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1.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103585, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562780

RESUMO

This work is directed to an understanding as to how the knowledge of, and the application of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) can save lives. To achieve this, the paper features an assessment of the achievements of one particular scientist, Neville Anthony Stanton, and how his body of contributions has impacted the realm of ground transportation and, in particular, driver behavior assessment. On the widest scale, it is objectively and obviously the case that Stanton is one of the most fecund scientists of our discipline ever. His impact is evident globally and results not simply from the sum total of his written and published works but through an extensive record of international scientific presentations, mutual investigative collaborations across the globe, and mentoring at all levels of the Academy and beyond. As well as mastering and elucidating the HF/E dimensions of a number of content domains, he has generated vital, and even unique tools and methods through which we can explore and understand the problem space of HF/E. Placing those attainments in context permits us a wider window upon how the discipline itself exerts practical and positive influences across the wide swath of real-world systems.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Transportes , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769932

RESUMO

Although direct contact is considered the main mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, environmental factors play an important role. In this study, we evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on bus and train surfaces. From the buses, we took samples from the following areas: handrails used to enter or exit the bus, stop request buttons and handles next to the seats. From the trains, the sampled surfaces were handrails used to enter or exit the train, door open/close buttons, handles next to the seats, tables and toilet handles. SARS-CoV-2 was detected on 10.7% of the tested surfaces overall, 19.3% of bus surfaces and 2% of train surfaces (p < 0.0001). On the buses, the most contaminated surfaces were the handles near the seats (12.8%), followed by door open/close buttons (12.5%) and handrails (10.5%). Of the five analyzed transport companies, bus companies were the most contaminated, in particular, companies C (40%) and B (23.3%). A greater number of positive samples were found among those taken at 10:00 a.m. and 10:55 a.m. (45% and 40%, respectively). The presence of the virus on many bus surfaces highlights how the sanitation systems on public transport currently in use are not sufficient to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Saneamento , Transportes
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770064

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the associations between active transportation and public transport and the objectively measured meeting of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and steps per day guidelines in adults by sex from eight Latin American countries. As part of the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS), data were collected from 2524 participants aged 18-65 years. MVPA and steps per day were evaluated using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. The mode of transportation, its frequency and duration were collected using a self-reported questionnaire. The average time dedicated to active transportation was 12.8 min/day in men (IQR: 2.8-30.0) and 12.9 min/day in women (IQR: 4.3-25.7). A logistic regression analysis was conducted, showing that active transportation (≥10 min) was associated with higher odds of meeting MVPA guidelines (men: OR: 2.01; 95%CI: 1.58-2.54; women: OR: 1.57; 95%CI: 1.25-1.96). These results show a greater association when considering active transportation plus public transport (men: OR: 2.98; 95%CI: 2.31-3.91; women: OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.45-2.29). Active transportation plus public transport was positively associated with meeting steps per day guidelines only in men (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.15-2.10). This study supports the suggestion that active transportation plus public transport is significantly associated with meeting the MVPA and daily steps recommendations.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos , Transportes , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Estado Nutricional
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770370

RESUMO

Crude oil is one of the critically needed resources. It is the main pillar supporting almost everything we rely on in daily life. Unfortunately, due to many factors, crude oil costs too much. Transportation is one of the critical factors that affect such costs. Due to many environmental risks attached to the transportation process, many countries added very high tariffs to cover any hazards during the transportation, loading, and unloading process. Logistics concerns and political conflicts are the other key factors that can massively impact the transportation cost. This paper presents an Industry 4.0-compliant PeTroShare (PTS), a blockchain-powered trustworthy, logistics-friendly, and cost-efficient crude oil trading platform. PTS is a novel ride-sharing platform that enables an anonymous exchange of crude oil between oil producers and customers, focusing mainly on the product quality, not the source of origin. In our scenario, floating crude oil tankers will hold the cargo to an intermediate position in the open ocean. PTS will match the product availability based on the location and the needed quality of the customer requests. Consequently, the time and distance travelled are minimized. Our simulation results show that enabling the anonymous sharing of crude oil products can significantly enhance system efficiency and cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Petróleo , Indústrias , Privacidade , Transportes
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21707, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737382

