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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 1-12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571163

RESUMO

Absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs are involved in drug transport across plasma membrane, most of which are mediated by drug transporters. These drug transporters are generally divided into solute carrier (SLC) family and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. These transporters not only mediate transport of therapeutic drugs across membrane but also transport various kinds of endogenous compounds. Thus besides being participated in disposal of drug and its clinical efficacy/toxicity, these transporters also play vital roles in maintaining cell homeostasis via regulating transport of endogenous compounds. This chapter will outline classification of drug transporters, their roles in drug disposal/drug response, and remote communication between tissues/organs.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Proteínas Carreadoras de Solutos , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Comunicação Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Carreadoras de Solutos/metabolismo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 203-240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571166

RESUMO

Transporters play an important role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs. In recent years, various in vitro, in situ/ex vivo, and in vivo methods have been established for studying transporter function and drug-transporter interaction. In this chapter, the major types of in vitro models for drug transport studies comprise membrane-based assays, cell-based assays (such as primary cell cultures, immortalized cell lines), and transporter-transfected cell lines with single transporters or multiple transporters. In situ/ex vivo models comprise isolated and perfused organs or tissues. In vivo models comprise transporter gene knockout models, natural mutant animal models, and humanized animal models. This chapter would be focused on the methods for the study of drug transporters in vitro, in situ/ex vivo, and in vivo. The applications, advantages, or limitations of each model and emerging technologies are also mentioned in this chapter.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Projetos de Pesquisa , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 241-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571167

RESUMO

Drug transporters are considered to be determinants of drug disposition and effects/toxicities by affecting the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs. Drug transporters are generally divided into solute carrier (SLC) family and ATP binding cassette (ABC) family. Widely studied ABC family transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-GP), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs). SLC family transporters related to drug transport mainly include organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporters (OCTs), organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTNs), peptide transporters (PEPTs), and multidrug/toxin extrusions (MATEs). These transporters are often expressed in tissues related to drug disposition, such as the small intestine, liver, and kidney, implicating intestinal absorption of drugs, uptake of drugs into hepatocytes, and renal/bile excretion of drugs. Most of therapeutic drugs are their substrates or inhibitors. When they are comedicated, serious drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may occur due to alterations in intestinal absorption, hepatic uptake, or renal/bile secretion of drugs, leading to enhancement of their activities or toxicities or therapeutic failure. This chapter will illustrate transporter-mediated DDIs (including food drug interaction) in human and their clinical significances.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Interações de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Interações Alimento-Droga , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 293-340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571168

RESUMO

Hepatic drug transporters are mainly distributed in parenchymal liver cells (hepatocytes), contributing to drug's liver disposition and elimination. According to their functions, hepatic transporters can be roughly divided into influx and efflux transporters, translocating specific molecules from blood into hepatic cytosol and mediating the excretion of drugs and metabolites from hepatic cytosol to blood or bile, respectively. The function of hepatic transport systems can be affected by interspecies differences and inter-individual variability (polymorphism). In addition, some drugs and disease can redistribute transporters from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments, leading to the changes in the expression and function of transporters. Hepatic drug transporters have been associated with the hepatic toxicity of drugs. Gene polymorphism of transporters and altered transporter expressions and functions due to diseases are found to be susceptible factors for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this chapter, the localization of hepatic drug transporters, their regulatory factors, physiological roles, and their roles in drug's liver disposition and DILI are reviewed.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Transporte Biológico , Variação Genética , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 341-360, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571169

RESUMO

The kidney plays an important role in maintaining total body homeostasis and eliminating toxic xenobiotics and metabolites. Numerous drugs and their metabolites are ultimately eliminated in the urine. The reabsorption and secretion functions of the nephron are mediated by a variety of transporters located in the basolateral and luminal membranes of the tubular cells. In the past decade, many studies indicated that transporters play important roles in drug pharmacokinetics and demonstrated the impact of renal transporters on the disposition of drugs, drug-drug interactions, and nephrotoxicities. Here, we focus on several important renal transporters and their roles in drug elimination and disposition, drug-induced nephrotoxicities and potential clinical solutions.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Rim , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 407-466, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571171

RESUMO

Blood-brain interfaces comprise the cerebral microvessel endothelium forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the epithelium of the choroid plexuses forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Their main functions are to impede free diffusion between brain fluids and blood; to provide transport processes for essential nutrients, ions, and metabolic waste products; and to regulate the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS), all of which are attributed to absent fenestrations, high expression of tight junction proteins at cell-cell contacts, and expression of multiple transporters, receptors, and enzymes. Existence of BBB is an important reason that systemic drug administration is not suitable for the treatment of CNS diseases. Some diseases, such epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and diabetes, alter BBB function via affecting tight junction proteins or altering expression and function of these transporters. This chapter will illustrate function of BBB, expression of transporters, as well as their alterations under disease status.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Transporte Biológico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10563-10576, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487171

