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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5318, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087709

RESUMO

Synaptic vesicles (SVs) can be pooled across multiple synapses, prompting questions about their dynamic allocation for neurotransmission and plasticity. We find that the axonal traffic of recycling vesicles is not supported by ubiquitous microtubule-based motility but relies on actin instead. Vesicles freed from synaptic clusters undergo ~1 µm bouts of active transport, initiated by nearby elongation of actin filaments. Long distance translocation arises when successive bouts of active transport were linked by periods of free diffusion. The availability of SVs for active transport can be promptly increased by protein kinase A, a key player in neuromodulation. Vesicle motion is in turn impeded by shutting off axonal actin polymerization, mediated by nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling leading to inhibition of RhoA. These findings provide a potential framework for coordinating post-and pre-synaptic strength, using retrograde regulation of axonal actin dynamics to mobilize and recruit presynaptic SV resources.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Axonal/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Células Cultivadas , GMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Nocodazol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Vesículas Sinápticas/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966285

RESUMO

The development of drugs targeting the brain still faces a high failure rate. One of the reasons is a lack of quantitative understanding of the complex processes that govern the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a drug within the brain. While a number of models on drug distribution into and within the brain is available, none of these addresses the combination of factors that affect local drug concentrations in brain extracellular fluid (brain ECF). Here, we develop a 3D brain unit model, which builds on our previous proof-of-concept 2D brain unit model, to understand the factors that govern local unbound and bound drug PK within the brain. The 3D brain unit is a cube, in which the brain capillaries surround the brain ECF. Drug concentration-time profiles are described in both a blood-plasma-domain and a brain-ECF-domain by a set of differential equations. The model includes descriptions of blood plasma PK, transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), by passive transport via paracellular and transcellular routes, and by active transport, and drug binding kinetics. The impact of all these factors on ultimate local brain ECF unbound and bound drug concentrations is assessed. In this article we show that all the above mentioned factors affect brain ECF PK in an interdependent manner. This indicates that for a quantitative understanding of local drug concentrations within the brain ECF, interdependencies of all transport and binding processes should be understood. To that end, the 3D brain unit model is an excellent tool, and can be used to build a larger network of 3D brain units, in which the properties for each unit can be defined independently to reflect local differences in characteristics of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Neurológicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/sangue , Farmacocinética , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4471, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901010

RESUMO

A human cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) packaged into nucleoids. Currently, the segregation and allocation of nucleoids are thought to be passively determined by mitochondrial fusion and division. Here we provide evidence, using live-cell super-resolution imaging, that nucleoids can be actively transported via KIF5B-driven mitochondrial dynamic tubulation (MDT) activities that predominantly occur at the ER-mitochondria contact sites (EMCS). We further demonstrate that a mitochondrial inner membrane protein complex MICOS links nucleoids to Miro1, a KIF5B receptor on mitochondria, at the EMCS. We show that such active transportation is a mechanism essential for the proper distribution of nucleoids in the peripheral zone of the cell. Together, our work identifies an active transportation mechanism of nucleoids, with EMCS serving as a key platform for the interplay of nucleoids, MICOS, Miro1, and KIF5B to coordinate nucleoids segregation and transportation.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Células COS , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Cinesina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transfecção , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4482, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901011

RESUMO

Intracellular trafficking governs receptor signaling, pathogenesis, immune responses and fate of nanomedicines. These processes are typically tracked by observing colocalization of fluorescent markers using confocal microscopy. However, this method is low throughput, limited by the resolution of microscopy, and can miss fleeting interactions. To address this, we developed a localization sensor composed of a quenched SNAP-tag substrate (SNAPSwitch) that can be conjugated to biomolecules using click chemistry. SNAPSwitch enables quantitative detection of trafficking to locations of interest within live cells using flow cytometry. Using SNAPSwitch, we followed the trafficking of DNA complexes from endosomes into the cytosol and nucleus. We show that antibodies against the transferrin or hyaluronan receptor are initially sorted into different compartments following endocytosis. In addition, we can resolve which side of the cellular membrane material was located. These results demonstrate SNAPSwitch is a high-throughput and broadly applicable tool to quantitatively track localization of materials in cells.