RESUMO

We investigate the connection between the choice of transportation mode used by commuters and the probability of COVID-19 transmission. This interplay might influence the choice of transportation means for years to come. We present data on commuting, socioeconomic factors, and COVID-19 disease incidence for several US metropolitan areas. The data highlights important connections between population density and mobility, public transportation use, race, and increased likelihood of transmission. We use a transportation model to highlight the effect of uncertainty about transmission on the commuters' choice of transportation means. Using multiple estimation techniques, we found strong evidence that public transit ridership in several US metro areas has been considerably impacted by COVID-19 and by the policy responses to the pandemic. Concerns about disease transmission had a negative effect on ridership, which is over and above the adverse effect from the observed reduction in employment. The COVID-19 effect is likely to reduce the demand for public transport in favor of lower density alternatives. This change relative to the status quo will have implications for fuel use, congestion, accident frequency, and air quality. More vulnerable communities might be disproportionally affected as a result. We point to the need for additional studies to further quantify these effects and to assist policy in planning for the post-COVID-19 transportation future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Transportes/economia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Emprego/tendências , Humanos , Veículos Automotores/economia , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transportes/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 163: 106431, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758411

RESUMO

With the fast development of economics, road safety is becoming a serious problem. Exploring macro factors is effective to improve road safety. However, the existing studies have some limitations: (1) The existing studies only considered one aspect of macro factors and constructed models based on a few data samples. (2) The methods commonly used cannot address the non-linear relationship or calculate the feature importance. The findings obtained from such models may be limited and biased. To address the limitations, this study proposes a BO-CV-XGBoost framework to explore the macro factors related to traffic fatality rate classes based on a high-dimensional dataset that fully considers the impact of multi-factor interaction with adequate data samples. The proposed framework is applied to a dataset in the US. 453 county-level macro factors are collected from various data sources, covering ten macro aspects, including topography, transportation, etc. The optimized BO-CV-XGBoost model obtains the best classification performance with an AUC of 0.8977 and an accuracy of 85.02%. Compared with other methods, the proposed model has superiority on fatality rate classification. Ten macro factors are identified, including 'Current-dollar GDP', 'highway miles per person', etc. The ten factors contain four aspects of information, including economics, transportation, education, and medical condition. Geographic information system (GIS) techniques are further used for spatial analysis of the identified macro factors. Therefore, targeted and effective measures are accordingly proposed to prevent traffic fatalities and improve road safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Análise Espacial , Transportes
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769699

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to describe patterns of active commuting to school (ACS) of preschool children, and to analyse the relationship between ACS and family socio-economic factors. A total of 2636 families of preschoolers (3-to-5 years old) were asked to complete a questionnaire at home about the mode of commuting to school of their children and marital status, educational level, and profession of both father and mother. Chi-square analyses were applied to compare ACS between school grades and gender of the children. To analyse the association of ACS with socio-economic factors, logistic regression analyses were performed. Almost 50% of participants reported ACS of their offspring, with a higher rate in 3rd preprimary grade (5 years old) than in 1st and 2nd preprimary grades (3- and 4-years old. All, p < 0.05). Those preschool children who had parents with lower educational level and no managerial work had higher odds to ACS than those who had parents with higher educational level and managerial work (all, p ≤ 0.001). Around half of the Spanish preschool children included in this study commuted actively to school and families with lower educational levels or worse employment situation were related to active commuting to school.


Assuntos
Fatores Econômicos , Caminhada , Ciclismo , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes
8.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(6): 507-514, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750125

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinicians and policy makers are exploring the role of primary care in improving patients' social conditions, yet little research examines strategies used in clinical settings to assist patients with social needs. METHODS: Study used semistructured interviews with leaders and frontline staff at 29 diverse health care organizations with active programs used to address patients' social needs. Interviews focused on how organizations develop and implement case management-style programs to assist patients with social needs including staffing, assistance intensity, and use of referrals to community-based organizations (CBOs). RESULTS: Organizations used case management programs to assist patients with social needs through referrals to CBOs and regular follow-up with patients. About one-half incorporated care for social needs into established case management programs and the remaining described standalone programs developed specifically to address social needs independent of clinical needs. Referrals were the foundation for assistance and included preprinted resource lists, patient-tailored lists, and warm handoffs to the CBOs. While all organizations referred patients to CBOs, some also provided more intense services such as assistance completing patients' applications for services or conducting home visits. Organizations described 4 operational challenges in addressing patients' social needs: (1) effectively engaging CBOs; (2) obtaining buy-in from clinical staff; (3) considering patients' perspectives; and (4) ensuring program sustainability. CONCLUSION: As the US health care sector faces pressure to improve quality while managing costs, many health care organizations will likely develop or rely on case management approaches to address patients' social conditions. Health care organizations may require support to address the key operational challenges.Visual abstract.


