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1.
Life Sci ; 257: 118079, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity affecting drug pharmacokinetics results in the risk of the therapeutic failure or toxic side effects of drugs increasing. Unfortunately, the pharmacokinetic data in obese patients still lack for majority of drugs. Therefore, our study principally investigated the effect of obesity induced by high fat-diet (HFD) on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin and explored the underlying mechanism via the hepatic pregnane X receptor (Pxr)- organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (Oatp2) signaling pathway and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) in rats. MAIN METHODS: Rats with obesity was induced by HFD for 4 weeks, and subsequently, the effect of obesity on the blood concentration, pharmacokinetic parameters and biliary excretion of rosuvastatin administrated intravenously and the hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin in the rat primary hepatocytes were evaluated. Additionally, in order to illuminate the underlying mechanism, the alterations of the mRNA expressions of Oatp2, Mrp2 and Pxr and the concentrations of lithocholic acid (LCA), glycine-LCA (GLCA) and taurine-LCA (TLCA) in liver were determined. KEY FINDINGS: The blood concentration of rosuvastatin that has great relationship with the muscle toxicity increased in rats with HFD-induced obesity, which could be principally ascribed to the decreased hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin that was mainly resulted from the inhibition of hepatic Pxr-Oatp2 pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: The decreased hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin causing the increase of the rosuvastatin concentration in blood under the condition of HFD-induced obesity provides a cue for clinicians to reduce the rosuvastatin dose for obese patients to avoid the occurrence risk of the muscle toxicity of rosuvastatin.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacocinética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacocinética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 251(2): 87-90, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593619

RESUMO

In light of the recent pandemic, favipiravir (Avigan®), a purine nucleic acid analog and antiviral agent approved for use in influenza in Japan, is being studied for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Increase in blood uric acid level is a frequent side effect of favipiravir. Here, we discussed the mechanism of blood uric acid elevation during favipiravir treatment. Favipiravir is metabolized to an inactive metabolite M1 by aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, and excreted into urine. In the kidney, uric acid handling is regulated by the balance of reabsorption and tubular secretion in the proximal tubules. Favipiravir and M1 act as moderate inhibitors of organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3), which are involved in uric acid excretion in the kidney. In addition, M1 enhances uric acid reuptake via urate transporter 1 (URAT1) in the renal proximal tubules. Thus, favipiravir is thought to decrease uric acid excretion into urine, resulting in elevation of uric acid levels in blood. Elevated uric acid levels were returned to normal after discontinuation of favipiravir, and favipiravir is not used for long periods of time for the treatment of viral infection. Thus, the effect on blood uric acid levels was subclinical in most studies. Nevertheless, the adverse effect of favipiravir might be clinically important in patients with a history of gout, hyperuricemia, kidney function impairment (in which blood concentration of M1 increases), and where there is concomitant use of other drugs affecting blood uric acid elevation.


Assuntos
Amidas/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Aldeído Oxidase/metabolismo , Amidas/farmacocinética , Amidas/urina , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Biotransformação , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/fisiopatologia , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , Pirazinas/urina , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 16009-16018, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571913

RESUMO

Food and drug products contain diverse and abundant small-molecule additives (excipients) with unclear impacts on human physiology, drug safety, and response. Here, we evaluate their potential impact on intestinal drug absorption. By screening 136 unique compounds for inhibition of the key intestinal transporter OATP2B1 we identified and validated 24 potent OATP2B1 inhibitors, characterized by higher molecular weight and hydrophobicity compared to poor or noninhibitors. OATP2B1 inhibitors were also enriched for dyes, including 8 azo (R-N=N-R') dyes. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice confirmed that FD&C Red No. 40, a common azo dye excipient and a potent inhibitor of OATP2B1, decreased the plasma level of the OATP2B1 substrate fexofenadine, suggesting that FD&C Red No. 40 has the potential to block drug absorption through OATP2B1 inhibition in vivo. However, the gut microbiomes of multiple unrelated healthy individuals as well as diverse human gut bacterial isolates were capable of inactivating the identified azo dye excipients, producing metabolites that no longer inhibit OATP2B1 transport. These results support a beneficial role for the microbiome in limiting the unintended effects of food and drug additives in the intestine and provide a framework for the data-driven selection of excipients. Furthermore, the ubiquity and genetic diversity of gut bacterial azoreductases coupled to experiments in conventionally raised and gnotobiotic mice suggest that variations in gut microbial community structure may be less important to consider relative to the high concentrations of azo dyes in food products, which have the potential to saturate gut bacterial enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Excipientes/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Antialérgicos/metabolismo , Antialérgicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Azo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Excipientes/farmacocinética , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacocinética , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1 não Sedativos/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1 não Sedativos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Terfenadina/análogos & derivados
4.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 251(2): 87-90, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536670