RESUMO

Sulfur (S) metabolism plays a vital role in Cd detoxification, but the collaboration between melatonin biosynthesis and S metabolism under Cd stress remains unaddressed. Using exogenous melatonin, melatonin-deficient tomato plants with a silenced caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, and COMT-overexpressing plants with cosuppression of sulfate transporter (SUT)1 and SUT2 genes, we found that melatonin deficiency decreased S accumulation and aggravated Cd phytotoxicity, whereas exogenous melatonin or overexpression of COMT increased S uptake and assimilation, resulting in an improved plant growth and Cd tolerance. Melatonin deficiency promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, but COMT overexpression caused the opposite effect. COMT overexpression failed to compensate the functional hierarchy of S when its uptake was inhibited by cosilencing of transporter SUT1 and SUT2. Our study provides genetic evidence that melatonin-mediated tolerance to Cd is closely associated with the efficient regulation of S metabolism, redox homeostasis, and Cd translocation in tomato plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180654, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365653

RESUMO

Candida albicans is the most frequent fungal species that causes infections in humans. Fluconazole is the main antifungal used to treat Candida infections, and its prolonged and indiscriminate use for the last decades are the most established causes which originated resistant strains. Fungal drug resistance is associated to alterations in ERG11 gene and overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters belonging to two families: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS). To evaluate the role of MFS transporters in azoles resistance of C. albicans clinical strains, this study aimed to analyze four Candida albicans clinical isolates from the University Hospital in Juiz de Fora (Minas Gerais/Brazil), selected in our previous study as they were unaffected by FK506, an ABC pumps inhibitor. In a primary investigation on MFS proteins overexpression, the extrusion of fluorescent substrates (rhodamine 6G and nile red) was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Results suggest participation of MFS transporters in azole resistance of C. albicans isolates and indicate the existence of secondary resistance mechanisms. Therefore, this study contributes to the information about Candida albicans infections in Brazil and reinforces the importance of epidemiological studies focusing on an improved understanding of the disease and further resistance reversion.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Azóis/classificação , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(8): e8596, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389491

RESUMO

The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) is the most widespread method for assessing water and solute transport across the peritoneal membrane. This study compared three methods: traditional PET (t-PET), mini-PET, and modified PET (mod-PET). Non-diabetic adults (n=21) who had been on peritoneal dialysis (PD) for at least three months underwent t-PET (glucose 2.5%-4 h), mini-PET (glucose 3.86%-1 h), and mod-PET (glucose 3.86%-4 h) to determine dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio (D/P) for creatinine and dialysate-to-baseline dialysate concentration ratio (D/D0) for glucose. Agreement between methods regarding D/P creatinine and D/D0 glucose was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. D/P creatinine differed between t-PET and mini-PET (P<0.001) and between mod-PET and mini-PET (P<0.01) but not between t-PET and mod-PET (P=0.746). The correlation of D/P creatinine with t-PET vs mod-PET was significant (r=0.387, P=0.009) but not that of t-PET vs mini-PET (r=0.088, P=0.241). Estimated bias was -0.029 (P=0.201) between t-PET and mod-PET, and 0.206 (P<0.001) between t-PET and mini-PET. D/D0 glucose differed between t-PET and mod-PET (P=0.003) and between mod-PET and mini-PET (P=0.002) but not between t-PET and mini-PET (P=0.885). The correlations of D/D0 glucose in t-PET vs mod-PET (r=-0.017, P=0.421) or t-PET vs mini-PET (r=0.152, P=0.609) were not significant. Estimated bias was 0.122 (P=0.026) between t-PET and mod-PET, and 0.122 (P=0.026) between t-PET and mini-PET. The significant correlation of D/P creatinine between t-PET and mod-PET suggested that the latter is a good alternative to t-PET. There was no such correlation between t-PET and mini-PET.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Transporte Biológico , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Glucose/análise , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritônio/metabolismo
10.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 486(1): 168-170, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367813

RESUMO

In the present study, we analyzed the uptake of radiolabeled dopamine by intact synaptosomes and purified synaptic vesicles isolated from the dorsal striatum of mice with constitutive inactivation of all three synuclein-coding genes and wild-type mice. Synuclein deficiency substantially compromised the uptake of this neurotransmitter by synaptic vesicles but had no effect on synaptosomal dopamine uptake.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo , Sinucleínas/deficiência , Animais , Transporte Biológico/genética , Inativação Gênica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sinucleínas/genética
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 163-172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468395

