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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126926, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957303

RESUMO

In less than a decade, bioelectrochemical systems/microbial fuel cell integrated constructed wetlands (electroactive wetlands) have gained a considerable amount of attention due to enhanced wastewater treatment and electricity generation. The enhancement in treatment has majorly emanated from the electron transfer or flow, particularly in anaerobic regions. However, the chemistry associated with electron transfer is complex to understand in electroactive wetlands. The electroactive wetlands accommodate diverse microbial community in which each microbe set their own potential to further participate in electron transfer. The conductive materials/electrodes in electroactive wetlands also contain some potential, due to which, several conflicts occur between microbes and electrode, and results in inadequate electron transfer or involvement of some other reaction mechanisms. Still, there is a considerable research gap in understanding of electron transfer between electrode-anode and cathode in electroactive wetlands. Additionally, the interaction of microbes with the electrodes and understanding of mass transfer is also essential to further understand the electron recovery. This review mainly deals with the electron transfer mechanism and its role in pollutant removal and electricity generation in electroactive wetlands.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Transporte de Elétrons , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Eletrodos , Microbiota , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817667

RESUMO

Several 'super-complexes' of individual hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes, whose function is to facilitate intra-membrane electron and proton transfer and harvesting of light energy, have been previously characterized in the mitochondrial cristae and chloroplast thylakoid membranes. We report the presence of an intra-membrane super-complex dominated by the ATP-synthase, photosystem I (PSI) reaction-center complex and the ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase (FNR) in the thylakoid membrane. The presence of the super-complex has been documented by mass spectrometry, clear-native PAGE and Western Blot analyses. This is the first documented presence of ATP synthase in a super-complex with the PSI reaction-center located in the non-appressed stromal domain of the thylakoid membrane.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Ferredoxina-NADP Redutase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20171-20179, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747561

RESUMO

Extracellular electron transfer (EET) allows microorganisms to gain energy by linking intracellular reactions to external surfaces ranging from natural minerals to the electrodes of bioelectrochemical renewable energy technologies. In the past two decades, electrochemical techniques have been used to investigate EET in a wide range of microbes, with emphasis on dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, as model organisms. However, due to the typically bulk nature of these techniques, they are unable to reveal the subpopulation variation in EET or link the observed electrochemical currents to energy gain by individual cells, thus overlooking the potentially complex spatial patterns of activity in bioelectrochemical systems. Here, to address these limitations, we use the cell membrane potential as a bioenergetic indicator of EET by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells. Using a fluorescent membrane potential indicator during in vivo single-cell-level fluorescence microscopy in a bioelectrochemical reactor, we demonstrate that membrane potential strongly correlates with EET. Increasing electrode potential and associated EET current leads to more negative membrane potential. This EET-induced membrane hyperpolarization is spatially limited to cells in contact with the electrode and within a near-electrode zone (<30 µm) where the hyperpolarization decays with increasing cell-electrode distance. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the reported technique can be used to study the single-cell-level dynamics of EET not only on electrode surfaces, but also during respiration of other solid-phase electron acceptors.


Assuntos
Membrana Externa Bacteriana/fisiologia , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Shewanella/fisiologia , Benzotiazóis/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123970, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791460

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion of primary sludge with different additives, namely nano magnetite, graphite powder, activated carbon powder and NiCl2/CoCl2, were evaluated by biomethane potential tests, kinetics modelling and microbial community analysis. Specific methane yields increased from 136 mL/g VS for primary sludge to 146 mL/g VS, 151 mL/g VS, and 152 mL/g VS for the addition of nano magnetite, graphite powder, and activated carbon powder at optimal dosages, respectively. The first order hydrolysis constant kh increased from 0.488 d-1 to 0.526 d-1, 0.622 d-1, and 0.724 d-1, respectively. Microbial community analysis revealed that the abundance of key bacterial and archaeal populations was positively correlated with hydrolysis and methane production. The enhanced methane production with activated carbon powder was due to shifting methane formation pathway from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. In contrast, nano magnetite and graphite powder additives enhanced the direct interspecies electron transfer evidenced by increased abundance of Methanosaeta and Methanolinea.


