kg (38%, being 41 children ≤10 kg) and 216 in >15 kg (62%). Patient survival after 1 and 5 years of the transplant was 97% and 95% in the "small children" group, whereas, in the "heavier children" group, it was 99% and 96% (P = 0.923). Regarding graft survival, we observed in the "small children" group, 91% and 87%, whereas in the "heavier children" group, 94% and 87% (P = 0.873). These results are comparable to the literature data. Groups were similar in the incidence of reoperation, vascular thrombosis, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSIONS: The strategy allowed an improvement in the number of KT in small children with excellent results. We believe this experience may be useful in other locations.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/organização & administração , Adolescente , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1654-1661, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, 1 in 3 patients on the National Kidney Transplant Waiting List (NKTWL) is suspended from the list at least once during their wait. The mortality of this large cohort of patients remains underreported and poorly described. METHODS: We linked patient records from the UK transplant registry to mortality data from the Office of National Statistics and evaluated the impact of a clinically induced suspension event by estimating hazard ratios (HRs) that compared mortality and graft survival between those who had experienced a suspension event and those who had not. RESULTS: Between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, 16.7% (2221/13 322) of all patients registered on the NKTWL were suspended. Forty-eight percent (588/1225) of those who were suspended and who were never transplanted died, most often from cardiothoracic causes. A suspension event was associated with increased mortality from the time of listing (adjusted HR [aHR], 1.79; 1.64-1.95) and from the time of transplantation (aHR, 1.20; 1.06-1.37; P = 0.005). Graft survival was also poorer in those who had been suspended (aHR, 1.13; 1.01-1.28; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Patients suspended on the NKTWL have a significantly higher rate of mortality both on the waiting list and following transplantation. Earlier prioritization of patients at risk of experiencing a suspension event may improve their outcomes.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Seleção de Pacientes , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/normas , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos/normas , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1738-1745, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls occur in 28% of hemodialysis patients and increase the risk of physical impairment, morbidity, and mortality. Therefore, it is likely that kidney transplantation (KT) candidates with recurrent falls are less likely to access KT and more likely to experience adverse post-KT outcomes. METHODS: We used a 2-center cohort study of KT candidates (n = 3666) and recipients (n = 770) (January 2009 to January 2018). Among candidates, we estimated time to listing, waitlist mortality, and transplant rate by recurrent falls (≥2 falls) before evaluation using adjusted regression. Among KT recipients, we estimated risk of mortality, graft loss, and length of stay by recurrent falls before KT using adjusted regression. RESULTS: Candidates with recurrent falls (6.5%) had a lower chance of listing (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.83) but not transplant rate; waitlist mortality was 31-fold (95% CI, 11.33-85.93) higher in the first year and gradually decreased over time. Recipients with recurrent falls (5.1%) were at increased risk of mortality (aHR = 51.43, 95% CI, 16.00-165.43) and graft loss (aHR = 33.57, 95% CI, 11.25-100.21) in the first year, which declined over time, and a longer length of stay (adjusted relative ratio [aRR] = 1.13, 95% CI, 1.03-1.25). In summary, 6.5% of KT candidates and 5.1% of recipients experienced recurrent falls which were associated with adverse pre- and post-KT outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: While recurrent falls were relatively rare in KT candidates and recipients, they were associated with adverse outcomes. Transplant centers should consider employing fall prevention strategies for high-risk candidates as part of comprehensive prehabilitation.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
16.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1746-1751, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of renal transplantation (RT) in the elderly with many comorbid conditions is a matter of concern. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of RT on the survival of patients older than 60 years compared with those remaining on the waiting list (WL) according to their comorbidities. METHODS: In this multicentric observational retrospective cohort study, we included all patients older than 60 years old admitted on the WL from 01 January 2006 to 31 December 2016. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score was calculated for each patient at inclusion on the WL. Kidney donor risk index was used to assess donor characteristics. RESULTS: One thousand and thirty-six patients were included on the WL of which 371 (36%) received an RT during a median follow-up period of 2.5 (1.4-4.1) years. Patient survival was higher after RT compared to patients remaining on the WL, 87%, 80%, and 72% versus 87%, 55%, and 30% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. After RT survival at 5 years was 37% higher for patients with CCI ≥ 3, and 46% higher in those with CCI < 3, compared with patients remaining on the WL. On univariate and multivariate analysis, patient survival was independently associated with a CCI of ≥3 (hazard ratio 1.62; confidence interval 1.09-2.41; P < 0.02) and the use of calcineurin-based therapy maintenance therapy (hazard ratio 0.53; confidence interval 0.34-0.82; P < 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that RT improved survival in patients older than 60 years even those with high comorbidities. The survival after transplantation was also affected by comorbidities.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(10): 2413-2423, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. However, risk factors for COVID-19 disease in patients with kidney transplants remain poorly defined. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent kidney transplantation and were actively followed up in two hospitals in Paris on March 1st, 2020. Patients were screened for baseline and transplant characteristics, functional parameters, comorbidities, and immunosuppressive therapies. COVID-19 disease was assessed. Patients were followed up during the pandemic until April 30th, 2020 by the COVID-19 SLS KT survey program, including teleconsulting, at-home monitoring for patients with COVID-19, and a dedicated phone hotline platform. RESULTS: Among 1216 patients with kidney transplants enrolled, 66 (5%) patients were identified with COVID-19 disease, which is higher than the incidence observed in the general population in France (0.3%). Their mean age was 56.4±12.5 years, and 37 (56%) patients were men. The following factors were independently associated with COVID-19 disease: non-White ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.23 to 3.78; P=0.007), obesity (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.19 to 4.05; P=0.01), asthma and chronic pulmonary disease (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.49 to 6.41; P=0.002), and diabetes (OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.92 to 5.77; P<0.001). The mortality rate related to COVID-19 disease was 1% in the overall study population and 24% in COVID-19-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with kidney transplants display a high risk of mortality. Non-White ethnicity and comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, asthma, and chronic pulmonary disease were associated with higher risk of developing COVID-19 disease. It is imperative that policy makers urgently ensure the integration of such risk factors on response operations against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , França , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Am Surg ; 86(6): 659-664, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683958

