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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997697

RESUMO

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced endogenously in the gut by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber have been studied as nutrients that act as signaling molecules to activate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as GPR41 and GPR43. GPR43 functioning involves the suppression of lipid accumulation and maintaining body energy homeostasis, and is activated by acetic acid or propionic acid. Previously, we reported that the orally administered acetic acid improves lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscles and suppresses obesity, thus improving glucose tolerance. Acetic acid stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through its metabolic pathway in skeletal muscle cells. We hypothesized that acetic acid would stimulate GPR43 in skeletal muscle cells and has function in modulating gene expression related to muscle characteristics through its signal pathway. The objective of the current study was to clarify this effect of acetic acid. The GPR43 expression, observed in the differentiated myotube cells, was increased upon acetic acid treatment. Acetic acid induced the intracellular calcium influx in the cells and this induction was significantly inhibited by the GPR43-specific siRNA treatment. The calcineurin molecule is activated by calcium/calmodulin and is associated with proliferation of slow-twitch fibers. Calcineurin was activated by acetic acid treatment and inhibited by the concomitant treatment with GPR43-siRNA. Acetic acid induced nuclear localization of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear factor of activated t cells c1 (NFATc1). However, these localizations were abolished by the treatment with GPR43-siRNA. It was concluded that acetic acid plays a role in the activation of GPR43 and involves the proliferation of slow-twitch fibers in L6 skeletal muscles through the calcium-signaling pathway caused by induction of intracellular calcium influx.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/deficiência , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética
2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(18): 10413-10427, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960271

RESUMO

The nuclear Cap-Binding Complex (CBC), consisting of Nuclear Cap-Binding Protein 1 (NCBP1) and 2 (NCBP2), associates with the nascent 5'cap of RNA polymerase II transcripts and impacts RNA fate decisions. Recently, the C17orf85 protein, also called NCBP3, was suggested to form an alternative CBC by replacing NCBP2. However, applying protein-protein interaction screening of NCBP1, 2 and 3, we find that the interaction profile of NCBP3 is distinct. Whereas NCBP1 and 2 identify known CBC interactors, NCBP3 primarily interacts with components of the Exon Junction Complex (EJC) and the TRanscription and EXport (TREX) complex. NCBP3-EJC association in vitro and in vivo requires EJC core integrity and the in vivo RNA binding profiles of EJC and NCBP3 overlap. We further show that NCBP3 competes with the RNA degradation factor ZC3H18 for binding CBC-bound transcripts, and that NCBP3 positively impacts the nuclear export of polyadenylated RNAs and the expression of large multi-exonic transcripts. Collectively, our results place NCBP3 with the EJC and TREX complexes in supporting mRNA expression.


Assuntos
RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , RNA/genética , Transcrição Genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Éxons , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Complexo Proteico Nuclear de Ligação ao Cap/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cap de RNA/genética , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Transporte de RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
3.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1489-1500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948893

RESUMO

Glucose, fructose and mannose are the preferred carbon/energy sources for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Absence of preferred energy sources activates glucose derepression, which is regulated by the kinase Snf1. Snf1 phosphorylates the transcriptional repressor Mig1, which results in its exit from the nucleus and subsequent derepression of genes. In contrast, Snf1 is inactive when preferred carbon sources are available, which leads to dephosphorylation of Mig1 and its translocation to the nucleus where Mig1 acts as a transcription repressor. Here we revisit the role of the three hexose kinases, Hxk1, Hxk2 and Glk1, in glucose de/repression. We demonstrate that all three sugar kinases initially affect Mig1 nuclear localization upon addition of glucose, fructose and mannose. This initial import of Mig1 into the nucleus was temporary; for continuous nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Mig1, Hxk2 is required in the presence of glucose and mannose and in the presence of fructose Hxk2 or Hxk1 is required. Our data suggest that Mig1 import following exposure to preferred energy sources is controlled via two different pathways, where (1) the initial import is regulated by signals derived from metabolism and (2) continuous shuttling is regulated by the Hxk2 and Hxk1 proteins. Mig1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling appears to be important for the maintenance of the repressed state in which Hxk1/2 seems to play an essential role.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Manose/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Hexoquinase/genética , Fosforilação , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
4.
Science ; 369(6505): 842-846, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792398