Assuntos
Metano , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Archaea , Reatores Biológicos , Transporte de Elétrons
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4245, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843629

RESUMO

Diheme-containing succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductases (Sdh) are widespread in Gram-positive bacteria but little is known about the catalytic mechanisms they employ for succinate oxidation by menaquinone. Here, we present the 2.8 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Mycobacterium smegmatis Sdh, which forms a trimer. We identified the membrane-anchored SdhF as a subunit of the complex. The 3 kDa SdhF forms a single transmembrane helix and this helix plays a role in blocking the canonically proximal quinone-binding site. We also identified two distal quinone-binding sites with bound quinones. One distal binding site is formed by neighboring subunits of the complex. Our structure further reveals the electron/proton transfer pathway for succinate oxidation by menaquinone. Moreover, this study provides further structural insights into the physiological significance of a trimeric respiratory complex II. The structure of the menaquinone binding site could provide a framework for the development of Sdh-selective anti-mycobacterial drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Mycobacterium smegmatis/enzimologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium smegmatis/química , Oxirredução , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4135, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811817

RESUMO

Complex I is the first and the largest enzyme of respiratory chains in bacteria and mitochondria. The mechanism which couples spatially separated transfer of electrons to proton translocation in complex I is not known. Here we report five crystal structures of T. thermophilus enzyme in complex with NADH or quinone-like compounds. We also determined cryo-EM structures of major and minor native states of the complex, differing in the position of the peripheral arm. Crystal structures show that binding of quinone-like compounds (but not of NADH) leads to a related global conformational change, accompanied by local re-arrangements propagating from the quinone site to the nearest proton channel. Normal mode and molecular dynamics analyses indicate that these are likely to represent the first steps in the proton translocation mechanism. Our results suggest that quinone binding and chemistry play a key role in the coupling mechanism of complex I.


Assuntos
Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Quinonas/química , Thermus thermophilus/enzimologia , Regulação Alostérica , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , NAD/química , NAD/metabolismo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Conformação Proteica , Prótons , Quinonas/metabolismo , Thermus thermophilus/genética
7.
Nature ; 585(7824): 288-292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641834

RESUMO

The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is necessary for tumour growth1-6 and its inhibition has demonstrated anti-tumour efficacy in combination with targeted therapies7-9. Furthermore, human brain and lung tumours display robust glucose oxidation by mitochondria10,11. However, it is unclear why a functional ETC is necessary for tumour growth in vivo. ETC function is coupled to the generation of ATP-that is, oxidative phosphorylation and the production of metabolites by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Mitochondrial complexes I and II donate electrons to ubiquinone, resulting in the generation of ubiquinol and the regeneration of the NAD+ and FAD cofactors, and complex III oxidizes ubiquinol back to ubiquinone, which also serves as an electron acceptor for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-an enzyme necessary for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Here we show impaired tumour growth in cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III. This phenotype was rescued by ectopic expression of Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX)12, which also oxidizes ubiquinol to ubiquinone. Loss of mitochondrial complex I, II or DHODH diminished the tumour growth of AOX-expressing cancer cells deficient in mitochondrial complex III, which highlights the necessity of ubiquinone as an electron acceptor for tumour growth. Cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III but can regenerate NAD+ by expression of the NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX)13 targeted to the mitochondria or cytosol were still unable to grow tumours. This suggests that regeneration of NAD+ is not sufficient to drive tumour growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that tumour growth requires the ETC to oxidize ubiquinol, which is essential to drive the oxidative TCA cycle and DHODH activity.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ciona intestinalis/enzimologia , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Citosol/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus brevis/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233945, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701964

