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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 220, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior (SB) is associated with increased risks of detrimental health outcomes. Few studies have explored correlates of SB in physically active individuals. Furthermore, SB correlates may depend on settings of SB, such as occupation, transportation and leisure time sitting. This study aims to identify subject-, lifestyle- and health-related correlates for total SB and different SB domains: transportation, occupation, and leisure time. METHODS: Dutch participants were recruited between June, 2015 and December, 2016. Participant characteristics (i.e. age, sex, weight, height, marital status, education level, employment), lifestyle (sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) and medical history were collected via an online questionnaire. SB was assessed using the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire and estimated for 9 different activities during weekdays and weekend days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between correlates and SB. Total SB was dichotomized at > 8 h/day and > 10 h/day, and being sedentary during transportation, occupation and leisure time at the 75th percentile (60 min/day, 275 min/day and 410 min/day, respectively). RESULTS: In total, 8471 participants (median age 55, 55% men) were included of whom 86% met the physical activity guidelines. Median SB was 9.1 h/day (Q25 6.3-Q75 12.0) during weekdays and 7.4 h/day (Q25 5.5-Q75 9.5) during weekend days. SB was most prevalent during leisure time (5.3 h/day; Q25 3.9-Q75 6.8), followed by occupation (2 h/day; Q25 0.1-Q75 4.6) and transportation (0.5 h/day; Q25 0.2-Q75 1.0). Younger age, male sex, being unmarried, higher education, employment and higher BMI were significantly related to higher levels of total SB. Younger age, male sex, employment, and higher BMI increased the odds for high SB volumes during occupation and transportation. Higher education, being unmarried and smoking status were positively associated with high volumes of occupational SB only, whereas older age, being unmarried, unemployment, higher BMI and poor health were positively linked to leisure time SB. CONCLUSIONS: SB is highly prevalent in physically active individuals, with SB during leisure time as the most important contributor. Correlates for high volumes of SB vary substantially across SB domains, emphasizing the difficulty to target this unhealthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 137: 105427, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032934

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study is to understand the relationship between driving risk of commercial dangerous-goods truck (CDT) and exposure factors and find a way to evaluate the risk of specific transportation environment, such as specific transportation route. Due to increasing transportation demand and potential threat to public, commercial dangerous goods transportation (CDGT) has drawn attention from decision makers and researchers within governmental and non-governmental safety organization. However, there are few studies focusing on driving risk assessment of commercial dangerous-goods truck by environmental factors. In this paper we employ survival analysis methods to analyze the impact of risk exposure factors on non-accident mileage of commercial dangerous-good truck and assess risk level of specific driving environment. Using raw location data from six transportation companies in China, we derive a set of 17 risk exposure factors that we use for model parameters estimation. The survival model and hazard model were estimated using the Weibull distribution as the baseline distribution. The results show that four factors - weather, traffic flow, travel time and average velocity have a significant impact on the non-accident mileage of driver in this company, and the assessment results of survival function and hazard function are robust to the different levels of testing data. The employment time has some effect on the results but does not result in a significant difference in most cases, and the task stability has little impact on the results. The findings of this study should be useful for decision makers and transportation companies to better risk assessment of CDT.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Veículos Automotores , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , China , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 244, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existing smartphones' technology allows for the objective measurement of a person's movements at a fine-grained level of geographic and temporal detail, and in doing so, it mitigates the issues associated with self-report biases and lack of spatial details. This study proposes and evaluates the advantages of using a smartphone app for collecting accurate, fine-grained, and objective data on people's transport-related walking. METHODS: A sample of 142 participants (mostly young adults) was recruited in a large Australian university, for whom the app recorded all their travel activities over two weekdays during August-September 2014. We identified eight main activity nodes which operate as transport-related walking generators. We explored the participants' transport-related walking patterns around and between these activity nodes through the use of di-graphs to better understand patterns of incidental physical activity and opportunities for intervention to increase incidental walking. RESULTS: We found that the educational node - in other samples may be represented by the workplace - is as important as the residential node for generating walking trips. We also found that the likelihood of transport-related walking trips is larger during the daytime, whereas at night time walking trips tend to be longer. We also showed that patterns of transport-related walking relate to the presence of 'chaining' trips in the afternoon period. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show how the proposed data collection and analytic approach can inform urban design to enhance walkability at locations that are likely to generate walking trips. This study's insights can help to shape public education and awareness campaigns that aim to encourage walking trips throughout the day by suggesting locations and times of the day when engaging in these forms of exercise is easiest and least intrusive.