RESUMO

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a sulfur-containing ß-amino acid, is a free amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. Taurine has pivotal roles in anti-oxidation, membrane stabilization, osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, and other process. In a DNA microarray analysis, we previously found that taurine markedly increases the mRNA expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of these taurine-induced changes in TXNIP on the function of Caco-2 cells. We found that taurine decreases glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. The taurine-induced decrease in glucose uptake was completely abolished by transfection with siRNA against TXNIP, suggesting that TXNIP is involved in the taurine-induced down-regulation of glucose uptake. We also revealed that taurine induces AMPK activation and further increases the intracellular ATP content in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that taurine could regulate the function of Caco-2 cells via TXNIP induction, leading to extend our understanding of the functions of taurine.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 959-975, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468460

RESUMO

Taurine is essential for the development and function of the central nervous system, retina, and cardiovascular system. It is a naturally occurring amino acid, abundantly found in the retina. It has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, neuroprotective, and osmoregulatory functions in the retina. We used conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cells (TR-iBRB), in vitro, to investigate the effects of oxidative stress, high glucose (HG) and hypertonic conditions on taurine transport. TR-iBRB cells pre-treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) showed a significant increase in [3H]taurine uptake rate, which, however, decreased when treated with taurine (50 mM). Addition of paeonol and propranolol to TNF-α pre-treated cells had no significant effect on [3H]taurine uptake, but the addition of 10 mM taurine caused a reduction. The uptake rate decreased under HG conditions, in contrast to that under hypertonic conditions. [3H]Taurine uptake increased with pre-incubation time. Additionally, uptake of [3H]taurine and mRNA expression of taurine transporter (TauT) decreased significantly under hypertonic and HG conditions, following pre-incubation with 10 mM taurine, 1 mM paeonol, and 0.1 mM propranolol. [3H]Taurine uptake was significantly inhibited in the presence of taurine transporters such as taurine and ß-alanine. Results indicate that oxidative stress and hypertonic conditions increased taurine uptake in iBRB cell lines, whereas HG conditions reduced the uptake rate. Taurine may be useful in stabilizing the microenvironment in cells affected by oxidative stress as well as hypertonic and HG conditions. Moreover, taurine may play a key role in maintaining taurine concentrations in the taurine transporter system of retinal cells.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematorretiniana , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacocinética , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
13.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 441-485, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435807

RESUMO

The Golgi apparatus is a central intracellular membrane-bound organelle with key functions in trafficking, processing, and sorting of newly synthesized membrane and secretory proteins and lipids. To best perform these functions, Golgi membranes form a unique stacked structure. The Golgi structure is dynamic but tightly regulated; it undergoes rapid disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle of mammalian cells and is disrupted under certain stress and pathological conditions. In the past decade, significant amount of effort has been made to reveal the molecular mechanisms that regulate the Golgi membrane architecture and function. Here we review the major discoveries in the mechanisms of Golgi structure formation, regulation, and alteration in relation to its functions in physiological and pathological conditions to further our understanding of Golgi structure and function in health and diseases.


Assuntos
Doença , Complexo de Golgi/química , Complexo de Golgi/fisiologia , Saúde , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Ciclo Celular , Humanos , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(72): 10740-10743, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432813

RESUMO

We constructed a two-photon fluorescence ratio probe (CST) for in situ quantitative real-time detection of mitochondrial O2˙-. Fluorescence imaging showed that O2˙- was over-generated from mitochondria and conveyed to the cytoplasm via voltage-dependent anion channels in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion mice, damaging the important functional protein aconitase in the cytoplasm.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/química , Imagem Óptica , Fótons , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Superóxidos/química , Animais , Ânions/química , Ânions/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Superóxidos/metabolismo
15.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 49-79, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435792

RESUMO

The intracellular transport is the most confusing issue in the field of cell biology. The Golgi complex (GC) is the central station along the secretory pathway. It contains Golgi glycosylation enzymes, which are responsible for protein and lipid glycosylation, and in many cells, it is organized into a ribbon. Position and structure of the GC depend on the position and function of the centriole. Here, we analyze published data related to the role of centriole and intracellular transport (ICT) for the formation of Golgi ribbon and specifically stress the importance of the delivery of membranes containing cargo and membrane proteins to the cell centre where centriole/centrosome is localized. Additionally, we re-examined the formation of Golgi ribbon from the point of view of different models of ICT.