RESUMO

How is neuropathic pain regulated in peripheral sensory neurons? Importins are key regulators of nucleocytoplasmic transport. In this study, we found that importin α3 (also known as karyopherin subunit alpha 4) can control pain responsiveness in peripheral sensory neurons in mice. Importin α3 knockout or sensory neuron-specific knockdown in mice reduced responsiveness to diverse noxious stimuli and increased tolerance to neuropathic pain. Importin α3-bound c-Fos and importin α3-deficient neurons were impaired in c-Fos nuclear import. Knockdown or dominant-negative inhibition of c-Fos or c-Jun in sensory neurons reduced neuropathic pain. In silico screens identified drugs that mimic importin α3 deficiency. These drugs attenuated neuropathic pain and reduced c-Fos nuclear localization. Thus, perturbing c-Fos nuclear import by importin α3 in peripheral neurons can promote analgesia.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , alfa Carioferinas/fisiologia , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Dor Crônica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neuralgia/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , alfa Carioferinas/genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22237-22248, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839316

RESUMO

NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are traditionally recognized as major inflammasome components. The role of NLRs in germ cell differentiation and reproduction is not known. Here, we identified the gonad-specific Nlrp14 as a pivotal regulator in primordial germ cell-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation in vitro. Physiologically, knock out of Nlrp14 resulted in reproductive failure in both female and male mice. In adult male mice, Nlrp14 knockout (KO) inhibited differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and meiosis, resulting in trapped SSCs in early stages, severe oligozoospermia, and sperm abnormality. Mechanistically, NLRP14 promoted spermatogenesis by recruiting a chaperone cofactor, BAG2, to bind with HSPA2 and form the NLRP14-HSPA2-BAG2 complex, which strongly inhibited ChIP-mediated HSPA2 polyubiquitination and promoted its nuclear translocation. Finally, loss of HSPA2 protection and BAG2 recruitment by NLRP14 was confirmed in a human nonsense germline variant associated with male sterility. Together, our data highlight a unique proteasome-mediated, noncanonical function of NLRP14 in PGCLC differentiation and spermatogenesis, providing mechanistic insights of gonad-specific NLRs in mammalian germline development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/genética , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/fisiologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4305, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855391

RESUMO

Oligomeric assemblies of tau and the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) Musashi (MSI) are reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of MSI and tau interaction in their aggregation process and its effects are nor clearly known in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the expression and cellular localization of MSI1 and MSI2 in the brains tissues of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as well as in the wild-type mice and tau knock-out and P301L tau mouse models. We observed that formation of pathologically relevant protein inclusions was driven by the aberrant interactions between MSI and tau in the nuclei associated with age-dependent extracellular depositions of tau/MSI complexes. Furthermore, tau and MSI interactions induced impairment of nuclear/cytoplasm transport, chromatin remodeling and nuclear lamina formation. Our findings provide mechanistic insight for pathological accumulation of MSI/tau aggregates providing a potential basis for therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative proteinopathies.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/citologia , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agregados Proteicos , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas tau/genética
8.
Neuron ; 107(6): 1124-1140.e11, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673563

RESUMO

Through mechanisms that remain poorly defined, defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport and accumulations of specific nuclear-pore-complex-associated proteins have been reported in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including C9orf72 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia (ALS/FTD). Using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we have explored the mechanism by which nucleoporins are altered in nuclei isolated from C9orf72 induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons (iPSNs). Of the 23 nucleoporins evaluated, we observed a reduction in a subset of 8, including key components of the nuclear pore complex scaffold and the transmembrane nucleoporin POM121. Reduction in POM121 appears to initiate a decrease in the expression of seven additional nucleoporins, ultimately affecting the localization of Ran GTPase and subsequent cellular toxicity in C9orf72 iPSNs. Collectively, our data suggest that the expression of expanded C9orf72 ALS/FTD repeat RNA alone affects nuclear POM121 expression in the initiation of a pathological cascade affecting nucleoporin levels within neuronal nuclei and ultimately downstream neuronal survival.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo
9.
Mol Cell ; 79(2): 342-358.e12, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645368

RESUMO

Short linear motifs (SLiMs) drive dynamic protein-protein interactions essential for signaling, but sequence degeneracy and low binding affinities make them difficult to identify. We harnessed unbiased systematic approaches for SLiM discovery to elucidate the regulatory network of calcineurin (CN)/PP2B, the Ca2+-activated phosphatase that recognizes LxVP and PxIxIT motifs. In vitro proteome-wide detection of CN-binding peptides, in vivo SLiM-dependent proximity labeling, and in silico modeling of motif determinants uncovered unanticipated CN interactors, including NOTCH1, which we establish as a CN substrate. Unexpectedly, CN shows SLiM-dependent proximity to centrosomal and nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins-structures where Ca2+ signaling is largely uncharacterized. CN dephosphorylates human and yeast NPC proteins and promotes accumulation of a nuclear transport reporter, suggesting conserved NPC regulation by CN. The CN network assembled here provides a resource to investigate Ca2+ and CN signaling and demonstrates synergy between experimental and computational methods, establishing a blueprint for examining SLiM-based networks.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Biotinilação , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/química , Fosforilação , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16557-16566, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601201