RESUMO

In light of the recent pandemic, favipiravir (Avigan®), a purine nucleic acid analog and antiviral agent approved for use in influenza in Japan, is being studied for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Increase in blood uric acid level is a frequent side effect of favipiravir. Here, we discussed the mechanism of blood uric acid elevation during favipiravir treatment. Favipiravir is metabolized to an inactive metabolite M1 by aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, and excreted into urine. In the kidney, uric acid handling is regulated by the balance of reabsorption and tubular secretion in the proximal tubules. Favipiravir and M1 act as moderate inhibitors of organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3), which are involved in uric acid excretion in the kidney. In addition, M1 enhances uric acid reuptake via urate transporter 1 (URAT1) in the renal proximal tubules. Thus, favipiravir is thought to decrease uric acid excretion into urine, resulting in elevation of uric acid levels in blood. Elevated uric acid levels were returned to normal after discontinuation of favipiravir, and favipiravir is not used for long periods of time for the treatment of viral infection. Thus, the effect on blood uric acid levels was subclinical in most studies. Nevertheless, the adverse effect of favipiravir might be clinically important in patients with a history of gout, hyperuricemia, kidney function impairment (in which blood concentration of M1 increases), and where there is concomitant use of other drugs affecting blood uric acid elevation.


Assuntos
Amidas/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Aldeído Oxidase/metabolismo , Amidas/farmacocinética , Amidas/urina , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Biotransformação , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/fisiopatologia , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , Pirazinas/urina , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
5.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(3): 234-242, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587096

RESUMO

We previously established that androgen glucuronides are effluxed by multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 3. However, no data exist on the mechanism of hepatic uptake of these metabolites. The first goal of this study was to explore the role of hepatic uptake transporters and characterize transport kinetics of glucuronides of testosterone (TG), dihydrotestosterone (DHTG), androsterone (AG), and etiocholanolone (EtioG) using cell lines overexpressing organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1). Using a quantitative proteomics-guided approach, we then estimated the fractional contribution of individual OATPs in hepatic uptake of these glucuronides. The transport screening assays revealed that the glucuronides were primarily taken up by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The K m values for OATP1B1-mediated uptake were low for EtioG (6.2 µM) as compared with AG, TG, and DHTG (46.2, 56.7, and 71.3 µM, respectively), whereas the K m value for OATP1B3-mediated uptake for EtioG, AG, DHTG, and TG were 19.8, 29.3, 69.6, and 110.4 µM, respectively. Both OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 exhibited the highest transport rate toward AG as compared with other glucuronides. When adjusted for the transporter abundance in human livers, EtioG and DHTG were predicted to be transported by both OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, whereas TG and AG were preferentially (>68%) transported by OATP1B3. Collectively, this report elucidates the mechanisms of hepatic uptake of androgen glucuronides. Perturbation of these processes by genetic polymorphisms, disease conditions, or drug interactions can lead to changes in enterohepatic recycling of androgens. TG and AG can be further investigated as potential biomarkers of OATP1B3 inhibition. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This is the first study to elucidate the mechanism of hepatic uptake of androgen glucuronides and estimate the fractional contribution of individual OATPs using quantitative proteomics. Our results show that both OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are responsible for the hepatic uptake of major circulating testosterone glucuronides. The apparent higher selectivity of OATP1B3 toward testosterone glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide can be leveraged for establishing these metabolites as clinical biomarkers of OATP1B3 activity.