Assuntos
DNA/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Química Click , Citometria de Fluxo , Corantes Fluorescentes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Técnicas de Sonda Molecular , Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Células NIH 3T3
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790698

RESUMO

Tomato is the most widespread vegetable crop in the world. In Italy, tomatoes are mainly cultivated in the South and in the Campania region, precisely in the area called Agro Nocerino-Sarnese. This flatland is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, especially related to the Sarno River, where concentrations of Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs) have been found to be higher than the maximum permitted level. The aim of this study was to determine the PTEs uptake by roots and their translocation to the aerial parts of the plants of two cultivars of tomatoes (Pomodoro Giallo and San Marzano Cirio 3). To the purpose, samples of the two cultivars were grown both in pots with experimentally contaminated soil containing: Cr or Cd or Pb at extremely high concentrations and in pots with uncontaminated soils (control). Additionally, the antioxidant properties of the cultivars selected grown on uncontaminated/contaminated soils were assessed. The results showed that Cd was the contaminant that most significantly interfered with the growth of both cultivars of tomato plants, whereas Pb caused lower phenotypical damage. Cd translocation from root to the organs of tomato plants was observed in both cultivars. Specifically, the total amount of Cd found in stems and leaves was higher in the Pomodoro Giallo (254.4 mg/kg dry weight) than in the San Marzano Cirio 3 (165.8 mg/kg dry weight). Cd was the only PTE found in the fruits of both cultivars, with values of 6.1 and 3.9 mg/kg dry weight of Pomodoro Giallo and San Marzano Cirio 3, respectively. The fruits of tomato plants grown in PTEs-contaminated soil showed inhibition or stimulations of the radical scavenging activity compared to the fruits grown in uncontaminated soil. This study highlighted that, despite the relatively high experimental concentrations of PTEs, their translocation to the edible part was comparatively low or absent.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Bioacumulação , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cromo/farmacocinética , Cromo/toxicidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Itália , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3922, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764664

RESUMO

The Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) is a key contributor to multidrug resistance and is also essential for the survival of the malaria parasite, yet its natural function remains unresolved. We identify host-derived peptides of 4-11 residues, varying in both charge and composition, as the substrates of PfCRT in vitro and in situ, and show that PfCRT does not mediate the non-specific transport of other metabolites and/or ions. We find that drug-resistance-conferring mutations reduce both the peptide transport capacity and substrate range of PfCRT, explaining the impaired fitness of drug-resistant parasites. Our results indicate that PfCRT transports peptides from the lumen of the parasite's digestive vacuole to the cytosol, thereby providing a source of amino acids for parasite metabolism and preventing osmotic stress of this organelle. The resolution of PfCRT's native substrates will aid the development of drugs that target PfCRT and/or restore the efficacy of existing antimalarials.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Xenopus laevis
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 130-139, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645461

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that triggers toxic effects in various tissues such as the kidney, liver, and lung. Cd can also cause abnormal iron metabolism, leading to anemia. Iron homeostasis is regulated by intestinal absorption. However, whether Cd affects the iron absorption pathway is unclear. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the intestinal iron transporter system and Cd-induced iron deficiency anemia. C57BL/6J female and male mice, 129/Sv female mice, and DBA/2 female mice were given a single oral dose of CdCl2 by gavage. After 3 or 24 h, Cd decreased serum iron concentrations and inhibited the expression of iron transport-related genes in the duodenum. In particular, Cd decreased the levels of divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin 1 in the duodenum. In addition, human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells were treated with CdCl2. After 72 h, Cd decreased the expression of iron transport-related factors in Caco-2 cells with a pattern similar to that seen in the murine duodenum. These findings suggest that Cd inhibits iron absorption through direct suppression of iron transport in duodenal enterocytes and contributes to abnormal iron metabolism.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/induzido quimicamente , Cádmio/toxicidade , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Duodeno/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008597, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511265

