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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20200263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175016

RESUMO

The main purpose of this paper was to present the Forestry Routing Optimization Model (FRoM) as a version of the classical Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). This work approaches for wood logistic problems consisting of simple displacement and multiple displacements of trucks toward the stands. The FRoM encompasses both steps into one single integer mixed linear programming model, considering cranes and trucks schedule, fleet reduction, reduction of overtime, reduction of half-load transportation, and approaching the minimum distance traveled along a fixed planning horizon. Some technique constraints were implemented to provide accurate model function. An executed real problem data was used to compare the outcomes. The objective was to carry and transport 21,881.82 tons of lumber from 10 stands using a total of 48 trucks and 5 cranes in a planning horizon of 6 days, which each day has 20 hours of effective work. The FRoM has performed a fleet reduction of 72.92%, eliminating overtime. It has reduced the half-load trips to the order of 3.17% of all routes. The crane's analysis allowed catching points of inefficiency due to operational idleness. The FRoM provided savings of 49.12% at all logistic costs. FRoM has shown to be a good option as a route optimizer for forestry logistics.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Madeira , Transportes
2.
IEEE Pulse ; 11(5): 24-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064641

RESUMO

Citizens' dissatisfaction with the scope of the United States health care system has been a hot topic for many years. In a country where patient to nurse ratios remain 6:1, even universal health care coverage cannot guarantee adequate patient care. These issues were further highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, where inadequate hospital funding and lack of attention to patients led to challenging situations in hotspot areas. Although this pandemic will shape us for many years to come with far reaching impacts, social distancing norms have accelerated technologies that enable services to be delivered remotely, a capability even more necessary in our health care system. By providing care that can be delivered remotely, we can focus in-person care in our hospitals to only the ones who really need it. This allows us to scale our systems, protect lives, and safeguard economic activity.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Internet das Coisas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Redução de Custos , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Equipamentos e Provisões , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Transportes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1792-1798, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017232

RESUMO

Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of adolescent mortality and injury in the United States. For young drivers, crash risk peaks immediately after licensure and declines during the next two years, making the point of licensure an important safety intervention opportunity. Legislation in Ohio established a unique health-transportation partnership among the State of Ohio, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Diagnostic Driving, Inc., to identify underprepared driver license applicants through a virtual driving assessment system. The system, a computer-based virtual driving test, exposes drivers to common serious crash scenarios to identify critical skill deficits and is delivered in testing centers immediately before the on-road examination. A pilot study of license applicants who completed it showed that the virtual driving assessment system accurately predicted which drivers would fail the on-road examination and provided automated feedback that informed drivers on their skill deficits. At this time, the partnership's work is informing policy changes around integrating the virtual driving assessment system into licensing and driver training with the aim of reducing crashes in the first months of independent driving. The system can be developed to identify deficits in safety-critical skills that lead to crashes in new drivers and to address challenges that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has introduced to driver testing and training.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ohio , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Philadelphia , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5012, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024096

RESUMO

Understanding changes in human mobility in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for assessing the impacts of travel restrictions designed to reduce disease spread. Here, relying on data from mainland China, we investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of human mobility between 1st January and 1st March 2020, and discuss their public health implications. An outbound travel surge from Wuhan before travel restrictions were implemented was also observed across China due to the Lunar New Year, indicating that holiday travel may have played a larger role in mobility changes compared to impending travel restrictions. Holiday travel also shifted healthcare pressure related to COVID-19 towards locations with lower healthcare capacity. Network analyses showed no sign of major changes in the transportation network after Lunar New Year. Changes observed were temporary and did not lead to structural reorganisation of the transportation network during the study period.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem/tendências , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Tempo , Transportes
5.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020501, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110584

RESUMO

Background: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. Methods: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. Results: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Transportes/história
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108386

RESUMO

This study integrates the daily intercity migration data with the classic Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) model to construct a new model suitable for describing the dynamics of epidemic spreading of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. Daily intercity migration data for 367 cities in China were collected from Baidu Migration, a mobile-app based human migration tracking data system. Early outbreak data of infected, recovered and death cases from official source (from January 24 to February 16, 2020) were used for model fitting. The set of model parameters obtained from best data fitting using a constrained nonlinear optimisation procedure was used for estimation of the dynamics of epidemic spreading in the following months. The work was completed on February 19, 2020. Our results showed that the number of infections in most cities in China would peak between mid February to early March 2020, with about 0.8%, less than 0.1% and less than 0.01% of the population eventually infected in Wuhan, Hubei Province and the rest of China, respectively. Moreover, for most cities outside and within Hubei Province (except Wuhan), the total number of infected individuals is expected to be less than 300 and 4000, respectively.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Transportes , Viagem , Big Data , Telefone Celular , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239943, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997724

