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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986146

RESUMO

As the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to proliferate across the globe, it is a struggle to predict and prevent its spread. The successes of mobility interventions demonstrate how policies can help limit the person-to-person interactions that are essential to infection. With significant community spread, experts predict this virus will continue to be a threat until safe and effective vaccines have been developed and widely deployed. We aim to understand mobility changes during the first major quarantine period in the United States, measured via mobile device tracking, by assessing how people changed their behavior in response to policies and to weather. Here, we show that consistent national messaging was associated with consistent national behavioral change, regardless of local policy. Furthermore, although human behavior did vary with outdoor air temperature, these variations were not associated with variations in a proxy for the rate of encounters between people. The independence of encounters and temperatures suggests that weather-related behavioral changes will, in many cases, be of limited relevance for SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics. Both of these results are encouraging for the potential of clear national messaging to help contain any future pandemics, and possibly to help contain COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/virologia , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribuição , Distanciamento Físico , Política Pública , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/organização & administração , Fatores de Risco , Temperatura , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Yale J Biol Med ; 94(1): 159-164, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795993

RESUMO

Black, Latinx, and Indigenous people have contracted the SARS-CoV-2 virus and died of COVID-19 at higher rates than White people. Individuals rated public transit, taxis, and ride-hailing as the modes of transportation putting them at greatest risk of COVID-19 infection. Cycling may thus be an attractive alternative for commuting. Amid the increase in bikeshare usage during the early months of the pandemic, bikeshare companies made changes to membership requirements to increase accessibility, targeting especially essential workers. Essential workers in the United States are disproportionately Black and Latinx, underpaid, and reliant on public transit to commute to work. We document changes made by bikeshare companies, including benefits to various groups of essential workers, and we discuss such changes in the context of longstanding racial disparities in bikeshare access. While well intended, the arbitrary delineation in eligibility for such benefits by class of essential workers unwittingly curtailed access for many who may have benefited most. Given that equity in bikeshare is an important tool to improve access to safe transportation, critical changes in the distribution, accessibility, and usability of bikeshare networks is essential. Bikeshare companies, city planners, and policy makers should collaborate with community-based bike advocates to implement changes, as vocalized by those most in need of alternative forms of transportation.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/tendências , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comércio/tendências , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Justiça Social , Transportes/métodos , Ciclismo/economia , COVID-19/etnologia , Comércio/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Segurança , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transportes/economia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 9-14, mar. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177228

RESUMO

Introducción: los siniestros viales representan un significativo problema de salud pública y una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad evitables en la Argentina. La vigilancia epidemiológica permite valorar el alcance del problema y orientar respuestas. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características demográficas, uso de la vía pública, mecanismo de producción, evaluación en Unidad de Emergencias y morbimortalidad de los casos ingresados en el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de siniestros viales en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires durante durante el año 2018. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se analizaron las variables sexo, grupo etario, tiempo de internación, tipo de usuario, mecanismo de producción, gravedad del herido y del siniestro. Resultados: se registraron 404 consultas por siniestros viales. El sexo masculino fue el predominante en el 62,13% (251). El rango etario más frecuente abarcó los 25 a 44 años (187). La forma de traslado mayoritaria fue el automóvil en el 42,57% (172), seguido de motovehículos 29,21% (118). La gran mayoría fueron secundarios a colisiones entre dos vehículos. El 80,20% (324) ingresó deambulando por sus propios medios y el 83% (336) no requirió internación. El 90,6% (366) consultó por heridas leves. De los heridos graves, el 71,05% (27) fue de sexo masculino y el 26,32% (10) mayor de 75 años. La mayoría eran usuarios de automóvil. Ocurrieron 3 óbitos de mujeres mayores de 75 años. Conclusión: se observó una mayor cantidad de siniestros viales en adultos jóvenes, principalmente en varones. En general, usuarios de vehículos que consultaron tras una colisión con otro vehículo. Mayormente, ingresaron por sus propios medios, no requirieron internación de ningún tipo y presentaron heridas leves. Los casos graves correspondieron en su mayoría a varones con gran proporción de adultos mayores. Los casos fatales ocurrieron en mujeres adultas mayores. Contar con información del perfil epidemiológico de los siniestros viales permite la comprensión de esta compleja problemática en el ámbito local y el diseño de estrategias de intervención ajustadas a dicho perfil. (AU)