RESUMO

During infection of neurons by alphaherpesviruses including Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) viral nucleocapsids assemble in the cell nucleus, become enveloped in the cell body then traffic into and down axons to nerve termini for spread to adjacent epithelia. The viral membrane protein US9p and the membrane glycoprotein heterodimer gE/gI play critical roles in anterograde spread of both HSV-1 and PRV, and several models exist to explain their function. Biochemical studies suggest that PRV US9p associates with the kinesin-3 motor KIF1A in a gE/gI-stimulated manner, and the gE/gI-US9p complex has been proposed to recruit KIF1A to PRV for microtubule-mediated anterograde trafficking into or along the axon. However, as loss of gE/gI-US9p essentially abolishes delivery of alphaherpesviruses to the axon it is difficult to determine the microtubule-dependent trafficking properties and motor-composition of Δ(gE/gI-US9p) particles. Alternatively, studies in HSV-1 have suggested that gE/gI and US9p are required for the appearance of virions in the axon because they act upstream, to help assemble enveloped virions in the cell body. We prepared Δ(gE/gI-US9p) mutant, and control parental PRV particles from differentiated cultured neuronal or porcine kidney epithelial cells and quantitated the efficiency of virion assembly, the properties of microtubule-dependent transport and the ability of viral particles to recruit kinesin motors. We find that loss of gE/gI-US9p has no significant effect upon PRV particle assembly but leads to greatly diminished plus end-directed traffic, and enhanced minus end-directed and bidirectional movement along microtubules. PRV particles prepared from infected differentiated mouse CAD neurons were found to be associated with either kinesin KIF1A or kinesin KIF5C, but not both. Loss of gE/gI-US9p resulted in failure to recruit KIF1A and KF5C, but did not affect dynein binding. Unexpectedly, while KIF5C was expressed in undifferentiated and differentiated CAD neurons it was only found associated with PRV particles prepared from differentiated cells.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Suídeo 1 , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Cinesina/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pseudorraiva , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Proteínas Virais , Liberação de Vírus , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Linhagem Celular , Deleção de Genes , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/genética , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Cinesina/genética , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/genética , Microtúbulos/virologia , Pseudorraiva/genética , Pseudorraiva/metabolismo , Pseudorraiva/patologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2605, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451382

RESUMO

Each polymerase nucleotide addition cycle is associated with two primary conformational changes of the catalytic complex: the pre-chemistry active site closure and post-chemistry translocation. While active site closure is well interpreted by numerous crystallographic snapshots, translocation intermediates are rarely captured. Here we report three types of intermediate structures in an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). The first two types, captured in forward and reverse translocation events, both highlight the role of RdRP-unique motif G in restricting the RNA template movement, corresponding to the rate-limiting step in translocation. By mutating two critical residues in motif G, we obtain the third type of intermediates that may mimic the transition state of this rate-limiting step, demonstrating a previously unidentified movement of the template strand. We propose that a similar strategy may be utilized by other classes of nucleic acid polymerases to ensure templating nucleotide positioning for efficient catalysis through restricting interactions with template RNA.


Assuntos
RNA Replicase/química , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Enterovirus Humano A/enzimologia , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Genes Virais , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Conformação Proteica , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Elongação da Transcrição Genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469934