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reevaluation of donor criteria, including age, is needed to combat organ shortages, lengthy wait times, and anticipated recipient mortality rates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate donor and recipient (D/R) age combinations and patient and graft survival outcomes. METHODS: Single-organ, living donor kidney transplantations (LDKTs) from 2012 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Donors and recipients were placed into "older" and "younger" age categories of 50 years and above or below age 50, then analyzed with SPSS version 25. RESULTS: We performed 347 LDKTs. Younger-to-older pairings had significantly higher rates of smoking in recipient (53.6%) and hepatitis C (5.5%), but shorter hospital stays (5.3 days). Older-to-younger pairings had the longest hospital stays (7.4 days) but the shortest cold ischemic time (2.3 hours). Notably, there was no significant variance in delayed graft function (first-week dialysis) between groups. Regarding complication rates, only bleeding within 30 days, highest in older-to-older pairings (7.7%), and renal complications, highest in older-to-younger pairings, significantly varied between groups. Interestingly, though younger-to-older cases had the longest mean graft survival time, older kidneys lasted 537 days longer in older recipients than in younger recipients. DISCUSSION: These results indicate there is not a one-size-fits-all approach when considering outcomes of donor/recipient age-pairings in LDKT, as significant correlations did not consistently favor one age-pairing over others. Regardless of age-pairing, LDKT provides gold standard treatment and expands the availability of organs. Future research into the impact of age-pairing on specific variables, national or multicenter studies, and protocol development for evaluating donor/recipient age-pairings is needed.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Isquemia Fria/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Ann Transplant ; 25: e925755, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703929

RESUMO

Kidney transplantation at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic is challenging. Modifying the immunosuppression protocols is controversial and not evidence based. In this study, we aim to review the published literature of kidney transplant recipients who encountered COVID-19. A literature review was performed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and World Health Organization databases to identify relevant English-language articles published up to May 7, 2020. There were 24 articles that reported 129 kidney transplant recipients who encountered COVID-19. The age mean was 54.2 years with 73.7% as males. The most commonly reported presentations in order were fever (82.3%), cough (58%), shortness of breath (33.2%), and fatigue (30.7%). Acute kidney injury was observed in 34.1% of patients. Kidney transplant patients encountered COVID-19 were maintained on tacrolimus (Tac, 92%), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, 78.8%), and prednisone (Pred, 77%) and were manage by holding MMF in 79.1% of patients and holding Tac in 34.4% of patients. In all, 20% of patients needed Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and 24.6% of patients required mechanical ventilation. In all, 18.8% of patients had died compared to the reported general population COVID-19 mortality of 3.4%. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients may be different from the general population with a higher rate of severe disease, complications including renal failure, and mortality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/cirurgia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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