Assuntos
Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Smartphone , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847267

RESUMO

Active commuting to school (ACS) is an important source of physical activity among children. Recent research has focused on ACS and its benefits on cognition and academic achievement (AA), factors important for success in school. This review aims to synthesize literature on the relationship between ACS and cognition or AA among children and adolescents. Peer-reviewed articles in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library assessing ACS with cognition and/or AA among children, until February 2019, were selected. Twelve studies across nine countries (age range 4-18.5 years) were included. One study used accelerometers, whereas all others used self-report measures of ACS. A wide range of objective assessments of cognitive functioning and AA domains were used. Five among eight studies, and four among six found a positive relationship between ACS and cognitive or AA measure, respectively. Four studies found dose-response relationships, and some studies found sex differences. The quantitative analysis found that ACS was not significantly associated with mathematics score (odds ratio = 1.18; CI = 0.40, 3.48). Findings are discussed in terms of methodological issues, potential confounders, and the strength of the evidence. Future studies should conduct longitudinal studies and use objective measures of ACS to understand this relationship further.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1567, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has one of the highest drowning mortality rates in the world. The use of unregulated water transportation may contribute to this burden, with 38% of all passenger traffic occurring by water. The present study aims to identify provider and end user perception on water transport related drowning risk, and barriers and facilitators for improving water safety practices. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in a riverine area of Bangladesh, the Barishal division. Data was collected through 18 in-depth interviews, two small group discussions and six observations in February-March 2016. Content analysis was conducted, guided by domains of Haddon's matrix for injury prevention. RESULTS: A range of unsafe behaviours, practices and conditions were identified at pre event, event and post event stages of water transport related drownings. It was also recognised it is not only the regulation of water transport but other factors such as occupational insecurities, poor access to rescue services and healthcare, migration and capacity for skill development among providers that contribute to unsafe water transport practices and drowning risk. CONCLUSION: There are some immediate measures that can be implemented, with some monitoring and accountability processes for water transport safety. However, there is need for robust data to quantify transport related drowning, making a case for prioritization and action by relevant stakeholder such as government and transport providers.