Assuntos
Glucuronídeos/química , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Androgênios/química , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/genética
6.
Toxicology ; 437: 152445, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259555

RESUMO

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), a liver-specific uptake transporter, was associated with drug induced liver injury (DILI). Screening and identifying potent OATP1B1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OATP1B1-mediated DILI. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and herbal products, some of them were reported to produce transporter-mediated DDI. Our objective was to investigate potential inhibitors of OATP1B1 from 99 flavonoids, and to assess the hepatoprotective effects on bosentan induced liver injury. Eight flavonoids, including biochanin A, hispidulin, isoliquiritigenin, isosinensetin, kaempferol, licochalcone A, luteolin and sinensetin exhibited significant inhibition (>50 %) on OATP1B1 in OATP1B1-HEK293 cells, which reduced the OATP1B1-mediated influx of methotrexate, accordingly decreased its cytotoxicity in OATP1B1-HEK293 cells and increased its AUC0-t in different extents in rats, from 28.27%-82.71 %. In bosentan-induced rat liver injury models, 8 flavonoids reduced the levels of serum total bile acid (TBA) and the liver concentration of bosentan in different degrees. Among them, kaempferol decreased the concentration most significantly, by 54.17 %, which indicated that flavonoids may alleviate bosentan-induced liver injury by inhibiting OATP1B1-mediated bosentan uptake. Furthermore, the pharmacophore model indicated the hydrogen bond acceptors and hydrogen bond donors may play critical role in the potency of flavonoids inhibition on OATP1B1. Taken together, our findings would provide helpful information for predicting the potential risks of flavonoid-containing food/herb-drug interactions in humans and alleviating bosentan -induced liver injury by OATP1B1 regulation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/antagonistas & inibidores , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Bosentana , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/química , Interações Alimento-Droga , Células HEK293 , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metotrexato , Conformação Molecular , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Xenobiotica ; 50(9): 1128-1137, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189541

RESUMO

An expanded view of the substrate landscape of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 was pursued with the goal of understanding if the identification of novel in vitro substrates could shed additional light on the impact of OATP2B1 on intestinal absorption and brain penetration.To examine this hypothesis, a series of experiments measured the cellular accumulation of a diverse array of compounds. Representative angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and other compounds of interest were subsequently investigated for inhibition, time dependence, and kinetics.The study identified ARBs as a class of OATP2B1 substrates and found balsalazide, olsalzine, and gavestinel to be novel substrates of OATP2B1 too. Some compounds previously reported to be OATP2B1 substrates in the literature, aliskiren, erlotinib, montelukast, fexofenadine, and taurocholate could not be confirmed as substrates.Literature describing in vivo outcomes for OATP2B1 substrates, coproporphyrin III, ARBs, balsalazide, olsalzine, and gavestinel highlight the absence of a substantial impact of OATP2B1 on the oral absorption and/or brain penetration of OATP2B1 substrates. Suggestions of including OATP2B1 assessment as part of the drug approval process are likely premature and further mechanistic work with more robust OATP2B1 substrates, which may include some of those described here, is desirable.


Assuntos
Coproporfirinas/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Terfenadina/análogos & derivados
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(5): 183210, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006472

RESUMO

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is a key hepatic uptake transporter whose inhibition could lead to adverse drug-drug and drug-food interactions. Flavonoids are widely distributed in food and beverages and thus our bodies are frequently exposed to them. Therefore, investigation of the interactions between OATP1B1 and flavonoids could be of great significance. In the present study, 25 common flavonoids were investigated for their interactions with OATP1B1 using the fluorescent substrate 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analysis. Kinetic study showed that OATP1B1-mediated DCF uptake exhibited a monophasic saturation kinetics with a Km value of 9.7 ± 2.4 µM. Inhibition assay for flavonoids on OATP1B1-mediated DCF uptake was performed and their IC50 values were determined upon which reliable and predictive CoMFA (q2 = 0.604, r2 = 0.841) and CoMSIA (q2 = 0.534, r2 = 0.807) models were developed. Our experimental and computational results showed that flavonoid aglycones interacted with OATP1B1 much stronger than their glycosides such as 3-O- and 7-O-glycosides as bulky hydrophilic and hydrogen-bond forming substituents at C-3 and C-7 positions on rings A and C were unfavorable for their binding. On the other hand, the presence of hydrogen-bond forming groups on ring B was beneficial as long as the number of hydroxyl groups was not >2. Our results also indicated that flavones usually interacted with OATP1B1 much stronger than their 3-hydroxyflavone counterparts (flavonols). The obtained information and 3D-QSAR models could be useful for elucidating and predicting the interactions between flavonoids and human OATP1B1.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/química , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Interações Medicamentosas , Fluoresceínas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Cinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
9.
J Biol Chem ; 295(7): 1829-1842, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896576