RESUMO

The survival of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes in foods and food production environments (FPE) is dependent on several genes that increase tolerance to stressors; this includes competing with intrinsic bacteria. We aimed to uncover genes that are differentially expressed (DE) in L. monocytogenes sequence type (ST) 121 strain 6179 when co-cultured with cheese rind bacteria. L. monocytogenes was cultivated in broth or on plates with either a Psychrobacter or Brevibacterium isolate from cheese rinds. RNA was extracted from co-cultures in broth after two or 12 hours and from plates after 24 and 72 hours. Broth co-cultivations with Brevibacterium or Psychrobacter yielded up to 392 and 601 DE genes, while plate co-cultivations significantly affected the expression of up to 190 and 485 L. monocytogenes genes, respectively. Notably, the transcription of virulence genes encoding the Listeria adhesion protein and Listeriolysin O were induced during plate and broth co-cultivations. The expression of several systems under the control of the global stress gene regulator, σB, increased during co-cultivation. A cobalamin-dependent gene cluster, responsible for the catabolism of ethanolamine and 1,2-propanediol, was upregulated in both broth and plate co-cultures conditions. Finally, a small non-coding (nc)RNA, Rli47, was induced after 72 hours of co-cultivation on plates and accounted for 50-90% of the total reads mapped to L. monocytogenes. A recent study has shown that Rli47 may contribute to L. monocytogenes stress survival by slowing growth during stress conditions through the suppression of branch-chained amino acid biosynthesis. We hypothesize that Rli47 may have an impactful role in the response of L. monocytogenes to co-cultivation by regulating a complex network of metabolic and virulence mechanisms.


Assuntos
Brevibacterium/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Etanolamina/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Propilenoglicol/metabolismo , Psychrobacter/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Aclimatação , Ágar , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultura , Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fermentação/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Plasmídeos , RNA Bacteriano/biossíntese , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/biossíntese , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Virulência/genética
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16373-16382, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601233

RESUMO

In photosynthetic reaction centers from purple bacteria (PbRC) and the water-oxidizing enzyme, photosystem II (PSII), charge separation occurs along one of the two symmetrical electron-transfer branches. Here we report the microscopic origin of the unidirectional charge separation, fully considering electron-hole interaction, electronic coupling of the pigments, and electrostatic interaction with the polarizable entire protein environments. The electronic coupling between the pair of bacteriochlorophylls is large in PbRC, forming a delocalized excited state with the lowest excitation energy (i.e., the special pair). The charge-separated state in the active branch is stabilized by uncharged polar residues in the transmembrane region and charged residues on the cytochrome c 2 binding surface. In contrast, the accessory chlorophyll in the D1 protein (ChlD1) has the lowest excitation energy in PSII. The charge-separated state involves ChlD1 •+ and is stabilized predominantly by charged residues near the Mn4CaO5 cluster and the proceeding proton-transfer pathway. It seems likely that the acquirement of water-splitting ability makes ChlD1 the initial electron donor in PSII.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Complexo de Proteínas do Centro de Reação Fotossintética/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Aminoácidos , Bacterioclorofilas/química , Bacterioclorofilas/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas do Centro de Reação Fotossintética/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Água/química
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701995