Assuntos
Afogamento/mortalidade , Navios , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 101, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospective data are sparse for active commuting to work and body weight in Asia. We assessed the association of 5-year changes in commuting mode with body mass index (BMI) and the indicators of abdominal obesity in Japanese working adults. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we studied 29,758 participants (25,808 men and 3950 women) in Japan aged 30 to 64 years at baseline who underwent further health examination 5 years after the baseline examination. Changes in BMI were calculated from objectively measured body height and weight at baseline and follow-up examination. Visceral and subcutaneous fat areas and waist circumference measured by computed tomography scans were used as indicators for abdominal adiposity. Linear regression was applied to estimate the association of changes in commuting mode with the obesity outcomes. RESULTS: Within the 5-year study period, adults who maintained inactive commuting gained weight, and compared with this group, adults who switched to inactive commuting had higher weight gain; conversely, adults who switched to active or public transportation commuting and especially those who maintained active or public transportation commuting experienced less weight gain. Subgroup analysis showed similar tendency across the different transitions of leisure-time exercise or occupational physical activity. For example, among adults who maintained no exercise (n = 16,087), the adjusted mean (95% confidence intervals) of the BMI change over 5 years in kg/m2 were 0.27 (0.24 to 0.30) for maintained inactive commuting group (reference), 0.34 (0.30 to 0.38) for switching to inactive commuting group (P = 0.046), 0.20 (0.18 to 0.22) for switching to active commuting or public transportation group (P = 0.001), and 0.09 (0.06 to 0.13) for maintained active commuting or public transportation group (P < 0.001). Maintained inactive commuting tended to be associated with larger gain in abdominal adiposity indicators. CONCLUSION: Switching from inactive commuting mode to more physically active commuting mode and maintaining active commuting can promote body weight control among working adults across different levels of occupational or leisure-time physical activity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Transportes , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportes/métodos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 84, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policymakers need accurate data to develop efficient interventions to promote transport physical activity. Given the imprecise assessment of physical activity in trips, our aim was to illustrate novel advances in the measurement of walking in trips, including in trips incorporating non-walking modes. METHODS: We used data of 285 participants (RECORD MultiSensor Study, 2013-2015, Paris region) who carried GPS receivers and accelerometers over 7 days and underwent a phone-administered web mobility survey on the basis of algorithm-processed GPS data. With this mobility survey, we decomposed trips into unimodal trip stages with their start/end times, validated information on travel modes, and manually complemented and cleaned GPS tracks. This strategy enabled to quantify walking in trips with different modes with two alternative metrics: distance walked and accelerometry-derived number of steps taken. RESULTS: Compared with GPS-based mobility survey data, algorithm-only processed GPS data indicated that the median distance covered by participants per day was 25.3 km (rather than 23.4 km); correctly identified transport time vs. time at visited places in 72.7% of time; and correctly identified the transport mode in 67% of time (and only in 55% of time for public transport). The 285 participants provided data for 8983 trips (21,163 segments of observation). Participants spent a median of 7.0% of their total time in trips. The median distance walked per trip was 0.40 km for entirely walked trips and 0.85 km for public transport trips (the median number of accelerometer steps were 425 and 1352 in the corresponding trips). Overall, 33.8% of the total distance walked in trips and 37.3% of the accelerometer steps in trips were accumulated during public transport trips. Residents of the far suburbs cumulated a 1.7 times lower distance walked per day and a 1.6 times lower number of steps during trips per 8 h of wear time than residents of the Paris core city. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach complementing GPS and accelerometer tracking with a GPS-based mobility survey substantially improved transport mode detection. Our findings suggest that promoting public transport use should be one of the cornerstones of policies to promote physical activity.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Saúde Pública , Transportes , Caminhada/fisiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Transportes/métodos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(3): 205-214, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575339