Introduction: road accidents represent a significant public health problem and one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in Argentina. Epidemiological surveillance makes it possible to assess the scope of the problem and guide responses. The objective of this study is to describe the demographic characteristics, use of the public highway, production mechanism, evaluation in the emergency center and morbidity and mortality of the cases admitted to the epidemiological surveillance system of road accidents at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires during 2018. Materials and methods: observational cross-sectional study. The variables sex, age group, length of stay, type of user, production mechanism, severity of the injured and the accident were analyzed. Results: 404 consultations for road accidents were registered. Male sex was predominant in 62.13% (251). The most frequent age range was 25 to 44 years (187). The majority form of transportation was the automobile in 42.57% (172), followed by motorcycle vehicles 29.21% (118). The vast majority were secondary to collisions between two vehicles. 80.20% (324) were admitted wandering by their own means and 83% (336) did not require hospitalization. 90.6% (366) consulted for minor injuries. Of the seriously injured, 71.05% (27) were male and 26.32% (10) were older than 75 years. Most were car users. There were 3 deaths of women older than 75 years. Conclusion: there was a greater number of road accidents in young adults, mainly in men. In general, vehicle users consulted after a collision with another vehicle. Moreover, they entered by their own means, they did not require hospitalization of any kind and presentation of minor injuries. Severe cases correspond mostly to males with a large proportion of older adults. The fatal cases occurred in older adult women. Having information on the epidemiological profile of road accidents allows the understanding of this complex problem at the local level and the design of intervention strategies adjusted to this profile. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Argentina , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Saúde Pública , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Etários , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Etários
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112117, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690005

RESUMO

Commuters are reportedly exposed to severe traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commuting trips. This study was designed and implemented to (1) compare particulate matter (PM) exposure across four common transportation modes; (2) examine and analyze various determining factors; and (3) estimate public health effects caused by commuting exposure to PM. All analyses and calculations were based on the experimental data collected from 13 volunteers, including heart-rate data on 336 commuting trips in four travel modes in Xi'an China. The results indicate highest PM exposure associated with cycling (average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 of 114.35, 72.37 and 56.51 µg/m3, respectively), followed by riding transit buses (116.29, 67.60 and 51.12 µg/m3 for the same pollutants, respectively), then taking a taxi (97.61, 58.87 and 45.11 µg/m3), and the lowest exposure onboard subways (55.86, 46.20 and 40.20 µg/m3). A multivariable linear regression model was used to examine major influences on PM concentration variations, with results corroborating significant PM variance across commuting modes, which is also affected by background pollution concentration and relative humidity. Further, years of life expectancy (YLE) loss were estimated using an inhalation dose model together with the life table method: cycling commuters experienced the greatest YLE loss (5.51-6.43 months per capita for the studied age group). During severe pollution periods, substituting other modes (like subway) for cycling could effectively avoid acute exposure. PM2.5 levels in taxi cabins powered by CNG or methanol were comparatively lower, indicating that implementing alternative energy strategies could effectively lower traffic emissions and population exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Expectativa de Vida , Material Particulado/análise , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ciclismo , China , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
5.
J Safety Res ; 76: 44-55, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Predicting crash counts by severity plays a dominant role in identifying roadway sites that experience overrepresented crashes, or an increase in the potential for crashes with higher severity levels. Valid and reliable methodologies for predicting highway accidents by severity are necessary in assessing contributing factors to severe highway crashes, and assisting the practitioners in allocating safety improvement resources. METHODS: This paper uses urban and suburban intersection data in Connecticut, along with two sophisticated modeling approaches, i.e. a Multivariate Poisson-Lognormal (MVPLN) model and a Joint Negative Binomial-Generalized Ordered Probit Fractional Split (NB-GOPFS) model to assess the methodological rationality and accuracy by accommodating for the unobserved factors in predicting crash counts by severity level. Furthermore, crash prediction models based on vehicle damage level are estimated using the same two methodologies to supplement the injury severity in estimating crashes by severity when the sample mean of severe injury crashes (e.g., fatal crashes) is very low. RESULTS: The model estimation results highlight the presence of correlations of crash counts among severity levels, as well as the crash counts in total and crash proportions by different severity levels. A comparison of results indicates that injury severity and vehicle damage are highly consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Crash severity counts are significantly correlated and should be accommodated in crash prediction models. Practical application: The findings of this research could help select sound and reliable methodologies for predicting highway accidents by injury severity. When crash data samples have challenges associated with the low observed sampling rates for severe injury crashes, this research also confirmed that vehicle damage can be appropriate as an alternative to injury severity in crash prediction by severity.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição Binomial , Connecticut , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multivariada , Distribuição de Poisson
6.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Espec. Med. Trab ; 30(1): 9-23, mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201411