Assuntos
Habitação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Transportes
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833609

RESUMO

Air corridors are an integral part of the advanced air mobility infrastructure. They are the virtual highways in the sky for the transportation of people and cargo in a controlled airspace at an altitude of around 1000 ft. to 2000 ft. above ground level. These corridors will be utilized by (unmanned) air taxis, which will be deployed in rural and metropolitan regions to carry passengers and freight, as well as air ambulances, which will be deployed to offer first responder services such as 911 emergencies. This paper presents fundamental insights into the design of air corridors with high operational efficiency as well as zero collisions. It begins with the definitions of air cube, skylane or track, intersection, vertiport, gate, and air corridor. Then a multi-layered air corridor model is proposed. Traffic at intersections is analyzed in detail with examples of vehicles turning in different directions. The concept of capacity of an air corridor is introduced along with the nature of distribution of locations of vehicles in the air corridor and collision probability inside the corridor are discussed. Finally, results of traffic flow simulations are presented.


Assuntos
Transportes , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833620

RESUMO

Vehicle type classification plays an essential role in developing an intelligent transportation system (ITS). Based on the modern accomplishments of deep learning (DL) on image classification, we proposed a model based on transfer learning, incorporating data augmentation, for the recognition and classification of Bangladeshi native vehicle types. An extensive dataset of Bangladeshi native vehicles, encompassing 10,440 images, was developed. Here, the images are categorized into 13 common vehicle classes in Bangladesh. The method utilized was a residual network (ResNet-50)-based model, with extra classification blocks added to improve performance. Here, vehicle type features were automatically extracted and categorized. While conducting the analysis, a variety of metrics was used for the evaluation, including accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 - Score. In spite of the changing physical properties of the vehicles, the proposed model achieved progressive accuracy. Our proposed method surpasses the existing baseline method as well as two pre-trained DL approaches, AlexNet and VGG-16. Based on result comparisons, we have seen that, in the classification of Bangladeshi native vehicle types, our suggested ResNet-50 pre-trained model achieves an accuracy of 98.00%.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Transportes
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 1526792, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721561

RESUMO

Intelligent methods and algorithms have promoted the development of the intelligent transportation system in many ways. In the rail transportation, the vertical performance of a high-speed train suspension system has a great impact on the riding comfort of the train. Based on the intelligent optimization method of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, different inerter-spring-damper (ISD) suspension layouts are proposed for better riding comfort. A 10-degree-of-freedom (10-DOF) vertical dynamic model of a high-speed train is established, and the new suspension layouts are applied to the primary and secondary suspension of the train at the same time. Optimizations are carried out for the suspension parameters of the high-speed train. Performances of different suspension layouts at different running speeds are analysed and compared. The best layout for suspension is concluded. What is more, the virtual prototype simulation and analysis of a high-speed train with consideration of nonlinear inerters are carried out. Friction of a rack-pinion inerter is simulated in the virtual prototype simulation. And the influence of nonlinearity is discussed compared with the ideal suspensions. All the results can represent a guidance for future train suspension design and help the intelligent rail transportation system to be more comfortable.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Transportes , Simulação por Computador , Suspensões
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(11): 1969-1975, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818842

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate physical activity level in residents in Suzhou and explore the association between community environment and physical activity level in local residents. Methods: Through multistage stratified random sampling, residents aged 25-64 years in Suzhou were surveyed by face-to face interview in 2017. Physical activity levels were assessed by the international physical activity questionnaire-long version (IPAQ-L). Perceptions of community environment were assessed by Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Abbreviated (NEWS-A). Results: Among the local residents surveyed in Suzhou,the median of weekly total physical activity level was 3 610.42 MET-min/w. The level of occupational physical activity was higher than that of transportation, household and leisure-time related physical activity levels. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, public service access was negatively associated with the overall physical activity level (OR=0.522,95%CI:0.329-0.830), land-use mix-diversity was negatively associated with the level of occupational physical activity level (OR=0.701,95%CI: 0.492-0.999), infrastructure of walk and cycle ways was positively associated with occupational physical activity level (OR=1.603,95%CI:1.004-2.559); traffic hazards were negatively associated with the transportation physical activity level (OR=0.642,95%CI: 0.416-0.990); residential building density was positively associated with leisure-time physical activity level (OR=1.001,95%CI: 1.000-1.002), and the perceptions level of community environment were positively associated with the occupational, transportation, household and overall physical activity levels (OR=1.889,95%CI: 1.176-3.033;OR=1.671,95%CI: 1.120-2.495;OR=1.775,95%CI: 1.143-2.756;OR=1.593,95%CI: 1.079-2.350). Conclusion: Improving infrastructure of walk and cycle ways and beautifying community environment play an important role in increasing the physical activity level of the residents.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Caminhada , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Percepção , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes
13.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 583613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744555