RESUMO

In epithelial cells, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-regulated Cl- channel, plays a key role in water and electrolytes secretion. A dysfunctional CFTR leads to the dehydration of the external environment of the cells and to the production of viscous mucus in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Here, we applied the quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI), a quantitative phase imaging technique based on the measurement of the light wave shift when passing through a living sample, to study water transport regulation in human airway epithelial CFBE and CHO cells expressing wild-type, G551D- and F508del-CFTR. We were able to detect phase variations during osmotic challenges and confirmed that cellular volume changes reflecting water fluxes can be detected with QWLSI. Forskolin stimulation activated a phase increase in all CFBE and CHO cell types. This phase variation was due to cellular volume decrease and intracellular refractive index increase and was completely blocked by mercury, suggesting an activation of a cAMP-dependent water efflux mediated by an endogenous aquaporin (AQP). AQP3 mRNAs, not AQP1, AQP4 and AQP5 mRNAs, were detected by RT-PCR in CFBE cells. Readdressing the F508del-CFTR protein to the cell surface with VX-809 increased the detected water efflux in CHO but not in CFBE cells. However, VX-770, a potentiator of CFTR function, failed to further increase the water flux in either G551D-CFTR or VX-809-corrected F508del-CFTR expressing cells. Our results show that QWLSI could be a suitable technique to study water transport in living cells. We identified a CFTR and cAMP-dependent, mercury-sensitive water transport in airway epithelial and CHO cells that might be due to AQP3. This water transport appears to be affected when CFTR is mutated and independent of the chloride channel function of CFTR.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Aminofenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Aquaporina 3/genética , Transporte Biológico Ativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/metabolismo , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/farmacologia , Colforsina/farmacologia , Cricetulus , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Microscopia de Interferência , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Osmose , Quinolonas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia
11.
Xenobiotica ; 50(10): 1258-1264, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302241

RESUMO

Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) is widely used co-medication in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Given the prevalence of acetyl salicylic acid's use as a co-medication and conflicting reports in the literature on it being a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). There is a potential risk for its interaction with compounds with P-gp liability, therefore, we have conducted a detailed investigation to determine substrate potential of acetyl salicylic acid towards P-gp. We observed significantly lower cellular uptake of acetyl salicylic acid in MDR1 transfected LLC-PK1 cells compared to LLC-PK1 wild-type (WT) cells, however, the in vitro efflux of acetyl salicylic acid in MDR1 transfected LLC-PK1 cells was not inhibited by known inhibitors under various conditions. Acetyl salicylic acid did not show active asymmetrical transport across MDR1 transfected LLC-PK1 cells compared to LLC-PK1-WT cells in transwell assay. Moreover, no difference in plasma and brain exposure of acetyl salicylic acid and its metabolite salicylic acid was observed between FVB-WT and Mdr1a/b knockout (KO) mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that acetyl salicylic acid is not a substrate of P-gp.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Aspirina/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Encéfalo , Células LLC-PK1 , Suínos
12.
Mol Pharmacol ; 97(6): 384-391, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234809

RESUMO

Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), expressed at the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, mediates the renal excretion of many clinically important drugs. Previous study in our laboratory demonstrated that ubiquitin conjugation to OAT1 leads to OAT1 internalization from the cell surface and subsequent degradation. The current study showed that the ubiquitinated OAT1 accumulated in the presence of the proteasomal inhibitors MG132 and ALLN rather than the lysosomal inhibitors leupeptin and pepstatin A, suggesting that ubiquitinated OAT1 degrades through proteasomes. Anticancer drugs bortezomib and carfilzomib target the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We therefore investigate the roles of bortezomib and carfilzomib in reversing the ubiquitination-induced downregulation of OAT1 expression and transport activity. We showed that bortezomib and carfilzomib extremely increased the ubiquitinated OAT1, which correlated well with an enhanced OAT1-mediated transport of p-aminohippuric acid and an enhanced OAT1 surface expression. The augmented OAT1 expression and transport activity after the treatment with bortezomib and carfilzomib resulted from a reduced rate of OAT1 degradation. Consistent with this, we found decreased 20S proteasomal activity in cells that were exposed to bortezomib and carfilzomib. In conclusion, this study identified the pathway in which ubiquitinated OAT1 degrades and unveiled a novel role of anticancer drugs bortezomib and carfilzomib in their regulation of OAT1 expression and transport activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Bortezomib and carfilzomib are two Food and Drug Administration-approved anticancer drugs, and proteasome is the drug target. In this study, we unveiled a new role of bortezomib and carfilzomib in enhancing OAT1 expression and transport activity by preventing the degradation of ubiquitinated OAT1 in proteasomes. This finding provides a new strategy in regulating OAT1 function that can be used to accelerate the clearance of drugs, metabolites, or toxins and reverse the decreased expression under disease conditions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transporte Biológico Ativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Proteólise , Ubiquitinação , Ácido p-Aminoipúrico/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 253: 117696, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334013