RESUMO

Influenza viruses (IV) exploit a variety of signaling pathways. Previous studies showed that the rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Raf/MEK/ERK) pathway is functionally linked to nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes, suggesting that vRNP export is a signaling-induced event. However, the underlying mechanism remained completely enigmatic. Here we have dissected the unknown molecular steps of signaling-driven vRNP export. We identified kinases RSK1/2 as downstream targets of virus-activated ERK signaling. While RSK2 displays an antiviral role, we demonstrate a virus-supportive function of RSK1, migrating to the nucleus to phosphorylate nucleoprotein (NP), the major constituent of vRNPs. This drives association with viral matrix protein 1 (M1) at the chromatin, important for vRNP export. Inhibition or knockdown of MEK, ERK or RSK1 caused impaired vRNP export and reduced progeny virus titers. This work not only expedites the development of anti-influenza strategies, but in addition demonstrates converse actions of different RSK isoforms.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Sinais de Exportação Nuclear , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
11.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(6): 499-506, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696739

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of abnormal nuclear localization of the nuclear localization signal-retinoic acid receptor α (NLS-RARα) on cell differentiation and its mechanism of nuclear transport. Methods Over-expression of HA-NLS-RARα and empty vector in HEK293T cells and U937 cells were achieved through a lentivirus vector and were assigned as NLS-RARα over-expression (NR) group and negative control (NC) group. Extracted nucleoproteins and cytosolic proteins of NC and NR groups of HEK293T cells and U937 cells were detected by Western blot analysis in order to demonstrate the localization of NLS-RARα. Meanwhile, immunofluorescence assay was performed to explore the localization of NLS-RARα. The real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect difference in the mRNA and protein expression of CD11b and CEBPß in the NR cells treated with 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25D3) compared with NC cells treated with 1, 25D3. Mass spectrometric analysis and co-immunoprecipitation were conducted to screen the transport proteins which were associated with NLS-RARα, which was followed by the verification of nuclear accumulation of NLS-RARα by the transfection of transport protein small interfering RNA. Results Western blot assay and immunofluorescence showed that NLS-RARα was mainly located in the nucleus. And the qRT-PCR analysis and western blot assay showed a significant decrease in the mRNA and protein expression of CD11b and CEBPß in the NR group compared with the NC group. It demonstrated that NLS-RARα inhibited cell differentiation. Mass spectrometric analysis and COIP demonstrated that KPNA2 (importin α1) and KPNB1 (importin ß1) interacted with NLS-RARα, and the knockdown of KPNA2/KPNB1 inhibited the nuclear accumulation of NLS-RARα. Conclusion Abnormal localization of NLS-RARα inhibits cell differentiation via binding to KPNA2 and KPNB1 into the nucleus.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Sinais de Localização Nuclear , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Células U937 , alfa Carioferinas , beta Carioferinas
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3343, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620905

RESUMO

The expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract form of ataxin-1 drives disease progression in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). Although known to form distinctive intranuclear bodies, the cellular pathways and processes that polyQ-ataxin-1 influences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the direct and proximal partners constituting the interactome of ataxin-1[85Q] in Neuro-2a cells, pathways analyses indicating a significant enrichment of essential nuclear transporters, pointing to disruptions in nuclear transport processes in the presence of elevated levels of ataxin-1. Our direct assessments of nuclear transporters and their cargoes confirm these observations, revealing disrupted trafficking often with relocalisation of transporters and/or cargoes to ataxin-1[85Q] nuclear bodies. Analogous changes in importin-ß1, nucleoporin 98 and nucleoporin 62 nuclear rim staining are observed in Purkinje cells of ATXN1[82Q] mice. The results highlight a disruption of multiple essential nuclear protein trafficking pathways by polyQ-ataxin-1, a key contribution to furthering understanding of pathogenic mechanisms initiated by polyQ tract proteins.