RESUMO

Microalgae and cyanobacteria are considered as important model organisms to investigate the biology of photosynthesis; moreover, they are valuable sources of biomolecules for several biotechnological applications. Understanding the species-specific traits of photosynthetic electron transport is extremely important, because it contributes to the regulation of ATP/NADPH ratio, which has direct/indirect links to carbon fixation and other metabolic pathways and thus overall growth and biomass production. In the present work, a cuvette-based setup is developed, in which a combination of measurements of dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll fluorescence and NADPH kinetics can be performed without disturbing the physiological status of the sample. The suitability of the system is demonstrated using a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, as well as biofuel-candidate microalgae species, such as Chlorella sorokiniana, Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis limnetica undergoing inorganic carbon (Ci) limitation. Inorganic carbon limitation, induced by photosynthetic Ci uptake under continuous illumination, caused a decrease in the effective quantum yield of PSII (Y(II)) and loss of oxygen-evolving capacity in all species investigated here; these effects were largely recovered by the addition of NaHCO3. Detailed analysis of the dark-light and light-dark transitions of NADPH production/uptake and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics revealed species- and condition-specific responses. These responses indicate that the impact of decreased Calvin-Benson cycle activity on photosynthetic electron transport pathways involving several sections of the electron transport chain (such as electron transfer via the QA-QB-plastoquinone pool, the redox state of the plastoquinone pool) can be analyzed with high sensitivity in a comparative manner. Therefore, the integrated system presented here can be applied for screening for specific traits in several significant species at different stages of inorganic carbon limitation, a condition that strongly impacts primary productivity.


Assuntos
Carbono/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Compostos Inorgânicos/farmacologia , Microalgas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Chlorella/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorella/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorescência , Cinética , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , NADP/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Teoria Quântica , Synechocystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Synechocystis/fisiologia
11.
Postepy Biochem ; 66(2): 91-99, 2020 06 27.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700506

RESUMO

Cytochromes bc1 and c b6f are part of respiratory or photosynthetic machinery. The main role of these enzymes is to build proton motive force across the bioenergetic membranes by coupling the proton translocations with electron transfer from the pool of membrane-soluble quinones to water-soluble redox proteins. Despite many years of research, the mechanism of quinol oxidation is not fully understood. It is assumed that unstable form of a partially oxidized quinol ­ semiquinone is an intermediate state of this process and that it is also a potential electron donor in the side reaction of superoxide generation. This semiquinone has remained experimentally elusive over years but recently a semiquinone interacting with the reduced iron-sulfur cluster was identified as a new state of the enzyme. The results indicate that semiquinone coupled to the iron-sulfur cluster is most probably an additional state that can prevent side reactions, including superoxide generation.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/química , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Elétrons , Citocromos/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Oxirredução , Superóxidos/metabolismo
12.
Postepy Biochem ; 66(2): 134-142, 2020 06 27.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700507

RESUMO

The light phase of photosynthesis is a key energy process in higher plants. Its purpose is to convert light energy into chemical one stored in ATP and NADPH molecules, which are then used to assimilate CO2 and in numerous metabolic processes. Maintaining optimal photosynthesis performance requires strict regulation of thylakoid membranes organization and rapid response to changing environmental conditions. The main factor affecting photosynthesis is light, which, if applied in excessive amounts, leads to a slowdown in the process. Therefore, plants have developed many protective mechanisms regulating the light reactions of photosynthesis and operating at the level of light energy absorption, electron transport, and the distribution and use of reducing power. These include, among others: (i) non-photochemical energy quenching regulating the amount of excitation energy delivered to the photosystems; (ii) 'state transition' process redistributing excitation energy between photosystems; (iii) redundant electron transport pathways responsible for maintaining redox balance in chloroplasts. All these mechanisms, in combination with antioxidant systems, are designed to maintain the function of the photosynthetic apparatus in adverse growth conditions.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos da radiação , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação
13.
Phytochemistry ; 178: 112454, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692658

RESUMO

Rooperol and its derivatives, derived from the Hypoxis rooperi plant, are polyphenolic and norlignan compounds with excellent antioxidant activities. The reaction enthalpies for the free-radical scavenging by rooperol and its six derivatives were studied using density functional theory. We found that the C-H groups played a significant role in the antioxidant activities in non-polar phases. In the gas and benzene phases, rooperol and its derivatives preferentially underwent the free-radical scavenging process via the 3‒CH group by following the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism. In polar phases, the sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) was the most preferred mechanism, and the phenolic O‒H groups played a significant role. Additionally, we found that when the hydrogen atom in the OH group was replaced by a glucose moiety, the antioxidant activity of the adjacent OH group was reduced. ROP, DHROP-I, DHROP-II, ROP-4″-G and ROP-4'G have catechol moiety, they may proceed double step-wise mechanisms to trap free radicals. In the gas and benzene phases, the preferable mechanism is dHAT. In water phase, it is SPLHAT.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Catecóis , Transporte de Elétrons , Prótons
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110856, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629202