RESUMO

The multispecific organic anion transporters, OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8), the main kidney elimination pathways for many common drugs, are often considered to have largely-redundant roles. However, whereas examination of metabolomics data from Oat-knockout mice (Oat1 and Oat3KO) revealed considerable overlap, over a hundred metabolites were increased in the plasma of one or the other of these knockout mice. Many of these relatively unique metabolites are components of distinct biochemical and signaling pathways, including those involving amino acids, lipids, bile acids, and uremic toxins. Cheminformatics, together with a "logical" statistical and machine learning-based approach, identified a number of molecular features distinguishing these unique endogenous substrates. Compared with OAT1, OAT3 tends to interact with more complex substrates possessing more rings and chiral centers. An independent "brute force" approach, analyzing all possible combinations of molecular features, supported the logical approach. Together, the results suggest the potential molecular basis by which OAT1 and OAT3 modulate distinct metabolic and signaling pathways in vivo As suggested by the Remote Sensing and Signaling Theory, the analysis provides a potential mechanism by which "multispecific" kidney proximal tubule transporters exert distinct physiological effects. Furthermore, a strong metabolite-based machine-learning classifier was able to successfully predict unique OAT1 versus OAT3 drugs; this suggests the feasibility of drug design based on knockout metabolomics of drug transporters. The approach can be applied to other SLC and ATP-binding cassette drug transporters to define their nonredundant physiological roles and for analyzing the potential impact of drug-metabolite interactions.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1631-1642, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304590

RESUMO

Galunisertib (LY2157299), a promising small-molecule inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) receptor, is currently in mono- and combination therapy trials for various cancers including glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer. Using genetically modified mouse models, we investigated the roles of the multidrug efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2, the OATP1A/1B uptake transporters and the drug-metabolizing CYP3A complex in galunisertib pharmacokinetics. In vitro, galunisertib was vigorously transported by human ABCB1, and moderately by mouse Abcg2. Orally administered galunisertib (20 mg/kg) was very rapidly absorbed. Galunisertib brain-to-plasma ratios were increased by ~24-fold in Abcb1a/1b-/- and Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2-/- mice compared to wild-type mice, but not in single Abcg2-/- mice, whereas galunisertib oral availability was not markedly affected. However, recovery of galunisertib in the small intestinal lumen was strongly reduced in Abcb1a/1b-/- and Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2-/- mice. Oral coadministration of the ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar boosted galunisertib brain accumulation in wild-type mice to equal the levels seen in Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2-/- mice. Oatp1a/1b deficiency did not alter oral galunisertib pharmacokinetics or liver distribution. Cyp3a-/- mice showed a 1.9-fold higher plasma AUC0-1 hr than wild-type mice, but this difference disappeared over 8 hr. Also, transgenic human CYP3A4 overexpression did not significantly alter oral galunisertib pharmacokinetics. Abcb1 thus markedly restricts galunisertib brain penetration and affects its intestinal disposition, possibly through biliary excretion. Elacridar coadministration could fully inhibit both processes, without causing acute toxicity. Moreover, mouse Cyp3a, but not human CYP3A4, may eliminate galunisertib at high plasma concentrations. These insights may help to guide the further clinical development and application of galunisertib.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Acridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Pirazóis/sangue , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Quinolinas/sangue , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Xenobiotica ; 50(4): 479-487, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368836

RESUMO

Jatrorrhizine possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism underlying hepatic uptake of jatrorrhizine remains unclear.Rat liver slices, isolated rat hepatocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) and organic cation transporter (OCT) were used to evaluate the hepatic uptake of jatrorrhizine in this study.Uptake of jatrorrhizine in rat liver slices and isolated rat hepatocytes was significantly inhibited by glycyrrhizic acid (Oatp1b2 inhibitor) and prazosin (Oct1 inhibitor), but not by ibuprofen (Oatp1a1 inhibitor) or digoxin (Oatp1a4 inhibitor). Uptake of jatrorrhizine in OATP1B3 and OCT1-HEK293 cells indicated a saturable process with the Km of 8.20 ± 1.28 and 4.94 ± 0.55 µM, respectively. However, the transcellular transport of jatrorrhizine in OATP1B1-HEK293 cells was not observed. Rifampicin (OATP inhibitor) for OATP1B3-HEK293 cells and prazosin for OCT1-HEK293 cells could inhibit the uptake of jatrorrhizine with the IC50 of 5.49 ± 1.05 and 2.77 ± 0.72 µM, respectively.The above data indicate that hepatic uptake of jatrorrhizine is involved in both OATP and OCT, which may have important roles in jatrorrhizine liver disposition and potential drug-drug interactions.