RESUMO

AIMS: We have previously demonstrated that p-tyramine (TYR), an endogenous trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonist, passage across neuronal membranes involves a transporter exhibiting the pharmacological profile of Organic Cation Transporter 2 (OCT2). Since TYR is also a constituent of foodstuffs and produced by the intestinal microbiota, here we have investigated whether similar processes are involved in the passage of 100 nM TYR across apical and basolateral membranes of the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: [3H]TYR transport across apical and basolateral membranes of Caco-2 cell monolayers was measured in the presence of inhibitors of TYR metabolizing enzymes. Cellular, apical, and basolateral compartments were collected at various timepoints, TYR concentrations calculated, and transport properties pharmacologically characterized. KEY FINDINGS: Apical transport resulted in equimolar accumulation of TYR within cells. Pentamidine (OCT1/OCT2 inhibitor) decreased apical transport (P = 0.001) while atropine (OCT1 inhibitor) had no effect, suggesting apical transport involved OCT2. In contrast, basolateral transport resulted in 500-1000 nM cellular concentrations (P < 0.0001) indicating the presence of an active transporter. Replacement of Na+ on an equimolar basis with choline resulted in loss of TYR transport (P = 0.017). Unexpectedly, this active transport was also atropine-sensitive (P = 0.020). Kinetic analysis of the active transporter revealed Vmax = 43.0 nM/s with a Kt = 33.1 nM. SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated for the first time that TYR is transported across Caco-2 apical membranes via facilitated diffusion by OCT2, whereas transport across basolateral membranes is by a Na+-dependent, atropine-sensitive, active transporter.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Transportador 2 de Cátion Orgânico/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Tiramina/metabolismo , Atropina/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico Ativo/fisiologia , Células CACO-2 , Humanos
14.
Genes Cells ; 25(6): 391-401, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167217

RESUMO

Vesicular transport serves as an important mechanism for cell shape regulation during development. Although the semaphorin signaling molecule, a well-known regulator of axon guidance, induces endocytosis in the growth cone and the axonal transport of vertebrate neurons, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans SNT-1/synaptotagmin-UNC-41/stonin2 system, whose role in synaptic vesicle recycling in neurons has been studied extensively, is involved in semaphorin-regulated vesicular transport in larval epidermal cells. Mutations in the snt-1/unc-41 genes strongly suppressed the cell shape defects of semaphorin mutants. The null mutation in the semaphorin receptor gene, plx-1, altered the expression and localization pattern of endocytic and exocytic markers in the epidermal cells while repressing the transport of SNT-1-containing vesicles toward late endosome/lysosome pathways. Our findings suggest that the nematode semaphorins regulate the vesicular transport in epidermal cells in a manner distinct from that of vertebrate semaphorins in neurons.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , Semaforinas/metabolismo , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo , Sinaptotagminas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Transporte Biológico Ativo/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Endocitose/genética , Endossomos/genética , Endossomos/metabolismo , Exocitose/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Lisossomos/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Semaforinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sinaptotagminas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
15.
J Virol ; 94(11)2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161173

RESUMO

The nonenveloped polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) must penetrate the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to enter the cytosol in order to promote infection. How this is accomplished is not entirely clear. Here, we demonstrate that the cytosolic chaperone Ubiquilin4 (Ubqln4) binds directly to the ER membrane J proteins B12 and B14. Strategically localized at the ER-cytosol interface, Ubqln4 captures SV40 emerging from the ER, thereby facilitating escape of the virus from the ER into the cytosol, which leads to infection. Strikingly, Ubqln4 engages the J proteins in a J-domain-independent manner, in contrast to the previously reported Hsc70-Hsp105-SGTA-Bag2 cytosolic complex that also mediates SV40 ER-to-cytosol transport. Our results also reveal that the H domain and STI1 motif (1-2) of Ubqln4 support J protein binding, essential for SV40 infection. Together, these data further clarify the molecular basis by which a nonenveloped virus escapes a host membrane during infectious entry.IMPORTANCE How a nonenveloped virus escapes from a host membrane to promote infection remains enigmatic. In the case of the nonenveloped polyomavirus SV40, penetration of the ER membrane to reach the cytosol is a decisive virus infection step. In this study, we found a new host factor called Ubqln4 that facilitates escape of SV40 from the ER into the cytosol, thereby providing a path for the virus to enter the nucleus to cause infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Infecções por Polyomavirus/metabolismo , Vírus 40 dos Símios/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Transporte Biológico Ativo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular , Citosol/patologia , Citosol/virologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/virologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Humanos , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/patologia , Domínios Proteicos , Vírus 40 dos Símios/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0224852, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214346