RESUMO

Qualitative research exploring the influence of community-level factors on access to and use of HIV treatment and care services among people living in fishing communities is limited, especially with respect to those already in receipt of HIV care and on treatment. To enhance understanding of these issues, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV-positive fisherfolk and 15 health care providers from two HIV clinics located in two fishing communities in Uganda. Fisherfolk's mobility and poor transport systems were significant barriers to access to and use of HIV treatment and care. Mobility, which involved regular movement between communities, sometimes led to fisherfolk's inability to access HIV treatment and care. A poor transport system in fishing communities - characterised by irregular transport services and boats in a poor condition - was reported to force both fisherfolk and health care providers sometimes to cancel journeys to centres providing treatment and support. Community-level factors such as these, which relate to the organisation and provision of transport in local community settings, are significant influences on access to HIV treatment and care. Interventions that address these challenges are needed to improve access to and use of HIV treatment and care in fishing communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Lagos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1124, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social participation is a modifiable health determinant influenced by physical and social aspects of the environment. Little is known about aging women's and men's community activities and barriers according to region and population size. This study compared social participation, desire to participate more, and perceived barriers of aging women and men by Canadian region and population size. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2008-2009 cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey - Healthy Aging was done with 16,274 respondents aged 65+. Respondents were grouped into five regions [Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, Prairies and British Columbia] and five population size groups [rural (< 1000 inhabitants); small urban (1000-29,999); medium urban (30,000-99,999); large urban (100,000-499,999); and metropolitan (≥500,000) areas]. Social participation was estimated by monthly frequencies of engagement in community activities. If they desired to participate more, respondents were asked to identify barriers to their participation from a list of 13 reasons. RESULTS: There were no differences in total social participation between regions but Prairies and Quebec respondents had the highest and lowest frequency, respectively, of activities with family and friends (5.4 and 4.3 activities/month; p = 0.01). Medium urban centers had the highest participation and metropolises, the lowest (17.4 vs 14.3 activities/month; p < 0.01). About one fourth of all respondents wanted to participate more, regardless of region or population size. Overall, women wanted to participate more than men (26.6 vs 20.7%; p < 0.001), especially in Ontario (28.3 vs 21.1%; p < 0.001) and British Columbia (30.1 vs 22.9%; p < 0.001). Men in Quebec were less likely than men in other regions to report "personal responsibilities" as a barrier to participation (p < 0.001). Men were more likely than women to report being "too busy", especially in rural areas (27.1 vs 6.5%; p < 0.001). Rural women were more likely than rural men to be constrained by transportation problems (15.1 vs 1.2%, p < 0.001). Unavailability of activities was more of a constraint in rural areas than metropolises (13.6 vs 6.0%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there were no practical differences between women's and men's social participation. However, unavailability of activities and transportation problems suggest that local initiatives and further research on environmental characteristics are required to foster aging Canadians' participation.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação Social , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Geografia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Participação Social/psicologia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1082, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active transportation (AT), independent mobility (IM), and outdoor time are promising ways to increase children's physical activity. However, in order to create interventions to increase those forms of physical activity, it is important to understand the relationships between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and type of urbanization with AT, IM, outdoor time, and physical activity, and this was the aim of the study. METHODS: One thousand six hundred ninety-nine children in grades 4 to 6 (mean age: 10.2 ± 1.0 years) from three Canadian regions participated. AT, IM, and outdoor time were assessed using questionnaires and physical activity was measured using the SC-StepRX pedometer. Area-level SES was assessed using the median household income of the census tract in which the school was located and type of urbanization was determined for each school using standardized procedures. Generalized linear and general linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships. RESULTS: Area-level SES and the type of urbanization were generally not related to AT, IM, or physical activity for either gender. However, we observed that both boys and girls living in lower SES areas had decreased odds of spending > 2 h outdoors on weekend days compared to their peers from higher SES areas. Girls living in suburban or rural areas were more likely to spend > 2 h outdoors on weekdays compared to their urban counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: AT, IM, and physical activity are generally not associated with area-level SES or the type of urbanization in this sample of Canadian children. The finding regarding outdoor time showing that both boys and girls of lower SES areas had decreased odds of spending > 2 h outdoors on weekends compared to their peers from higher SES areas suggest that additional efforts should be implemented to offer outdoor play opportunities in lower SES areas.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Liberdade , Áreas de Pobreza , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização , Adolescente , Canadá , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1155, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour (SB) has been linked with detrimental effects on morbidity and mortality. This study aims to identify the individual, social and environmental correlates of total sedentary behaviour and the contexts in which sitting time accumulates in an Irish adult cohort. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data from 7328 adults of the nationally representative Healthy Ireland Survey. Ordinal regression analyses were used to examine participants' socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, physical and mental health status, perceived neighbourhood environmental factors, and their association with total daily sitting times and sitting times across the domains of occupation, leisure screen-time and transportation/leisure. RESULTS: Overall median of sitting time per day was 450 min (7.5 h). Male gender, and living in an urban location were associated with increased total-, occupational, and screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Younger age was associated with increased total and occupational sitting times (p < 0.001), while being older was associated with increased screen-time and transportation/leisure sitting (p < 0.001). Insufficient physical activity levels were associated with increased sitting across all domains (p < 0.001). Higher socio-economic classification and education levels were associated with increased total, occupational, and transportation/leisure SB (p < 0.001), while lower socio-economic classification and education levels were associated with increased screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Alcohol consumption was associated with screen-time and transportation/leisure sitting (p < 0.01), while smoking was associated with increased screen-time sitting (p < 0.001). Being married was associated with less screen-time (p < 0.001) and transportation/leisure sitting (p = 0.02), while those with a caring role had less total (p = 0.04) and screen-time sitting (p = 0.01). A significant negative association between neighbourhood attributes and total (p = 0.04), and transportation/leisure sitting times (p < 0.001) was found. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide a starting position for development of targeted interventions aimed at the most sedentary, such as males with sedentary occupations in higher socio-economic groups and education levels, those with insufficient levels of physical activity and who live in an urban location.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3895, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467280