Assuntos
Ataxina-1/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , Células de Purkinje/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/genética , Animais , Ataxina-1/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Ligação Proteica , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/metabolismo , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3751, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719344

RESUMO

The protein composition and structure of assembling 60S ribosomal subunits undergo numerous changes as pre-ribosomes transition from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. This includes stable anchoring of the Rpf2 subcomplex containing 5S rRNA, rpL5, rpL11, Rpf2 and Rrs1, which initially docks onto the flexible domain V of rRNA at earlier stages of assembly. In this work, we tested the function of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpf2 during these anchoring steps, by truncating this extension and assaying effects on middle stages of subunit maturation. The rpf2Δ255-344 mutation affects proper folding of rRNA helices H68-70 during anchoring of the Rpf2 subcomplex. In addition, several assembly factors (AFs) are absent from pre-ribosomes or in altered conformations. Consequently, major remodeling events fail to occur: rotation of the 5S RNP, maturation of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) and the nascent polypeptide exit tunnel (NPET), and export of assembling subunits to the cytoplasm.


Assuntos
Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores/metabolismo , Rotação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Mutação/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/ultraestrutura , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura
14.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(9): 1088-1095, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483230

RESUMO

Retroviral infection involves the reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into DNA, which is subsequently integrated into the host cell genome. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other lentiviruses mediate the infection of non-dividing cells through the ability of the capsid protein1 to engage the cellular nuclear import pathways of the target cell and mediate their nuclear translocation through components of the nuclear pore complex2-4. Although recent studies have observed the presence of the capsid protein in the nucleus during infection5-8, reverse transcription and disassembly of the viral core have conventionally been considered to be cytoplasmic events. Here, we use an inducible nuclear pore complex blockade to monitor the kinetics of HIV-1 nuclear import and define the biochemical staging of these steps of infection. Surprisingly, we observe that nuclear import occurs with relatively rapid kinetics (<5 h) and precedes the completion of reverse transcription in target cells, demonstrating that reverse transcription is completed in the nucleus. We also observe that HIV-1 remains susceptible to the capsid-destabilizing compound PF74 following nuclear import, revealing that uncoating is completed in the nucleus. Additionally, we observe that certain capsid mutants are insensitive to a Nup62-mediated nuclear pore complex blockade in cells that potently block infection by wild-type capsid, demonstrating that HIV-1 can use distinct nuclear import pathways during infection. These studies collectively define the spatio-temporal staging of critical steps of HIV-1 infection and provide an experimental system to separate and thereby define the cytoplasmic and nuclear stages of infection by other viruses.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/virologia , Transcrição Reversa , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , HIV-1/fisiologia , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Indóis , Macrófagos/virologia , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Replicação Viral
16.
Mol Cell ; 79(2): 251-267.e6, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504555

RESUMO

The core components of the nuclear RNA export pathway are thought to be required for export of virtually all polyadenylated RNAs. Here, we depleted different proteins that act in nuclear export in human cells and quantified the transcriptome-wide consequences on RNA localization. Different genes exhibited substantially variable sensitivities, with depletion of NXF1 and TREX components causing some transcripts to become strongly retained in the nucleus while others were not affected. Specifically, NXF1 is preferentially required for export of single- or few-exon transcripts with long exons or high A/U content, whereas depletion of TREX complex components preferentially affects spliced and G/C-rich transcripts. Using massively parallel reporter assays, we identified short sequence elements that render transcripts dependent on NXF1 for their export and identified synergistic effects of splicing and NXF1. These results revise the current model of how nuclear export shapes the distribution of RNA within human cells.


Assuntos
Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/fisiologia , Transporte de RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA/química , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA-Seq
17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108458, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524997

RESUMO

Our previous studies showed that silibinin promoted activation of caspases to induce apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by down-regulating the protein expression level of estrogen receptor (ER) α and up-regulating ERß. Recently, it has been reported that silibinin-induced apoptosis also involved nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Here we report that silibinin induces nuclear translocation of AIF through the down-regulation of ERα and up-regulation of ERß in a concentration dependent manner in MCF-7 cells. AIF knockdown with siRNA significantly reverses silibinin-induced apoptosis. The nuclear translocation of AIF is enhanced by treatment with MPP, an ERα antagonist, and blocked with PPT, an ERα agonist. In contrast to ERα activity, the nuclear AIF is increased with an ERß agonist, DPN and blocked with an ERß antagonist, PHTPP. Autophagy, negatively regulated by ERα, positively controls AIF-mediated apoptosis, as evidenced by the preventive effect of autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and siRNA targeting LC3, on the nuclear translocation of AIF and cell death induced by silibinin co-treatment with or without MPP. In sum we conclude that AIF in nuclei is involved in silibinin-induced apoptosis, and the nuclear translocation of AIF is increased by down-regulated ERα pathway and/or up-regulated ERß pathway in MCF-7 cells, accompanying up-regulation of autophagy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Silibina/farmacologia , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7
18.
Neuron ; 106(6): 899-911, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553207