Assuntos
Centríolos/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/química , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
16.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 95-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435794

RESUMO

The Golgi apparatus is a central sorting station in the cell. It receives newly synthesized molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum and directs them to different subcellular destinations, such as the plasma membrane or the endocytic pathway. Importantly, in the last few years, it has emerged that the maintenance of Golgi structure is connected to the proper regulation of membrane trafficking. Rab proteins are small GTPases that are considered to be the master regulators of the intracellular membrane trafficking. Several of the over 60 human Rabs are involved in the regulation of transport pathways at the Golgi as well as in the maintenance of its architecture. This chapter will summarize the different roles of Rab GTPases at the Golgi, both as regulators of membrane transport, scaffold, and tethering proteins and in preserving the structure and function of this organelle.


Assuntos
Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos
17.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 377-387, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435804

RESUMO

The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in the numerous traffic tasks in cells. Whereas the well-investigated chemical signaling is sufficient to explain the information processes in the secretory output of cells, it is insufficient to do that for the substitution of structural elements in the three-dimensional space of the cell. Here we review recent work (Jaross, Front Biosci 23:940-946, 2018) suggesting that molecular vibration patterns of those macromolecules which have to be exchanged are recognized by molecules in the Golgi via resonance of the electromagnetic fingerprints. That results in the activation of specific molecules and induction of the whole substitution process. For bridging intracellular distances, the IR radiation must be coherent. It is discussed that coherence is achieved by chemical reaction during the changing process of the molecule along with the quasicrystalline structure of the neighboring water molecules. Several aspects of the relevance of that signaling to the direct interactions of molecules during various intracellular processes are discussed.


Assuntos
Complexo de Golgi , Transdução de Sinais , Transporte Biológico
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121919, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376667

RESUMO

Biofilm processes are widely used in wastewater treatment. The biofilm has highly heterogeneous interior structure, which can significantly affect the transport processes and the biological reactions over the biofilm. This study for the first time detailed the complicated velocity and concentration fields of substrate in a real biofilm structure. With a real biofilm interior being profiled and meshed to numerical solutions, the flow-through mode has significant distortion of inflow velocity fields and concentration distributions, which lead to enhanced biological reactions at regimes nearby major pores. Conversely, the crossflow mode depends weakly on the biofilm interior structure. The uniform biofilm model fails to describe the real biofilm processes. Future research needs based on real biofilm structures were discussed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Águas Residuárias , Biofilmes , Transporte Biológico
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9877-9884, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398030

RESUMO

Heavy metal contaminants and nutrient deficiencies in soil negatively affect crop growth and human health. The plant cadmium resistance (PCR) protein transports heavy metals. The abundance of PCR is correlated with that of cell number regulator (CNR) protein, and the two proteins have similar conserved domains. Hence, CNR might also participate in heavy metal transport. We isolated and analyzed TaCNR5 from wheat (Triticum aestivum). The expression level of TaCNR5 in the shoots of wheat increased under cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), or manganese (Mn) treatments. Transgenic plants expressing TaCNR5 showed enhanced tolerance to Zn and Mn. Overexpression of TaCNR5 in Arabidopsis increased Cd, Zn, and Mn translocation from roots to shoots. The concentrations of Zn and Mn in rice grains were increased in transgenic plants expressing TaCNR5. These roles of TaCNR5 in the translocation and distribution of heavy metals mean that it has potential as a genetic biofortification tool to fortify cereal grains with micronutrients.


Assuntos
Manganês/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Zinco/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Manganês/análise , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
20.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(8): 634-642, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated clinical characteristics of patients with extremely increased or decreased physiologic F-FDG uptake of the liver and their prognosis. METHODS: One thousand four hundred eighty-seven PET/CT scans of patients with known or suspected malignancy were retrospectively analyzed. A spherical volume of interest (3 cm in diameter) was set on the right lobe of the liver to calculate the SUVmean. Scans with extremely high (SUVmean >97.5th percentile) and low (SUVmean <2.5th percentile) FDG uptake in the liver were evaluated. Physical and laboratory data among a control group (n = 30), the extremely high liver uptake group (HG, n = 36), and the extremely low liver uptake group (LG, n = 36) were compared. Overall survival (OS) of the 3 groups was also compared. RESULTS: Body weight and body mass index in the HG (SUVmean ≥3.04) were significantly higher than those in the control group. The LG cases (SUVmean ≤1.78) had anemia, impaired liver function, and systemic inflammation. They were also in a poor nutritional state. The characteristics of LG cases had many things in common with those of cachectic patients. Indeed, 36.1% of LG cases met the diagnostic criteria for cachexia. Moreover, in LG cases with viable and/or recurrent malignant lesions on FDG PET, the proportion of cachexia increased by 52.6%. The OS of LG cases (median, 33 months) was significantly worse than that of controls and HG cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that cancer patients with extremely decreased liver FDG uptake were likely to have cancer cachexia and a lower OS.


Assuntos
Caquexia/complicações , Caquexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transporte Biológico , Caquexia/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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