RESUMO

Understanding human mobility is crucial for applications such as forecasting epidemic spreading, planning transport infrastructure and urbanism in general. While, traditionally, mobility information has been collected via surveys, the pervasive adoption of mobile technologies has brought a wealth of (real time) data. The easy access to this information opens the door to study theoretical questions so far unexplored. In this work, we show for a series of worldwide cities that commuting daily flows can be mapped into a well behaved vector field, fulfilling the divergence theorem and which is, besides, irrotational. This property allows us to define a potential for the field that can become a major instrument to determine separate mobility basins and discern contiguous urban areas. We also show that empirical fluxes and potentials can be well reproduced and analytically characterized using the so-called gravity model, while other models based on intervening opportunities have serious difficulties.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Transportes , Telefone Celular , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais , Engenharia , Previsões , Gravitação , Humanos , Londres , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105270, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445463

RESUMO

Mode shift from private vehicle to public transport is often considered as a potential means of improving road safety, given public transport's lower fatality rates. However, little research has examined how public transport travel contributes to road safety at a macroscopic level. Further, there is a limited understanding of the individual effects of different public transport modes. This paper explores the effects of commuting by public transport on road safety at a macroscopic level, using Melbourne as a case study. A random effect negative binomial (RENB) and a conditional autoregressive (CAR) model are adopted to explore links between total and severe crash data to commuting mode shares and a range of other zonal explanatory factors. Overall, results show the great potential of public transport as a road safety solution. It is evident that mode shift from private vehicle to public transport (i.e. train, tram, and bus), for commuting would reduce not only total crashes, but also severe crashes. Modelling also demonstrated that CAR models outperform RENB models. In addition, results highlight safety issues related to commuting by motorbike and active transport. Effects of sociodemographic, transport network, and land use factors on crashes at the macroscopic level are also discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/métodos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança
15.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0217540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260478