RESUMO

Objectives: We explored whether modes of transport (cycling, walking, public transport or private vehicle) between home and school are associated with mental well-being in children aged 10-17 years, participating in the Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Methods: Scores on the World Health Organization Well-being Index and the Mental Health Inventory five-item versions, self-reported life satisfaction, happiness with self, body satisfaction, excellent self-rated health, and multiple health complaints of 9,077 schoolchildren (mean age: 13.99 ± 1.91 years, percentage girls: 52.2%) were compared across modes of transport, unadjusted and adjusted for gender, age, family affluence and area of residence. Results: Those who reported using public transport reported poorer mental well-being than those using other means of transport, but adjusting for sociodemographic variables obscured these differences. The only exception was excellent health, where children who cycled outperformed the other three groups, even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Cycling can improve well-being in children. However, in promotion of cycling, social and environmental determinants and inequalities which influence adolescents' and their parents' decisions on modes of transport, need to be considered.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Transportes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/métodos
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 635, 2021 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People over 64 years have a high fatality rate when they are involved in traffic accidents. Besides, older victims of road crashes are expected to rise in the future due to population aging. The purpose of the study was to document their perception on the role of the family doctor, the main facilitating factors, and the perceived barriers to the temporary or permanent restriction of their driving. METHODS: This qualitative study used focus group methodology. A sample of 16 people over 65 years old was obtained through a series of segmentation criteria at an active participation centre for older adults in a small town in Jaén province (Spain). All were invited to participate in a discussion during which they were asked to express their opinions and subjective experiences concerning the role of their family doctor. The group conversation was taped, fully transcribed and analysed, and codes were generated with both deductive and inductive methods. RESULTS: After merging the codes to generate themes, we identified 9 relevant categories: perception of age-related risk, road safety, role of public authorities, driver assessment centre, role of the family doctor, role of the family, proposals for addressing traffic accidents in older adults, consequences of the driving prohibition, and public transport. All categories help to explain the subjective driving and traffic safety experiences of older road users. CONCLUSIONS: Although family doctors do not usually ask their older patients about road driving, they are highly valued by these patients. Thus, family doctors have a great potential to act, along with the family members, for the benefit of older patients' traffic safety, in ways that can prevent their involvement in road crashes and reduce the negative consequences of having to stop driving if necessary.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Atitude , Humanos , Médicos de Família , Transportes
15.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604090, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840552

RESUMO

Objectives: The spread of tuberculosis (TB) is related to changes in the social network among the population and people's social interactions. High-speed railway (HSR) fundamentally changed the integrated market across cities in China. This paper aims to examine the impact of HSR on TB transmission in newly integrated areas. Methods: By exploiting the opening and operation of the first HSR in Sichuan province as a quasi-natural experiment, we have collected and used the economic, social, and demographic data of 183 counties in Sichuan province from 2013 to 2016. Results: The new HSR line is associated with a 4.790 increase in newly diagnosed smear-positive TB cases per 100,000 people among newly integrated areas. On average, an additional increase of 34.178 newly diagnosed smear-positive TB cases occur every year in counties (or districts) covered by the new HSR. Conclusion: HSR development has significantly contributed to the transmission of TB. The public health system in China needs to pay more attention to the influences of new, mass public transportation.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Transportes , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
16.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(5): 368-377, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: there are few studies in occupational health literature addressing the issue of work injuries among women. OBJECTIVES: the purpose of this study is to examine gender differences in the occurrence and causes of one type of work injuries which is more frequent among women: the commuting accident while walking. DESIGN: this study is based on the data of recognized commuting while walking injuries in the industrial and service sectors recorded by the Italian National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work during the last five years (2014-2018). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Italy; all compensated workers for commuting while walking injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: number of injuries, rate incidence, incidence rate ratio, odds ratio. RESULTS: commuting while walking injuries in the last five years were three times more frequent among women, with an increasing incidence over the years and by age (women: 1,31‰ vs men 0,40‰; IR 3,24; 95%CI 3,19-3,30). Women were more often injured going to work, in winter, on Mondays, in the North-Western areas of the country. Female mail-carriers, cleaners, care givers, public administrators were particularly vulnerable, especially the less young (>=50 years old). Females were at a higher risk for fractures particularly of wrist, elbow, and foot, while males had a higher risk for hand, knee, and chest injuries. Gender difference in incidence rate and type of commuting while walking injuries may be also due to a diverse work and home exposures together with fall dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: commuting while walking work injuries show the higher incidence rate among women and the need to gender oriented prevention.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Caminhada , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportes
17.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 6262194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630550