RESUMO

To explore the mechanisms underlying the action of the heavy metals Cd and Zn on the photosynthetic function of plant leaves, the effects of 100 µmol L-1 Cd and 200 µmol L-1 Zn stress (the exposure concentrations of Cd and Zn in the culture medium were 2.24 mg kg-1 and 5.36 mg kg-1) on the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents as well as the photosynthetic function of tobacco leaves (Long Jiang 911) were studied. The key proteins in these physiological processes were quantitatively analyzed using a TMT-based proteomics approach. Cd stress was found to inhibit the expression of key enzymes during chlorophyll synthesis in leaves, resulting in a decrease of the Chl content. However, Zn stress did not significantly influence the chlorophyll content. Leaves adapted to Zn stress by upregulating CAO expression and increase the Chl b content. Although the Car content in leaves did not significantly change under either Cd or Zn stress, the expressions of ZE and VDE during Car metabolism decreased significantly under Cd stress. This was accompanied by damages to the xanthophyll cycle and the NPQ-dependent energy dissipation mechanism. In contrast, under Zn stress, leaves adapted to Zn stress by increasing the expression of VDE, thus improving NPQ. Under Cd stress, the expressions of three sets of proteins were significantly down-regulated, including PSII donor-side proteins (PPD3, PPD6, OEE1, OEE2-1, OEE2-2, OEE2-3, and OEE3-2), receptor-side proteins (D1, D2, CP43, CP47, Cyt b559α, Cyt b559ß, PsbL, PsbQ, PsbR, Psb27-H1, and Psb28), and core proteins of the PSI reaction center (psaA, psaB, psaC, psaD, psaE-A, PsaE-B, psaF, psaG, psaH-1, psaK, psaL, psaN, and psaOL). In comparison, only eight of the above proteins (PPD6, OEE3-2, PsbL, PsbQ, Psb27-H1, psaL, and psaOL) were significantly down-regulated by Zn stress. Under Cd stress, both the donor side and the receptor side of PSII were damaged, and PSII and PSI experienced severe photoinhibition. However, Zn stress did not decrease either PSII or PSI activities in tobacco leaves. In addition, the expression of electron transport-related proteins (cytb6/f complex, PC, Fd, and FNR), ATPase subunits, Rubisco subunits, and RCA decreased significantly in leaves under Cd stress. However, no significant changes were observed in any of these proteins under Zn stress. Although Cd stress was found to up-regulate the expressions of PGRL1A and PGRL1B and induce an increase of PGR5/PGRL1-CEF in tobacco leaves, NDH-CEF was significantly inhibited. Under Zn stress, the expressions of ndhH and PGRL1A in leaves were significantly up-regulated, but there were no significant changes in either NDH-CEF or PGR5/PGRL-CEF. Under Cd stress, the expressions of proteins related to Fd-dependent nitrogen metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging processes (e.g., FTR, Fd-NiR, and Fd-GOGAT) were significantly down-regulated in leaves. However, no significant changes of any of the above proteins were identified under Zn stress. In summary, Cd stress could inhibit the synthesis of chlorophyll in tobacco leaves, significantly down-regulate the expressions of photosynthesis-related proteins or subunits, and suppress both the xanthophyll cycle and NDH-CEF process. The expressions of proteins related to the Fd-dependent nitrogen metabolism and ROS scavenging were also significantly down-regulated, which blocked the photosynthetic electron transport, thus resulting in severe photoinhibition of both PSII and PSI. However, Zn stress had little effect on the photosynthetic function of tobacco leaves.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(5): 1653-1659, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530244