RESUMO

Worldwide, roads are a main driver of deforestation and degradation as they increase forest access along the forest edge. In many tropical areas, unofficial roads go unreported and unrecorded, resulting in inaccurate estimates of intact forested areas. This is the case in central Sumatra, which boasts populations of critically endangered Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatrensis), tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and other endemic flora and fauna that make the area globally unique. However, maps do not reflect the reality of forest loss in the area. Here we present new maps from 2002 and 2016 of digitized and ground-truthed roads in one of Sumatra's unique lowland tropical protected areas, Tesso Nilo National Park. Using our newly created roads dataset, we examine the distribution of forest with respect to distance to roads. Our data show >2,400 km of roads within the national park in 2016 -nearly a 10-fold increase from roads known in 2002. Most forest (82-99%) within Tesso Nilo falls within 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m of road edges. Length of road increased 157% and road density increased from 1.06 km/km2 to 2.63 km/km2 from 2002-2016. Our results suggest that this endemic ecosystem is facing substantial threat from roads and their associated impacts. Without swift management action, such as road closures and increased enforcements by park management, this ecosystem, and its endemic wildlife, could be lost. It is imperative that protected areas worldwide more rigorously consider roads and road effects on ecosystem fragmentation in their conservation plans.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/tendências , Florestas , Transportes/ética , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Elefantes/fisiologia , Indonésia , Tigres/fisiologia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(7): 453-462, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The calf transports of 34 veal farms were documented over a one-year period in order to describe the transport from dairy to veal farms. Veal farms were visited four to eight times, and general farm management data and information on calf purchase were collected. Thirty-five transports were accompanied and documented in detail by the project team. Whenever possible during the accompanied transports, a questionnaire on calf management prior to purchase (calving location, colostrum feeding, vaccinations, iron and selenium supplementation) was filled in with the manager of the dairy (birth) farm. Unaccompanied transports were recorded using a form completed by the veal farmers and the transporters. Information was collected on the number and origin of the calves, transport duration and distance, and stops on farms and markets. A total of 721 transports from dairy to veal farms (531 transports by veal farmers and 190 by suppliers/livestock traders) were documented in the course of the project. Six veal farmers always collected and transported their own calves, nine received their calves from cattle traders only, and 19 used both systems. Veal farmers transported a median of 2.0 (1-21 calves) and traders 3.0 calves (1-74 calves) per transport. The median number of dairy farms per 10 transported calves was 10.0 (1.2-10 dairy farms per 10 transported calves) for transports performed by veal farmers, and 10.0 (2.5-10 dairy farms per 10 transported calves) by traders. The median transport duration was 20.0 minutes (1-330 minutes) with veal farmers and 45.0 minutes (2-414 minutes) with traders. The median available surface per calf during transport was 2 m2 (0.4-6 m2) in transports by veal farmers and 0.6 m2 (0.4-2.7 m2) in those by traders. No bedding was provided on three transports performed by veal farmers although this is prescribed by law. Intranasal vaccination against respiratory disease was performed in 7% of the 88 birth farms included in the study.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Transportes/normas
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288423

RESUMO

Active travel can support the achievement of recommended levels of physical activity. Monitoring travel behavior of university students and staff provides a useful insight into patterns of regional travel and population level changes in physical activity. This study sought to evaluate current travel and physical activity behaviors in a university population and to determine whether these changed over time. An online survey of travel behavior and physical activity was conducted at the University of Sydney, Australia. The survey was actively promoted for three weeks prior to the release of the survey among staff and students, which asked about travel behavior on a specific day in September 2017. The survey questions were the same as those used in a similar online survey conducted across the University in 2012. In total, 4359 People completed the survey, representing 10.8% of staff and 4.1% of students. Approximately two thirds of survey respondents were students, in both the 2012 and 2017 surveys. Compared with 2012, there was an increase in active travel to the University in 2017 from increased walking and train travel. Compared to 2012, in 2017 there was an increase in average minutes walked by about nine minutes, and less time spent sitting. Trip lengths increased, with 68% of trips taking longer than 30 min in 2017. The amount of time spent in low-moderate levels physical activity increased between 2012 and 2017, potentially related to active travel behavior. Citywide changes towards a system-wide transport fare structure was the biggest change in the transport environment between the two surveys and may have contributed to increased train travel.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Exercício Físico , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(7): 1959-1965, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350951