RESUMO

We report on the results of a Covid-19 contact tracing app measurement study carried out on a standard design of European commuter tram. Our measurements indicate that in the tram there is little correlation between Bluetooth received signal strength and distance between handsets. We applied the detection rules used by the Italian, Swiss and German apps to our measurement data and also characterised the impact on performance of changes in the parameters used in these detection rules. We find that the Swiss and German detection rules trigger no exposure notifications on our data, while the Italian detection rule generates a true positive rate of 50% and a false positive rate of 50%. Our analysis indicates that the performance of such detection rules is similar to that of triggering notifications by randomly selecting from the participants in our experiments, regardless of proximity.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Notificação de Doenças/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Transportes , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 47, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helmet use reduces the risk and severity of head injury and death due to road traffic crash among motorcyclists. The protective efficacy of different types of helmets varies. Wearing firmly fastened full-face helmet termed as effective helmet use provides greatest protection. This study estimates the prevalence and factors associated with effective helmet use among motorcyclists in Mysuru, a tier II city in Southern India. METHODS: Cross-sectional road side observational study of 3499 motorcyclists (2134 motorcycle riders and 1365 pillion riders) at four traffic intersections was done followed by interview of random sample of 129 of the above riders. Effective helmet use proportion and effective helmet use per 100 person-minute of observation was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with effective helmet use. RESULTS: Prevalence of effective helmet use was 28 per 100 riders and 19.5 per 100 person-minute of observation in traffic intersections. Prevalence rates of effective helmet use was higher among riders (34.5% vs pillion riders 18.1%), female riders (51.3% vs male riders 26.8%), and male pillion riders (30.5% vs female pillion riders 13.7%). Riders commuting for work and school and those ever stopped by the police in the past 3 months had significantly higher odds of effective helmet use. CONCLUSION: Despite helmet use being compulsory by law for motorcyclists, the effective helmet use was low in Mysore. Strict enforcement and frequent checks by the police are necessary to increase the effective helmet use.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes , Adulto , Cidades , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915888

RESUMO

Globally, little evidence exists on transmission patterns of COVID-19. Recommendations to prevent infection include appropriate and frequent handwashing plus physical and social distancing. We conducted an exploratory observational study to assess compliance with these recommendations in selected transportation stations in Ghana. A one-hour audit of 45 public transport stations in the Greater Accra region was carried out between 27th and 29th March 2020. Using an adapted World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene assessment scale, the availability and use of handwashing facilities, social distancing, and ongoing public education on COVID-19 prevention measures were assessed, weighted and scored to determine the level of compliance of stations. Compliance with recommendations was categorized as "inadequate" "basic", "intermediate" and "advanced", based on the overall score. Majority (80%) of stations in Accra have at least one Veronica Bucket with flowing water and soap, but the number of washing places at each station is not adequate. Only a small minority (18%) of stations were communicating the need to wash hands frequently and appropriately, and to practice social/physical distancing while at the station. In most stations (95%), hand washing practice was either not observed, or only infrequently. Almost all stations (93%) did not have alcohol-based hand sanitizers available for public use, while social distancing was rarely practiced (only 2%). In over 90% of the stations, face masks were either not worn or only worn by a few passengers. Compliance with COVID-19 prevention measures was inadequate in 13 stations, basic in 16 stations, intermediate in 7 stations, and advanced in 9 stations. Compliance with COVID-19 prevention measures in public transportation stations in the Greater Accra region remains a challenge. Awareness creation should aim to elevate COVID-19 risk perception of transportation operators and clients. Transport operators and stations need support and guidance to enforce hand washing and social distancing.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Gana , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886925

RESUMO

Prominent regional differentiations of highway landslide disasters (HLDs) bring great difficulties in highway planning, designing and disaster mitigation, therefore, a comprehensive understanding of HLDs from the spatial perspective is a basis for reducing damages. Statistical prediction methods and machine learning methods have some defects in landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM), meanwhile, hybrid methods have been developed by combining the statistical prediction methods with machine learning methods in recent years, and some of them were reported to perform better than conventional methods. In view of this, the principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to extract the susceptibility evaluation indexes of HLDs; the particle swarm optimization-support vector machine (PSO-SVM) model and genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM) model were implemented to the susceptibility mapping and zoning of HLDs in China. The research results show that the accumulative contribution rate of the four principal components is 92.050%; evaluation results of the PSO-SVM model are better than those of the GA-SVM model; micro dangerous areas, moderate dangerous areas, severe dangerous areas and extreme dangerous areas account for 24.24%, 19.49%, 36.53% and 19.74% of the total areas of China; among the 1543 disaster points in the HLDs inventory, there are 134, 182, 421 and 806 located in the above areas respectively.