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Determinar la frecuencia de trastornos musculoesqueléticos (TME) y la asociación con el nivel de estrés en trabajadores del servicio de transporte urbano. Material y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal con 462 trabajadores de ambos sexos, entre conductores y cobradores. El Cuestionario Nórdico de Kuorinka y la Escala de Estrés Percibido (PSS-14) fueron empleados para evaluar los TME y el nivel de estrés, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Los TME afectaron principalmente la región lumbar (58,2%) y dorsal (35,7%). El 65,6% tuvo bajo nivel de estrés, el resto alto nivel. Los conductores con alto nivel de estrés tuvieron mayor proporción de TME (p < 0,005). CONCLUSIONES: Los TME en trabajadores de transporte son frecuentes, afectan principalmente la región lumbar y dorsal. Los conductores con alto nivel de estrés presentaron mayor proporción de TME. Los TME lumbar y dorsal se asociaron a la edad, estado civil, puesto de conductor, tiempo de servicio y el nivel de estrés


OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and the association with the level of stress in workers of the urban transport service. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study with 462 workers of both sexes, between drivers and ticket collectors. The Nordic Kuorinka Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) were used to evaluate the MSD and the level of stress, respectively. RESULTS: MSD mainly affected the lumbar region (58.2%) and dorsal region (35.7%). A 65.6% had a low level of stress, the rest a high level. Drivers with a high level of stress had a higher proportion of MSD (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: MSD among transport workers are frequent and mainly affect the lumbar and dorsal region. Drivers with a high level of stress presented a higher proportion of MSD. Lumbar and dorsal MSD were associated with age, marital status, driver's position, length of service, and stress level


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Peru/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3109, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542248

RESUMO

The international spread of COVID-19 infection has attracted global attention, but the impact of local or domestic travel restriction on public transportation network remains unclear. Passenger volume data for the domestic public transportation network in Japan and the time at which the first confirmed COVID-19 case was observed in each prefecture were extracted from public data sources. A survival approach in which a hazard was modeled as a function of the closeness centrality on the network was utilized to estimate the risk of importation of COVID-19 in each prefecture. A total of 46 prefectures with imported cases were identified. Hypothetical scenario analyses indicated that both strategies of locking down the metropolitan areas and restricting domestic airline travel would be equally effective in reducing the risk of importation of COVID-19. While caution is necessary that the data were limited to June 2020 when the pandemic was in its initial stage and that no other virus spreading routes have been considered, domestic travel restrictions were effective to prevent the spread of COVID-19 on public transportation network in Japan. Instead of lockdown that might seriously damage the economy, milder travel restrictions could have the similar impact on controlling the domestic transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24730, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, new digital solutions have been developed for infection control. In particular, contact tracing mobile apps provide a means for governments to manage both health and economic concerns. However, public reception of these apps is paramount to their success, and global uptake rates have been low. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to identify the characteristics of individuals or factors potentially associated with voluntary downloads of a contact tracing mobile app in Singapore. METHODS: A cohort of 505 adults from the general community completed an online survey. As the primary outcome measure, participants were asked to indicate whether they had downloaded the contact tracing app TraceTogether introduced at the national level. The following were assessed as predictor variables: (1) participant demographics, (2) behavioral modifications on account of the pandemic, and (3) pandemic severity (the number of cases and lockdown status). RESULTS: Within our data set, the strongest predictor of the uptake of TraceTogether was the extent to which individuals had already adjusted their lifestyles because of the pandemic (z=13.56; P<.001). Network analyses revealed that uptake was most related to the following: using hand sanitizers, avoiding public transport, and preferring outdoor over indoor venues during the pandemic. However, demographic and situational characteristics were not significantly associated with app downloads. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to introduce contact tracing apps could capitalize on pandemic-related behavioral adjustments among individuals. Given that a large number of individuals is required to download contact tracing apps for contact tracing to be effective, further studies are required to understand how citizens respond to contact tracing apps. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04468581, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04468581.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higienizadores de Mão/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(4): 914-924, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423302