RESUMO

Objective: Epidemiological studies have reported the close relationship between risk for lung cancers and air pollution in particular, for non-smoking related lung cancers. However, most studies used residential address as proxies which may not estimate accurately an individual's air pollution exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify risk factors such as occupation and mode of transportation associated with lung cancer diagnosis and death. Methods: Subjects with lung cancer (n=514) were evaluated both by chart reviews for clinical data and interviews to determine residential address for ten years, main occupation and main mode of transportation. Annual particulate matter with diameter size less than 2.5 micrometre (PM2.5) concentration were calculated based on particulate matter with diameter size less than 10 micrometre (PM10) data recorded by Malaysian Department of Environment. Logistic regression analysis, cluster analysis and the Cox regression analysis were performed to the studied variables. Results: This study concurred with previous studies that lung adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in predominantly younger, female non-smokers compared to the other types of lung cancers. Lung adenocarcinoma subjects had annual PM2.5 that was almost twice higher than squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and other histological subtypes (p=0.024). Independent of smoking, the κ -means cluster analysis revealed two clusters in which the high risk cluster involves occupation risk with air pollution of more than four hours per day, main transportation involving motorcycle and trucks and mean annual PM2.5 concentration of more than 30 based on residential address for more than ten years. The increased risk for the high-risk cluster was more than five times for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma (OR=5.69, 95% CI=3.14-7.21, p<0.001). The hazard ratio for the high-risk cluster was 3.89 (95% CI=2.12-4.56, p=0.02) for lung adenocarcinoma mortality at 1 year. Conclusion: High-risk cluster including PM2.5, occupation risk and mode of transportation as surrogates for air-pollution exposure was identified and highly associated with lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and 1-year mortality.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/etiologia , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23937-23957, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222652

RESUMO

The transport sector is the fastest growing greenhouse gas-emitting sector in the world and it is also a major source of emissions in New Zealand. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road transport increased by 84.3% between 1990 and 2016. This increase in GHG emissions was the highest among the different energy sub-sectors of New Zealand. Increasing energy consumption and GHG emissions are due to the gradual increase in population, car-dependent low-density development, lack of integrated public transport networks, inappropriate policy interventions and so on. These factors are making it difficult to reduce emissions from this sector. This study investigates (i) major drivers of transport sector emissions, including how drivers differ from those affecting other developed countries; (ii) a mitigation policy roadmap to achieve future emissions reduction targets; and (iii) mitigation policy initiatives by the government, and policy gaps. To identify the key drivers from a set of drivers, this study uses a vector error correction model (VECM). The Granger causality test reveals that the fuel economy of the New Zealand passenger vehicle fleet has a significant causal relationship with transport emissions. Introduction of a number of policies such as a feebate scheme and/or a high minimum fuel economy standard could effectively alter this causal relationship in the short term, along with other measures such as urban planning changes for medium-term impact. This study aims to help policy makers identify the most tractable factors driving transport emissions and alternative policy options suitable for emissions mitigation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Efeito Estufa , Nova Zelândia
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 15-24, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233992

RESUMO

Global road safety records demonstrate spatial variation of comprehensive cost of traffic crashes across countries. To the best of our knowledge, no study has explored the variation of this matter at a local geographical level. This study proposes a method to estimate the comprehensive crash cost at the zonal level by using person-injury cost. The current metric of road safety attributes safety to the location of the crash, which makes it challenging to assign the crash cost to home-location of the individuals who were involved in traffic crashes. To overcome this limitation, we defined Home-Based Approach crash frequency as the expected number of crashes by severity that road users who live in a certain geographic area have during a specified period. Using crash data from Tennessee, we assign those involved in traffic crashes to the census tract corresponding to their home address. The average Comprehensive Crash Cost at the Zonal Level (CCCAZ) for the period of the study was $18.2 million (2018 dollars). Poisson and Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) models were used to analyzing the data. The GWPR model was more suitable compared to the global model to address spatial heterogeneity. Findings indicate population of people over 60-years-old, the proportion of residents that use non-motorized transportation, household income, population density, household size, and metropolitan indicator have a negative association with CCCAZ. Alternatively, VMT, vehicle per capita, percent educated over 25-year-old, population under 16-year-old, and proportion of non-white races and individuals who use a motorcycle as their commute mode have a positive association with CCCAZ. Findings are discussed in line with road safety literature.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/economia , Regressão Espacial , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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