Assuntos
Deslizamentos de Terra , Algoritmos , China , Planejamento de Cidades , Mapeamento Geográfico , Mapas como Assunto , Análise de Componente Principal , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Transportes
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4674, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938924

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2-related mortality and hospitalizations differ substantially between New York City neighborhoods. Mitigation efforts require knowing the extent to which these disparities reflect differences in prevalence and understanding the associated drivers. Here, we report the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in New York City boroughs inferred using tests administered to 1,746 pregnant women hospitalized for delivery between March 22nd and May 3rd, 2020. We also assess the relationship between prevalence and commuting-style movements into and out of each borough. Prevalence ranged from 11.3% (95% credible interval [8.9%, 13.9%]) in Manhattan to 26.0% (15.3%, 38.9%) in South Queens, with an estimated city-wide prevalence of 15.6% (13.9%, 17.4%). Prevalence was lowest in boroughs with the greatest reductions in morning movements out of and evening movements into the borough (Pearson R = -0.88 [-0.52, -0.99]). Widespread testing is needed to further specify disparities in prevalence and assess the risk of future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gestantes , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e226, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981558

RESUMO

Data on the possibility of transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the provision of chronic haemodialysis, which often entails many person-to-person contacts, are lacking. We report a follow-up of the in-centre contacts of three positive chronic haemodialysis patients. Under strict preventive measures, only one patient out of 21 patient-contacts and 29 personnel-contacts tested positive within 2 weeks after the last contact. This patient, case #3, most likely became infected during unprotected, organised group transportation to the dialysis centre.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Eslovênia/epidemiologia , Transportes
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886681

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the impact of air transport connectivity and accessibility on scientific collaboration. Numerous studies demonstrated that the likelihood of collaboration declines with increase in distance between potential collaborators. These works commonly use simple measures of physical distance rather than actual flight capacity and frequency. Our study addresses this limitation by focusing on the relationship between flight availability and the number of scientific co-publications. Furthermore, we distinguish two components of flight availability: (1) direct and indirect air connections between airports; and (2) distance to the nearest airport from cities and towns where authors of scientific articles have their professional affiliations. Based on Zero-inflated Negative Binomial Regression, we provide evidence that greater flight availability is associated with more frequent scientific collaboration. More flight connections (connectivity) and proximity of airport (accessibility) increase the expected number of coauthored scientific papers. Moreover, direct flights and flights with one transfer are more valuable for intensifying scientific cooperation than travels involving more connecting flights. Further, analysis of four organizational sub-datasets-Arizona State University, Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, and University of Michigan-shows that the relationship between airline transport availability and scientific collaboration is not uniform, but is associated with the research profile of an institution and the characteristics of the airport that serves this institution.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Comportamento Cooperativo , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Humanos , Transportes/métodos , Universidades
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 478-483, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880558

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous countries worldwide declared national states of emergency and implemented interventions to minimise the risk of transmission among the public. Evidence was needed to inform strategies for limiting COVID-19 transmission on public transport. On 20 March 2020, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's database of 'Global research on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)' to conduct a rapid review on interventions that reduce viral transmission on public ground transport. After screening 74 records, we identified 4 eligible studies. These studies suggest an increased risk of viral transmission with public transportation use that may be reduced with improved ventilation. International and national guidelines suggest the following strategies: keep the public informed, stay at home when sick, and minimise public transport use. Where use is unavoidable, environmental control, respiratory etiquette and hand hygiene are recommended, while a risk-based approach needs to guide the use of non-medical masks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Transportes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Ventilação
16.
Health Place ; 65: 102406, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877867

RESUMO

The increasing inequality in spatial accessibility to hospitals in developing countries has been attracting attention from researchers and politicians. The situation seems to be worse in growing megacities where more than 10 million people live and rapid urban sprawl has caused serious problems with the supply of health and public transport services. The recent global COVID-19 pandemic calls for particular attention to be afforded to the matter of equal access to basic medical facilities and services for people across different neighborhoods. Although some studies have already been undertaken into the subject of health-focused inequality in the cities of developing countries, the spatial inequity in hospital accessibility has rarely been discussed to date. In this paper, I aim to provide new evidence by considering Beijing as a case study. With the results of my analysis, I show that low-income neighborhoods have experienced lower levels of accessibility not only to high-tier hospitals (secondary and tertiary hospitals) but also to primary healthcare services (primary hospital and neighborhood clinics). The rate at which high-income neighborhoods access secondary and tertiary hospitals is approximately 4 times and 1.5 times as high as that of low-income neighborhoods. Low-income face nearly twice the travel time of those from high-income neighborhoods to reach the nearest primary hospital or neighborhood clinics. Suburban neighborhoods have less access to medical services than neighborhoods that are located in the central urban areas. It seems that the rapid urban sprawl has been worsening spatial inequality in the context of access to medical services in the growing megacity of Beijing. Equal access to healthcare services should be prioritized in future policy discussions, especially in relation to the urban growth management of megacities in developing countries in order to ensure that fair and inclusive urbanization processes are undertaken. Equal access to healthcare services would also be widely beneficial in the context of managing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Área Programática de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pequim , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cidades , Humanos , Características de Residência , Transportes
17.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111306, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911387