RESUMO

This study examines trends in the rates of active commuting to school (ACS) in Spanish children (n = 18 343; 8.93 ± 1.68) and adolescents (n = 18 438; 14.11 ± 1.58) aged 6-18 years from 2010 to 2017. Given the study period included the economic crisis in Spain (2008-2013), the second aim of this study was to compare ACS rates during and after the economic crisis. Data were obtained from 28 studies conducted across Spain. The overall trends in ACS were evaluated using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Among Spanish children and adolescents, the rates of ACS to school ranged around 60% between 2010 and 2017. The rates of ACS in Spanish youth did not change significantly during the 2010-2017 period, except a sporadic increase in the rate of ACS in adolescents in 2012-2013. No significant association between the ACS and the economic crisis time period in youth was found. As conclusion, the ACS remains stable in Spain during the last decade, which is a promising result regarding the evidenced decreasing trend in many countries. Further educational and policy strategies are important to continue promoting this behavior in children and adolescents in the long term.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348881

RESUMO

In the last decades, there has been rising interest in public health research in the importance of the built environment for a healthy and active life in old age, but little attention has been paid to less densely populated areas. This study aimed to explore the impact of the built environment on walking for transport in the context of an older population living in communities of <100,000 inhabitants. Within the project AFOOT-Securing urban mobility of an aging population, a cross-sectional postal survey was carried out from May to September 2019 in older adults (≥65 years) in the Metropolitan Region Northwest, Germany. Self-reported data from 2189 study participants were analyzed. Logistic and linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the built environment and walking for transport. Any walking and frequent walking were positively associated with nearly all built environment attributes, even after adjustment for demographic and health covariates. The amount of walking in minutes per week was associated only with residential density. Moderating effects of gender, age, and use of walking aids were identified. Improving the built environment appears to be a promising opportunity to motivate and enable older adults to walk for transport.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Transportes , Caminhada , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Características de Residência , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323919

RESUMO

The Neonatal Screening Program in Catalonia from its inception fifty years ago until today, has enabled the early diagnosis and treatment of more than 2,000 newborns. In the last decade, the Program has undergone various extensions regarding its panel of diseases and has improved its evaluation with the inclusion of quality indicators in all its stages. One of the pending subjects of the screening program has been the improvement of the quality indexes related to the sample's arrival time to the laboratory after their extraction. The extension of the territory, the dispersion of numerous maternal centers, as well as the diversity and heterogeneity of the sample transport systems, have been an obstacle to quality compliance of these indexes. With the aim of reducing the period of samples arrival to the laboratory and continue to move towards meeting the standards established by the Ministry of Health, in 2020 a unified sample transport system has been implemented for the entire Catalan territory. The times obtained during the first months with the new system, have shown a notable improvement in the results, achieving a reduction of 50% of the days between the extraction of the sample and its arrival at the laboratory.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Transportes/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Transportes/normas , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Safety Res ; 75: 128-139, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that approximately half of arrested intoxicated drivers had their last alcoholic drink at a licensed bar or restaurant. Current efforts to prevent intoxicated patrons from leaving licensed establishments and driving home have been only partially successful. Since a high proportion of drinkers drive to their drinking destination, promoting the use of alternative transportation (AT) - including safe ride shuttles, free or subsidized taxi and ridesharing services, voluntary or paid designated driver programs, and more accessible public transportation - is an important strategy for preventing impaired driving. The primary goal of this study was to review and synthesize the findings of research studies designed to test the effectiveness of AT programs in reducing alcohol-impaired driving. A secondary goal was to report if using AT has led to any unintended consequences, in particular greater alcohol consumption. METHOD: We identified relevant academic articles, new articles, government reports, and other documents (English only) through the University of Chicago library, Google Scholar, and Google Search. We also included published articles recommended by peers. Key search terms included: alternative transportation; safe rides; designated driver; alcohol-impaired driving; alcohol consumption, cost effectiveness; and reduce drunk driving. Initially, we identified 168 potentially relevant sources, of which only 57 were academic articles. After a thorough review, we narrowed down the number of relevant articles to 125 including some background articles and government reports. RESULTS: Some AT programs produced reductions in one or more of the following outcomes: (1) impaired driving; (2) impaired driving crashes; (3) driving under the influence (DUI) arrests; and (4) traffic crashes in general, but others were not shown to be effective. A few programs resulted in greater self-reported alcohol use, but there were no significant findings indicating that drinking when using AT led to an increase in alcohol-related harms such as public intoxication, assaults, or other alcohol-related crime. Of the studies that conducted a cost-benefit analysis, most showed that AT programs yielded a positive benefit, but these studies did not include a sufficient number of variables to be considered true cost-benefit analyses. CONCLUSIONS: There is mixed evidence regarding the effectiveness of AT programs. Evaluations with more rigorous quasi-experimental and experimental designs are needed to identify which types of AT programs work best for different types of communities and target groups. Practical Applications: The literature review and synthesis revealed that the most successful AT programs typically have some of these attributes: (1) social acceptance; (2) high level of public awareness; (3) low cost; (4) year-round availability; (5) provide rides to and from drinking venues; (6) several sponsors that provide funding); (7) user convenience; and (8) perceived safety.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Dirigir sob a Influência/prevenção & controle , Transportes/métodos , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020501, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110584