RESUMO

In recent years, the nuclear pore complex (NPC) has emerged as a key player in genome regulation and cellular homeostasis. New discoveries have revealed that the NPC has multiple cellular functions besides mediating the molecular exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In this review, we discuss non-transport aspects of the NPC focusing on the NPC-genome interaction, the extreme longevity of the NPC proteins, and NPC dysfunction in age-related diseases. The examples summarized herein demonstrate that the NPC, which first evolved to enable the biochemical communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, now doubles as the gatekeeper of cellular identity and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Envelhecimento/genética , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Senilidade Prematura/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Animais , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Genoma , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética
19.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(3): 474-492, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The subcellular localization of ERK1 and ERK2 (ERKs) in cells, which is important for proper signaling, may be regulated through protein-protein interactions. However, the proteins involved and the way they are regulated to affect localization is not entirely understood. METHODS: In order to identify the interacting proteins upon varying conditions, we used co-immunoprecipitation of ERK, active ERK and its binding CRS mutant. In addition, we examined the effect of intracellular calcium on the binding using calcium chelators and ionophores, analyzing the binding using silver stain, mass spectrometry and immunoblotting. The effect of calcium on ERK localization was examined using immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting. RESULTS: We found that inactive ERK2 interacts with a large number of proteins through its CRS/CD domain, whereas the phospho-ERK2 interacts with only few substrates. Varying calcium concentrations significantly modified the repertoire of ERK2-interacting proteins, of which many were identified. The effect of calcium on ERKs' interactions influenced also the localization of ERKs, as calcium chelators enhanced nuclear translocation, while elevated calcium levels prevented it. This effect of calcium was also apparent upon the physiological lysophosphatidic acid stimulation, where ERKs translocation was delayed compared to that induced by EGF in a calcium-dependent manner. In vitro translocation assay revealed that high calcium concentrations affect ERKs' translocation by preventing the shuttling machinery through the nuclear envelope, probably due to higher binding to nuclear pore proteins such as NUP153. These results are consistent with a model in which ERKs in quiescent cells are bound to several cytoplasmic proteins. CONCLUSION: Upon stimulation, ERKs are phosphorylated and released from their cytoplasmic anchors to allow shuttling into the nucleus. This translocation is delayed when calcium levels are increased, and this modifies the localization of ERKs and therefore also their spatiotemporal regulation. Thus, calcium regulates ERKs localization, which is important for the compartmentalization of ERKs with their proper substrates, and thereby their signaling specificity.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/enzimologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/química , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Espectrometria de Massas , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Ratos
20.
J Virol ; 94(14)2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376623

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits a number of specialized microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking proteins (commonly known as +TIPs) to induce the formation of stable microtubules soon after virus entry and promote early stages of infection. However, given their functional diversity, the nature of the +TIPs involved and how they facilitate HIV-1 infection remains poorly understood. Here, we identify cytoplasmic linker-associated protein 2 (CLASP2), a +TIP that captures cortical MT plus ends to enable filament stabilization, as a host factor that enables HIV-1 to induce MT stabilization and promote early infection in natural target cell types. Using fixed- and live-cell imaging in human microglia cells, we further show that CLASP2 is required for the trafficking of incoming HIV-1 particles carrying wild-type (WT) envelope. Moreover, both WT CLASP2 and a CLASP2 mutant lacking its C-terminal domain, which mediates its interaction with several host effector proteins, bind to intact HIV-1 cores or in vitro-assembled capsid-nucleocapsid (CA-NC) complexes. However, unlike WT CLASP2, the CLASP2 C-terminal mutant is unable to induce MT stabilization or promote early HIV-1 infection. Our findings identify CLASP2 as a new host cofactor that utilizes distinct regulatory domains to bind incoming HIV-1 particles and facilitate trafficking of incoming viral cores through MT stabilization.IMPORTANCE While microtubules (MTs) have long been known to be important for delivery of incoming HIV-1 cores to the nucleus, how the virus engages and exploits these filaments remains poorly understood. Our previous work revealed the importance of highly specialized MT regulators that belong to a family called plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) in facilitating early stages of infection. These +TIPs perform various functions, such as engaging cargos for transport or engaging peripheral actin to stabilize MTs, suggesting several family members have the potential to contribute to infection in different ways. Here, we reveal that cytoplasmic linker-associated protein 2 (CLASP2), a key regulator of cortical capture and stabilization of MTs, interacts with incoming HIV-1 particles, and we identify a distinct C-terminal domain in CLASP2 that promotes both MT stabilization and early infection. Our findings identify a new +TIP acting as a host cofactor that facilitates early stages of viral infection.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/virologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Microglia/virologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Microtúbulos/genética , Microtúbulos/virologia , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos
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