Assuntos
Berberina/análogos & derivados , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Animais , Berberina/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cátions , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado , Ratos
12.
Xenobiotica ; 50(3): 297-317, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180267

RESUMO

1. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) belong to the superfamily of solute carriers (SLC), which are important membrane transporters in animals and humans. Liver is an important organ for drug disposition. In human liver, three OATPs, namely OATP1B1, 1B3 and 2B1, are expressed on the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes.2. OATPs have multiple substrate specificity, mediating transport of a wide range of endo- and exogenous substances such as bile salts, bilirubin, hormones and their conjugates, toxins and various drugs. Therefore, they are important for drug disposition in human body. In this review, we compiled a complete list of the substrates for human hepatic OATPs.3. OATP genes have single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which could lead to the alteration of their function, and thus might result in the change of pharmacokinetic properties for their substrate drugs. In this review, we summarized the genetic polymorphisms of the three hepatic OATPs and their effect on in vitro transport function and in vivo pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs.4. Finally, some concerns and perspectives on OATP polymorphism research are discussed.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo Genético , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
Int J Artif Organs ; 43(1): 45-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385550

RESUMO

The main physiological functions of renal proximal tubule cells in vivo are reabsorption of essential nutrients from the glomerular filtrate and secretion of waste products and xenobiotics into urine. Currently, there are several established cell lines of human origin available as in vitro models of proximal tubule. However, these cells appeared to be limited in their biological relevance, because essential characteristics of the original tissue are lost once the cells are cultured. As a consequence of these limitations, primary human proximal tubule cells constitute a suitable and a biologically more relevant in vitro model to study this specific segment of the nephron and therefore, these cells can play an important role in renal regenerative medicine applications. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate proximal tubule cells from human nephrectomies. We explain the steps performed for an in-depth characterization of the cells, including the study of markers from others segments of the nephron, with the goal to determine the purity of the culture and the stability of proteins, enzymes, and transporters along time. The human proximal tubule cells isolated and used throughout this study showed many proximal tubule characteristics, including monolayer organization, cell polarization with the expression of tight junctions and primary cilia, expression of proximal tubule-specific proteins, such as megalin and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2, among others. The cells also expressed enzymatic activity for dipeptidyl peptidase IV, as well as for gamma glutamyl transferase 1, and expressed transporter activity for organic anion transporter 1, P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance proteins, and breast cancer resistance protein. In conclusion, characterization of our cells confirmed presence of putative proximal tubule markers and the functional expression of multiple endogenous organic ion transporters mimicking renal reabsorption and excretion. These findings can constitute a valuable tool in the development of bioartificial kidney devices.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Nefrectomia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
14.
Xenobiotica ; 50(5): 536-544, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530243

RESUMO

1. Mathematical modeling remains a useful tool to study the impact of transporters on overall and intracellular drug disposition. The impact of organic anion transporter protein mediated uptake on atorvastatin systemic and intracellular pharmacokinetics, specifically distribution volume, was studied in rats with mathematical modeling and conducting in vivo pharmacokinetic studies for atorvastatin in presence and absence of rifampicin. A previously developed 5-compartment explicit membrane model for the liver was combined with a compartmental model to develop a semi-physiological hybrid model for atorvastatin disposition. 2. Rifampicin treatment resulted in a decrease in systemic clearance and steady-state distribution volume, and an increase in half-life of atorvastatin. The hybrid model predicted higher unbound intracellular liver atorvastatin concentrations than unbound plasma concentrations in both rifampicin treated and untreated groups, indicating involvement of uptake transporters. The intracellular unbound concentrations during the distributive phase were unaffected by rifampicin. The dependence of clearance on blood flow as well as hepatic uptake for atorvastatin (a moderate-to-high extraction ratio drug) can explain this lack of change in intracellular concentrations if there is incomplete inhibition of transport at the tested rifampicin dose. 3. The hybrid model successfully allowed the evaluation of effect of active uptake on intracellular and plasma atorvastatin disposition.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109660, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733581