RESUMO

Background: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. Methods: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. Results: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Transportes/história
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4674, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938924

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2-related mortality and hospitalizations differ substantially between New York City neighborhoods. Mitigation efforts require knowing the extent to which these disparities reflect differences in prevalence and understanding the associated drivers. Here, we report the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in New York City boroughs inferred using tests administered to 1,746 pregnant women hospitalized for delivery between March 22nd and May 3rd, 2020. We also assess the relationship between prevalence and commuting-style movements into and out of each borough. Prevalence ranged from 11.3% (95% credible interval [8.9%, 13.9%]) in Manhattan to 26.0% (15.3%, 38.9%) in South Queens, with an estimated city-wide prevalence of 15.6% (13.9%, 17.4%). Prevalence was lowest in boroughs with the greatest reductions in morning movements out of and evening movements into the borough (Pearson R = -0.88 [-0.52, -0.99]). Widespread testing is needed to further specify disparities in prevalence and assess the risk of future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gestantes , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941487

RESUMO

Even if shared mobility services are encouraged by transportation policies, they remain underused and inefficient transportation modes because they struggle to find their customer base. This paper aims to estimate the potential demand for such services by focusing on individual trips and determining the number of passengers who perform similar trips. Contrary to existing papers, this study focuses on the demand without assuming any specific shared mobility system. The experiment performed on data coming from New York City conducts to cluster more than 85% of the trips. Consequently, shared mobility services such as ride-sharing can find their customer base and, at a long time, to a significantly reduce the number of cars flowing in the city. After a detailed analysis, commonalities in the clusters are identified: regular patterns from one day to the next exist in shared mobility demand. This regularity makes it possible to anticipate the potential shared mobility demand to help transportation suppliers to optimize their operations.


Assuntos
Cidades , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886681

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the impact of air transport connectivity and accessibility on scientific collaboration. Numerous studies demonstrated that the likelihood of collaboration declines with increase in distance between potential collaborators. These works commonly use simple measures of physical distance rather than actual flight capacity and frequency. Our study addresses this limitation by focusing on the relationship between flight availability and the number of scientific co-publications. Furthermore, we distinguish two components of flight availability: (1) direct and indirect air connections between airports; and (2) distance to the nearest airport from cities and towns where authors of scientific articles have their professional affiliations. Based on Zero-inflated Negative Binomial Regression, we provide evidence that greater flight availability is associated with more frequent scientific collaboration. More flight connections (connectivity) and proximity of airport (accessibility) increase the expected number of coauthored scientific papers. Moreover, direct flights and flights with one transfer are more valuable for intensifying scientific cooperation than travels involving more connecting flights. Further, analysis of four organizational sub-datasets-Arizona State University, Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, and University of Michigan-shows that the relationship between airline transport availability and scientific collaboration is not uniform, but is associated with the research profile of an institution and the characteristics of the airport that serves this institution.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Comportamento Cooperativo , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Humanos , Transportes/métodos , Universidades
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915888