RESUMO

Under the hypothesis that organically managed cacao agroforestry systems report a lower global warming potential (GWP) and reduce other environmental pressure indicators compared with conventionally managed systems and monocultures, this work discusses how global transportation can cut back the ecological advantage of the production phase. For this purpose, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 1 kg of dark chocolate manufactured with Ecuadorian cacao has been performed (cradle-to-retailer approach), including the indirect impacts of transportation and estimating the equilibrium distances beyond which organic chocolate would have a higher impact than chocolate manufactured from cacao grown in monocultures and/or conventionally managed systems. To articulate the discussion, the carbon footprint (CF) of cacao/chocolate was analyzed together with 10 additional LCA-related impact categories. Three management systems-conventional monoculture (CM) and agroforestry (CA), and organic agroforestry (OA)-and three different supply chain scenarios with different weights in the transportation phase were studied. Expanding on the concept of "food miles", the equivalent kilometers of the impact of emissions (km-eq) (or cumulated energy demand, eutrophication, etc.) were defined as the variable distance that a certain means of transportation can travel in relation to a fixed level of GHG emissions (or MJ, kg PO4-eq, etc.). The CF of the life cycle of cacao/chocolate was estimated at between 2.04 and 4.66 kg CO2-eq kg-1. The relative weight of transportation in relation to the total GHG emissions ranged between 8.9% and 51.1%, with cacao/chocolate traveling between 1380 and 9155 km-eq. The CF of chocolate made from cacao grown in OA systems was 22.7%-34.2% and 6.3%-10.7% lower than the CF of chocolate produced from cacao grown in CM and CA and manufactured and transported under the same conditions. The equilibrium distances between managements were estimated at 1213 and 5275 km-eq. Beyond those equivalent kilometers, organic chocolate would have a larger CF than chocolate manufactured from cacao grown, respectively, in CA and CM systems. Our results indicate that transportation would cancel out this and most other comparative ecological advantages of producing organic cacao analyzed in this work. Directly exporting chocolate from cacao-producing countries and relocating chocolate manufacture would help reduce GHG emissions and other environmental impacts of the supply chain.


Assuntos
Cacau , Pegada de Carbono , Chocolate , Equador , Transportes
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882994

RESUMO

This study examined differences in older adults' travel behaviours by frailty status in metropolitan, suburban, and rural areas of Japan. Data were collected from 9104 older adults (73.5 ± 5.7 years; 51% women; 19% frail) living in metropolitan (n = 5032), suburban (n = 2853), and rural areas (n = 1219) of Japan. Participants reported if they walked, cycled, drove a car, rode a car as a passenger, and used public transportation (PT) once per week or more. A standardised questionnaire was used to assess frailty status. We conducted logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratios of using each travel mode by frailty status stratified by locality. Relative to non-frail participants, frail participants were less likely to walk and drive a car in all three areas. Frail participants had significantly higher odds of being a car passenger in the suburban (OR = 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.25)) and rural areas (OR = 1.61 (1.10, 2.35)) but not in the metropolitan area (OR = 1.08 (0.87, 1.33)). This study found that frail older adults living in suburban and rural areas tended to rely more on cars driven by someone else, suggesting that transport disadvantage is more pronounced in suburban and rural areas than in metropolitan areas.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Transportes , Viagem , Idoso , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Caminhada
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238513, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881956

RESUMO

Source apportionment of potentially toxic elements in soils is a critical step for devising soil sustainable management strategies. However, misjudgment or imprecision can occur when traditional statistical methods are applied to identify and apportion the sources. The main objective of the study was to develop a robust approach composed of the absolute principal component score/multiple linear regression (APCS/MLR) receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model and geostatistics to identify and apportion sources of soil potentially toxic elements in typical industrial and mining city, eastern China. APCS/MLR and PMF were applied to provide robust factors with contribution rates. The geostatistics coupled with the variography and kriging methods was used to present factors derived from these two receptor models. The results indicated that mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn exceeded the local background levels. Based on multivariate receptor models and geostatistics, we determined four sources of eight potentially toxic elements including natural source (parent material), agricultural practices, pollutant emissions (industrial, mining and traffic) and the atmospheric deposition of coal combustion, which accounted for 68%, 12%, 12% and 9% of the observed potentially toxic element concentrations, respectively. This study provides a reliable and robust approach for potentially toxic elements source apportionment in this particular industrial and mining city with a clear potential for future application in other regions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , China , Cidades , Minas de Carvão , Análise Multivariada , Medição de Risco/métodos , Análise Espacial , Transportes
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