RESUMO

Topiroxostat is a selective xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor for the management of hyperuricemia in patients with or without gout. In this work, we aim to employ the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with the drug-target residence time model to predict and characterize both the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of topiroxostat in humans. The plasma concentration-time profile of topiroxostat was simulated based on drug properties and human physiology parameters. The predictive power of this PBPK model was then demonstrated by comparison of stimulated to observed pharmacokinetic parameters. The utility of the model was further demonstrated through predicting the oral absorption and disposition characteristics of topiroxostat in humans. Finally, by combining the PBPK model and the drug-target residence time model, we successfully predicted the target occupancy and built the relationship between PK and PD using in vitro, in vivo and in silico information. The results showed that topiroxostat exhibited significant in vivo pharmacological activity even after the complete clearance of this drug from the liver (target site), which may be due to the long residence time of the binary topiroxostat-XOR complex. This work may be helpful to guide future investigations of topiroxostat and also provides a novel strategy for PK/PD studies.


Assuntos
Interações Medicamentosas/fisiologia , Nitrilos/farmacocinética , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Atorvastatina/farmacocinética , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Lactonas/farmacocinética , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Rabdomiólise/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiólise/metabolismo
16.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7900-7912, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789332

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a metabolic disorder that occurs due to the overproduction or under-excretion of uric acid (UA) and is directly linked to the development of many life-threatening diseases. There is a growing interest among many researchers regarding how to overcome the encumbrance of HUA because conventional drugs are associated with multiple side effects. Thus, the present project has been designed to utilize flavonoids and chlorogenic acid-enriched stevia residue extract (STVRE) to combat HUA. The results show that supplementation with STVRE (200 and 400 mg per kg bw) inhibits the XOD enzyme in serum, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum tissues. Moreover, UA levels in the STVRE groups were also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in serum, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum tissues and juices. STVRE also improved the intestinal morphology and oxidative biomarkers in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum tissues. Protein and mRNA expressions of ABCG2 were upregulated, whereas GLUT9 was downregulated in the STVRE-treated groups as compared with the model control group. The supplementation of STVRE significantly attenuated hyperuricemia and oxidative stress, upregulated ABCG2 and downregulated GLUT9 (protein and mRNA) expression in hyperuricemic mice. The results of our study revealed that the by-product of stevia has the potential to combat hyperuricemia, and can be used as a functional ingredient in the development of nutraceutical products.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Stevia/química , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Clorogênico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/análise , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Eliminação Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise
17.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 49(6): 756-762, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882426