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are shown to be involved in the progression of several types of kidney diseases. Podocytes maintain the integrity of the glomerular basement membrane. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are important in cell-to-cell communication as they can transfer cellular content between cells, including miRNA. However, little is known about how extracellular signals from the glomerular microenvironment regulate podocyte activity. Using a non-contact transwell system, communication between glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC) and podocytes was characterised in-vitro. Identification of transferred EV-miRNAs from GEnC to podocytes was performed using fluorescence cell tracking and miRNA mimetics. To represent kidney disease, podocyte molecular profiling and functions were analysed after EV treatments derived from steady state or activated GEnC. Our data shows activation of GEnC alters EV-miRNA loading, but activation was not found to alter EV secretion. EV delivery of miRNA to recipient podocytes altered cellular miRNA abundance and effector functions in podocytes, including decreased secretion of VEGF and increased mitochondrial stress which lead to altered cellular metabolism and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Finally, results support our hypothesis that miRNA-200c-3p is transfered by EVs from GEnC to podocytes in response to activation, ultimately leading to podocyte dysfunction.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Membrana Basal Glomerular/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Podócitos/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Podócitos/patologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 983, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080183

RESUMO

Endosomal sequestration of lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) remains a formidable barrier to delivery. Herein, structure-activity analysis of cholesterol analogues reveals that incorporation of C-24 alkyl phytosterols into LNPs (eLNPs) enhances gene transfection and the length of alkyl tail, flexibility of sterol ring and polarity due to -OH group is required to maintain high transfection. Cryo-TEM displays a polyhedral shape for eLNPs compared to spherical LNPs, while x-ray scattering shows little disparity in internal structure. eLNPs exhibit higher cellular uptake and retention, potentially leading to a steady release from the endosomes over time. 3D single-particle tracking shows enhanced intracellular diffusivity of eLNPs relative to LNPs, suggesting eLNP traffic to productive pathways for escape. Our findings show the importance of cholesterol in subcellular transport of LNPs carrying mRNA and emphasize the need for greater insights into surface composition and structural properties of nanoparticles, and their subcellular interactions which enable designs to improve endosomal escape.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Mensageiro/administração & dosagem , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Endossomos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sitosteroides/química , Transfecção , Difração de Raios X
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108176

RESUMO

The enantiomers of many chiral drugs not only exhibit different pharmacological effects in regard to targets that dictate therapeutic and toxic effects, but are also handled differently in the body due to pharmacokinetic effects. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of N-acetyl-leucine after administration of the racemate (N-acetyl-DL-leucine) or purified, pharmacologically active L-enantiomer (N-acetyl-L-leucine). The results suggest that during chronic administration of the racemate, the D-enantiomer would accumulate, which could have negative effects. Compounds were administered orally to mice. Plasma and tissue samples were collected at predetermined time points (0.25 to 8 h), quantified with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic constants were calculated using a noncompartmental model. When administered as the racemate, both the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma drug concentration over time curve (AUC) were much greater for the D-enantiomer relative to the L-enantiomer. When administered as the L-enantiomer, the dose proportionality was greater than unity compared to the racemate, suggesting saturable processes affecting uptake and/or metabolism. Elimination (ke and T1/2) was similar for both enantiomers. These results are most readily explained by inhibition of uptake at an intestinal carrier of the L-enantiomer by the D-enantiomer, and by first-pass metabolism of the L-, but not D-enantiomer, likely by deacetylation. In brain and muscle, N-acetyl-L-leucine levels were lower than N-acetyl-D-leucine, consistent with rapid conversion into L-leucine and utilization by normal leucine metabolism. In summary, the enantiomers of N-acetyl-leucine exhibit large, unexpected differences in pharmacokinetics due to both unique handling and/or inhibition of uptake and metabolism of the L-enantiomer by the D-enantiomer. Taken together, these results have clinical implications supporting the use of N-acetyl-L-leucine instead of the racemate or N-acetyl-D-leucine, and support the research and development of only N-acetyl-L-leucine.