RESUMO

Road surface defects are crucial problems for safe and smooth traffic flow. Due to climate changes, low quality of construction material, large flow of traffic, and heavy vehicles, road surface anomalies are increasing rapidly. Detection and repairing of these defects are necessary for the safety of drivers, passengers, and vehicles from mechanical faults. In this modern era, autonomous vehicles are an active research area that controls itself with the help of in-vehicle sensors without human commands, especially after the emergence of deep learning (DNN) techniques. A combination of sensors and DNN techniques can be useful for unmanned vehicles for the perception of their surroundings for the detection of tracks and obstacles for smooth traveling based on the deployment of artificial intelligence in vehicles. One of the biggest challenges for autonomous vehicles is to avoid the critical road defects that may lead to dangerous situations. To solve the accident issues and share emergency information, the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) introduced the concept of vehicular network termed as vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) for achieving security and safety in a traffic flow. A novel mechanism is proposed for the automatic detection of road anomalies by autonomous vehicles and providing road information to upcoming vehicles based on Edge AI and VANET. Road images captured via camera and deployment of the trained model for road anomaly detection in a vehicle could help to reduce the accident rate and risk of hazards on poor road conditions. The techniques Residual Convolutional Neural Network (ResNet-18) and Visual Geometry Group (VGG-11) are applied for the automatic detection and classification of the road with anomalies such as a pothole, bump, crack, and plain roads without anomalies using the dataset from different online sources. The results show that the applied models performed well than other techniques used for road anomalies identification.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Aprendizado Profundo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Transportes
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19623, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608178

RESUMO

One of the lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic is the importance of social distancing, even in challenging circumstances such as pre-hurricane evacuation. To explore the implications of integrating social distancing with evacuation operations, we describe this evacuation process as a Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) and solve it using a DNN (Deep Neural Network)-based solution (Deep Reinforcement Learning) and a non-DNN solution (Sweep Algorithm). A central question is whether Deep Reinforcement Learning provides sufficient extra routing efficiency to accommodate increased social distancing in a time-constrained evacuation operation. We found that, in comparison to the Sweep Algorithm, Deep Reinforcement Learning can provide decision-makers with more efficient routing. However, the evacuation time saved by Deep Reinforcement Learning does not come close to compensating for the extra time required for social distancing, and its advantage disappears as the emergency vehicle capacity approaches the number of people per household.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Emergências , Abrigo de Emergência , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Transportes
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695948

RESUMO

Timely and accurate traffic speed predictions are an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), which provides data support for traffic control and guidance. The speed evolution process is closely related to the topological structure of the road networks and has complex temporal and spatial dependence, in addition to being affected by various external factors. In this study, we propose a new Speed Prediction of Traffic Model Network (SPTMN). The model is largely based on a Temporal Convolution Network (TCN) and a Graph Convolution Network (GCN). The improved TCN is used to complete the extraction of time dimension and local spatial dimension features, and the topological relationship between road nodes is extracted by GCN, to accomplish global spatial dimension feature extraction. Finally, both spatial and temporal features are combined with road parameters to achieve accurate short-term traffic speed predictions. The experimental results show that the SPTMN model obtains the best performance under various road conditions, and compared with eight baseline methods, the prediction error is reduced by at least 8%. Moreover, the SPTMN model has high effectiveness and stability.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Transportes
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639475

RESUMO

The conditions of work for professional drivers can contribute to adverse health and well-being outcomes. Fatigue can result from irregular shift scheduling, stress may arise due to the intense job demands, back pain may be due to prolonged sitting and exposure to vibration, and a poor diet can be attributed to limited time for breaks and rest. This study aimed to identify working conditions and health outcomes in a bussing company by conducting focus groups and key informant interviews to inform a Total Worker Health® organizational intervention. Our thematic analysis identified three primary themes: lack of trust between drivers and supervisors, the scheduling of shifts and routes, and difficulty performing positive health behaviors. These findings demonstrate the value of using participatory methods with key stakeholders to determine the unique working conditions and pathways that may be most critical to impacting safety, health, and well-being in an organization.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Veículos Automotores , Fadiga , Humanos , Ocupações , Transportes
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