RESUMO

To understand the responsive mechanism of leaf photosynthesis of cotton to salinity stress, we investigated the effects of salt stress on leaf photosynthetic characteristics of cotton seedlings with the FvCB model under five levels of salt concentration, i.e., 0 (CK), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mmol·L-1. Results showed that, compared with CK, the salt concentrations of 50 and 100 mmol·L-1 increased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc max) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), while the salt concentrations of 150 and 200 mmol·L-1 significantly decreased Vc max and Jmax. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), mesophyll conductance (gm) and dark respiration rate (Rd) gradually decreased with the increases of salt concentration. Compared with CK, the salt concentrations of 50 and 100 mmol·L-1 did not affect gm, but significantly decreased Pn and Rd. The salt concentrations of 150 and 200 mmol·L-1 significantly decreased Pn, gm and Rd, which were significantly different from the salt concentrations of 0, 50 and 100 mmol·L-1. Pn of cotton seedlings under different salt concentrations was simulated by the FvCB model. Compared with the results from the FvCB model without considering gm, the FvCB model with gm improved the determination coefficient between the simulated and measured values and decreased the mean absolute error. The salinity threshold of cotton seedlings ranged between 100 and 150 mmol·L-1. With the increases of salt concentration, the limiting factor of leaf photosynthesis changed from mesophyll conductance to impaired components of photosynthetic apparatus. The FvCB model combined gm could improve the accuracy of photosynthesis simulation.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Transporte de Elétrons , Estresse Salino , Plântula
16.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000741, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520929

RESUMO

Mitochondrial metabolic remodeling is a hallmark of the Trypanosoma brucei digenetic life cycle because the insect stage utilizes a cost-effective oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) to generate ATP, while bloodstream cells switch to aerobic glycolysis. Due to difficulties in acquiring enough parasites from the tsetse fly vector, the dynamics of the parasite's metabolic rewiring in the vector have remained obscure. Here, we took advantage of in vitro-induced differentiation to follow changes at the RNA, protein, and metabolite levels. This multi-omics and cell-based profiling showed an immediate redirection of electron flow from the cytochrome-mediated pathway to an alternative oxidase (AOX), an increase in proline consumption, elevated activity of complex II, and certain tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, which led to mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Interestingly, these ROS molecules appear to act as signaling molecules driving developmental progression because ectopic expression of catalase, a ROS scavenger, halted the in vitro-induced differentiation. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms of the parasite's mitochondrial rewiring and reinforce the emerging concept that mitochondria act as signaling organelles through release of ROS to drive cellular differentiation.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Elétrons , Glucose/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma/genética , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/genética
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15006-15017, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554497

RESUMO

Cytochrome bo 3 ubiquinol oxidase is a transmembrane protein, which oxidizes ubiquinone and reduces oxygen, while pumping protons. Apart from its combination with F1Fo-ATPase to assemble a minimal ATP regeneration module, the utility of the proton pump can be extended to other applications in the context of synthetic cells such as transport, signaling, and control of enzymatic reactions. In parallel, polymers have been speculated to be phospholipid mimics with respect to their ability to self-assemble in compartments with increased stability. However, their usability as interfaces for complex membrane proteins has remained questionable. In the present work, we optimized a fusion/electroformation approach to reconstitute bo 3 oxidase in giant unilamellar vesicles made of PDMS-g-PEO and/or phosphatidylcholine (PC). This enabled optical access, while microfluidic trapping allowed for online analysis of individual vesicles. The tight polymer membranes and the inward oriented enzyme caused 1 pH unit difference in 30 min, with an initial rate of 0.35 pH·min-1 To understand the interplay in these composite systems, we studied the relevant mechanical and rheological membrane properties. Remarkably, the proton permeability of polymer/lipid hybrids decreased after protein insertion, while the latter also led to a 20% increase of the polymer diffusion coefficient in polymersomes. In addition, PDMS-g-PEO increased the activity lifetime and the resistance to free radicals. These advantageous properties may open diverse applications, ranging from cell-free biotechnology to biomedicine. Furthermore, the presented study serves as a comprehensive road map for studying the interactions between membrane proteins and synthetic membranes, which will be fundamental for the successful engineering of such hybrid systems.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Grupo dos Citocromos b/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/genética , Grupo dos Citocromos b/genética , Grupo dos Citocromos b/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Prótons
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15354-15362, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541018