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia (HUA) is positively correlated with the progression of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Anti-HUA drugs aim to either reduce uric acid production or promote uric acid excretion. Urate transporter 1 (URAT1) is a major urate transporter involved in renal uric acid reabsorption and excretion, making it an important anti-HUA drug target. To better understand the characteristics of URAT1 under pathological conditions, the present study aims to investigate URAT1 modulation in HUA mouse and cell line models. We found that URAT1 expression increased in the kidneys of HUA mice with normal renal function, but decreased in HUA mice with kidney injury (KI-HUA). In KI-HUA mice, treatment with anti-HUA agents, febuxostat, and benzbromarone decreased uric acid levels. However, febuxostat treatment also decreased URAT1 expression, whereas benzbromarone treatment increased its expression. Based on these in vivo findings, we propose that extracellular uric acid levels in the proximal tubule epithelial cells positively regulated URAT1 expression. In high uric acid cell models, URAT1 expression increased within 2 h of uric acid stimulation in a dose-dependent manner that supported our hypothesis. Therefore, our results suggest that URAT1 expression is positively regulated by the distinct extracellular uric acid levels in different HUA models.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Animais , Benzobromarona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Febuxostat/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Ácido Úrico/farmacologia
18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 297, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is a rare disease related to HPGD and SLCO2A1 gene mutation. Gastrointestinal involvement of PHO is even rarer with unknown pathogenesis. Clinical features of GI complication in PHO mimics other auto-immune based bowel entities, such as inflammatory bowel diseases and cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE). We aimed to analyze the clinical, genetic, radiological and pathological features of Chinese patients with PHO and determine the difference between PHO patients presenting with and without GI involvement. METHODS: We reported two PHO cases with gastrointestinal involvement and reviewed all the studies of PHO in Chinese population published from January 1, 2000, to April 30, 2018. Clinical and genetic presentations of PHO in Chinese patients were analyzed. We compared the characteristics of those patients with gastrointestinal involvement against those without. RESULTS: The two patients were both males with complete-form PHO for more than 10 years. GI related symptoms included diarrhea, chronic gastrointestinal hemorrhage, incomplete intestinal obstruction, anemia, and edema, which were unresponsive to etoricoxib treatment. Radiological examinations revealed segmental intestinal stenosis and thickened intestinal wall. Endoscopic findings included multiple ulcers and mucosal inflammation. Both patients had mutations of SLCO2A1 according to sequence analysis. The surgical pathology revealed chronic inflammation involving the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, similar to histological changes in CMUSE. According to the systemic review of 158 Chinese patients with PHO, 17.2% had gastrointestinal involvement, including peptic ulcer, gastric polyps, hypertrophic gastritis, and segmental intestinal stenosis. Patients with gastrointestinal involvement were more likely to have anemia (40.0% vs. 4.5%, P < 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (16.7% vs. 0.9%, P = 0.003), and myelofibrosis (19.0% vs. 0.9%, P = 0.002) than those without. Most patients with gastrointestinal complication had SLCO2A1 mutation (86.7%, 13 /15). CONCLUSIONS: Digestive tract involvement is uncommon in patients with PHO and often presents with anemia, and hypoalbuminemia resulted from intestinal inflammation. The intestinal pathologic characteristics are distinct from Crohn's disease but similar to CMUSE. Mutations in SLCO2A1 might be the pathogenic cause of GI involvement of PHO. NSAIDs may not be effective for PHO patients with gastrointestinal complications.


Assuntos
Osteoartropatia Hipertrófica Primária/metabolismo , Osteoartropatia Hipertrófica Primária/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/genética , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Mutação , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Osteoartropatia Hipertrófica Primária/genética
19.
Int J Pharm ; 571: 118714, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610281

RESUMO

L-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)-utilizing prodrugs has been designed to improve drug delivery and targeting into the brain or cancer cells, since LAT1 is highly and selectively expressed on the blood-brain barrier as well as over-expressed in several types of cancer. However, less is known about the affinity of these compounds for the secondary transport mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate interactions of nine LAT1-utilizing prodrugs with organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). These results showed that LAT1-utilizing prodrugs can indeed, interact with OATPs, although it was considered to be minor compared to LAT1; the Km values of these compounds for LAT1 were 1-7 µM while the ones for OATPs were 73-406 µM. Moreover, utilization of LAT1 was 2-12-times more effective (compared as intrinsic clearance) than of OATPs, whose utilization seemed to be less significant at therapeutically used concentrations. According to these results, affinity for OATPs raised from the structural features of the parent drug moiety regardless of the structure of the promoiety. In conclusion, the present study shows that it is important to evaluate secondary transport mechanisms carefully, since they may have a role in pharmacokinetics of LAT1-utilizing prodrugs if LAT1 becomes saturated or un-functional.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Pró-Fármacos/química , Ligação Proteica
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11428-11435, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589037

RESUMO

Diosgenin and diosgenyl saponins as the major bioactive compounds isolated from dietary fenugreek seeds, yam roots, etc. possessed strong antitumor effects. To understand their detailed antitumor mechanisms, a fluorophore-appended derivative of diosgenin [Glc/CNHphth-diosgenin (GND)] was synthesized, starting from diosgenin and glucosamine hydrochloride in overall yields of 7-12% over 7-10 steps. Co-localization of GND with organelle-specific stains, transmission electron microscopy, and relative protein analyses demonstrated that GND crossed the plasma membrane through organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 and distributed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosome, and mitochondria. In this process, GND induced ER swelling, mitochondrial damage, and autophagosome and upregulating IRE-1α to induce autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor chloroquine delayed the appearance of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and inhibited cleaved caspase 8, which indicated that GND induced autophagy to activate caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. These observations suggested that diosgenyl saponin was a potent anticancer agent that elicited ER stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways in liver cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo
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