Assuntos
Leucina/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Leucina/química , Leucina/farmacocinética , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Biológicos , Estereoisomerismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093159

RESUMO

Late 19th-century cytologists observed tiny oil drops in shoot parenchyma and seeds, but it was discovered only in 1972 that they were bound by a half unit-membrane. Later, it was found that lipid bodies (LBs) arise from the endoplasmic reticulum. Seeds are known to be packed with static LBs, coated with the LB-specific protein OLEOSIN. As shown here, apices of Populus tremula x P. tremuloides also express OLEOSIN genes and produce potentially mobile LBs. In developing buds, PtOLEOSIN (PtOLE) genes were upregulated, especially PtOLE6, concomitant with LB accumulation. To investigate LB mobility and destinations, we transformed Arabidopsis with PtOLE6-eGFP. We found that PtOLE6-eGFP fusion protein co-localized with Nile Red-stained LBs in all cell types. Moreover, PtOLE6-eGFP-tagged LBs targeted plasmodesmata, identified by the callose marker aniline blue. Pharmacological experiments with brefeldin, cytochalasin D, and oryzalin showed that LB-trafficking requires F-actin, implying involvement of myosin motors. In a triple myosin-XI knockout (xi-k/1/2), transformed with PtOLE6-eGFP, trafficking of PtOLE6-eGFP-tagged LBs was severely impaired, confirming that they move on F-actin, motorized by myosin XIs. The data reveal that LBs and OLEOSINs both function in proliferating apices and buds, and that directional trafficking of LBs to plasmodesmata requires the actomyosin system.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico Ativo/fisiologia , Miosinas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/genética , Populus/genética
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 7, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031579

RESUMO

Purpose: Confirm that the corneal endothelial pump uses a lactate-coupled water efflux mechanism. Methods: Corneal thickness, lactate efflux, and stromal [lactate] were measured in de-epithelialized swollen and nonswollen ex vivo-mounted rabbit corneas perfused with bicarbonate-rich and bicarbonate-free Ringers, ouabain, or acetazolamide to determine if the relationships among these parameters were similar to previous data using intact corneas. The role of barrier function was tested by perfusion with calcium-free EGTA. Predictions of [lactate] in endothelial dystrophy were examined in the Slc4a11 knock out mouse. Results: De-epithelialized corneal swelling, lactate efflux, and stromal [lactate] in response to bicarbonate-free Ringers, ouabain, and acetazolamide perfusion had the same relationship as in intact corneas. The absolute amount of lactate efflux and stromal [lactate] in the de-epithelialized corneas was about half of intact corneas. De-epithelialized, swollen corneas deswelled fully with bicarbonate-rich, partially in the presence of acetazolamide, but continued to swell with bicarbonate-free or ouabain. The relationship among corneal thickness, lactate efflux, and [lactate] was the same as with nonswollen de-epithelialized corneas. In intact corneas swollen by perfusion with calcium-free EGTA, the relationship between swelling and lactate flux was the inverse of control corneas. The relationship between corneal swelling and [lactate] of intact corneas exposed to ouabain, but perfused with 7 mM lactate to simulate aqueous humor, was the same as without lactate. Corneal [lactate] in Slc4a11 knock out was twice that of wild type. Conclusions: The corneal endothelial pump works via a lactate efflux mechanism that requires an intact osmotic barrier.


Assuntos
Epitélio Posterior/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico Ativo/fisiologia , Córnea/metabolismo , Edema da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Coelhos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , Simportadores/metabolismo
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