RESUMO

In photosynthetic electron transport, large multiprotein complexes are connected by small diffusible electron carriers, the mobility of which is challenged by macromolecular crowding. For thylakoid membranes of higher plants, a long-standing question has been which of the two mobile electron carriers, plastoquinone or plastocyanin, mediates electron transport from stacked grana thylakoids where photosystem II (PSII) is localized to distant unstacked regions of the thylakoids that harbor PSI. Here, we confirm that plastocyanin is the long-range electron carrier by employing mutants with different grana diameters. Furthermore, our results explain why higher plants have a narrow range of grana diameters since a larger diffusion distance for plastocyanin would jeopardize the efficiency of electron transport. In the light of recent findings that the lumen of thylakoids, which forms the diffusion space of plastocyanin, undergoes dynamic swelling/shrinkage, this study demonstrates that plastocyanin diffusion is a crucial regulatory element of plant photosynthetic electron transport.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Plastocianina/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Transporte de Elétrons , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3238, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591540

RESUMO

The challenge of monitoring in planta dynamic changes of NADP(H) and NAD(H) redox states at the subcellular level is considered a major obstacle in plant bioenergetics studies. Here, we introduced two circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein sensors, iNAP and SoNar, into Arabidopsis thaliana to monitor the dynamic changes in NADPH and the NADH/NAD+ ratio. In the light, photosynthesis and photorespiration are linked to the redox states of NAD(P)H and NAD(P) pools in several subcellular compartments connected by the malate-OAA shuttles. We show that the photosynthetic increases in stromal NADPH and NADH/NAD+ ratio, but not ATP, disappear when glycine decarboxylation is inhibited. These observations highlight the complex interplay between chloroplasts and mitochondria during photosynthesis and support the suggestions that, under normal conditions, photorespiration supplies a large amount of NADH to mitochondria, exceeding its NADH-dissipating capacity, and the surplus NADH is exported from the mitochondria to the cytosol through the malate-OAA shuttle.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Respiração Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Malatos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
20.
J Plant Physiol ; 250: 153185, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497866

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of metalliferous conditions on the functioning of photosynthetic electron transport in waste heap populations of a pseudometallophyte, Viola tricolor L. Measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and the absorbance changes at 830 nm enabled a non-invasive assessment of photosynthetic apparatus performance. This was complemented by the evaluation of the chlorophyll content. Low temperature chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra were also recorded. Based on the OJIP test performed in situ, we demonstrated a disturbed condition of photosystem II (PSII) in three metalliferous populations in comparison with a non-metallicolous one. The combined effects of elevated concentrations of zinc, cadmium and lead in soil resulted in the decline of some parameters describing the efficiency and electron flow through PSII. The differences between waste heap populations seemed to be partly correlated with the concentration of heavy metals in the soil. The characteristic of electron transport at photosystem I (PSI) in the light-adapted state revealed increased values of PSI donor-side limitation (YND) and a declined PSI quantum efficiency (YI). It was also demonstrated that the waste heap conditions negatively affect the total chlorophyll content in leaves and led to an increased ratio of fluorescence emission at 77 K (F730/F685). The obtained data indicate that, regardless of the high adaptation of metallicolous populations, photosynthetic electron transport is hampered in V. tricolor plants at metal polluted sites.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Transporte de Elétrons , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Viola/efeitos dos fármacos , Viola/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Polônia , Solo/química , Zinco/metabolismo
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