RESUMO

Globally, little evidence exists on transmission patterns of COVID-19. Recommendations to prevent infection include appropriate and frequent handwashing plus physical and social distancing. We conducted an exploratory observational study to assess compliance with these recommendations in selected transportation stations in Ghana. A one-hour audit of 45 public transport stations in the Greater Accra region was carried out between 27th and 29th March 2020. Using an adapted World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene assessment scale, the availability and use of handwashing facilities, social distancing, and ongoing public education on COVID-19 prevention measures were assessed, weighted and scored to determine the level of compliance of stations. Compliance with recommendations was categorized as "inadequate" "basic", "intermediate" and "advanced", based on the overall score. Majority (80%) of stations in Accra have at least one Veronica Bucket with flowing water and soap, but the number of washing places at each station is not adequate. Only a small minority (18%) of stations were communicating the need to wash hands frequently and appropriately, and to practice social/physical distancing while at the station. In most stations (95%), hand washing practice was either not observed, or only infrequently. Almost all stations (93%) did not have alcohol-based hand sanitizers available for public use, while social distancing was rarely practiced (only 2%). In over 90% of the stations, face masks were either not worn or only worn by a few passengers. Compliance with COVID-19 prevention measures was inadequate in 13 stations, basic in 16 stations, intermediate in 7 stations, and advanced in 9 stations. Compliance with COVID-19 prevention measures in public transportation stations in the Greater Accra region remains a challenge. Awareness creation should aim to elevate COVID-19 risk perception of transportation operators and clients. Transport operators and stations need support and guidance to enforce hand washing and social distancing.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Gana , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 78, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and factors associated with active transportation to school (ATS) among Brazilian adolescents attending public schools. METHODS: Crossectional study with a representative sample of 1,984 adolescents (55.9% girls). Sociodemographic variables included were: gender, age, parental schooling, and socioeconomic status. Psychosocial factors included were: social support from parents and friends for physical activity. Walking, cycling, or skateboarding to school were considered models of active transportation. Binary logistic regression models verified sociodemographic and psychosocial factors association with ATS, adopting p < 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of active transportation to school was 37.7% (16.2% boys and 21.5% girls). For boys, ATS was associated with: social support from parents in practicing physical activity together as a family (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.09-2.25), giving them rides (OR = 1.56; 95%CI 1.04-2.32), and remarking their good performance on it (OR = 1.73; CI95 1.08-2.76); as well as the social support from friends in practicing physical activity together (OR = 2.23; 95%CI 1.35-3.69). For girls, the likelihood of using ATS increased with age (OR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.06-1.92) and having friends who practice physical activity together with them (OR = 1.48, 95%CI 1.04-2.10). CONCLUSION: Age and social support for physical activity were associated with ATS. Parents who practice together, give rides, and remark on physical activities increase the likelihood of adolescent boys using ATS. Social support from friends to physical activity increased the likelihood of both genders using ATS.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813745

RESUMO

Built environments have been cited as important facilitators of activity and research using geographic information systems (GIS) has emerged as a novel approach in exploring environmental determinants. The Active Children Through Individual Vouchers Evaluation Project used GIS to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of how teenager's (aged 13-14) environments impacted on their amount of activity and influences fitness. The ACTIVE Project recruited 270 participants aged 13-14 (year 9) from 7 secondary schools in south Wales, UK. Demographic data and objective measures of accelerometery and fitness were collected from each participant between September and December 2016. Objective data was mapped in a GIS alongside datasets relating to activity provision, active travel routes, public transport stops, main roads and natural resources. This study shows that fitness and physical activity are not correlated. Teenagers who had higher levels of activity also had higher levels of sedentary time/inactivity. Teenagers showed higher amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity if their homes were closer to public transport. However, they were also more active if their schools were further away from public transport and natural resources. Teenagers were fitter if schools were closer to natural resources. Sedentary behaviour, fitness and activity do not cluster in the same teenagers. Policymakers/planning committees need to consider this when designing teenage friendly environments. Access to public transport, active travel, green space and activities that teenagers want, and need could make a significant difference to teenage health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , País de Gales
20.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although clinical settings are increasingly screening for social determinants of health, essential questions about optimal screening remain. We aimed to assess primary care contexts of individuals choosing not to answer questions about health-related social needs and to compare screening question response with subsequent use of resource information. METHODS: We compared caregiver responses to an electronic survey administered during a child's emergency department visit and through telephone follow-up 2 weeks later by responses to questions about health-related social needs (no social needs endorsed, ≥1 endorsed, none endorsed but ≥1 question not answered). RESULTS: Of 146 respondents, 42 (29%) endorsed ≥1 health-related social need. Additionally, 19 (13%) endorsed no social needs but did not answer ≥1 question. Compared with those denying all social needs and those endorsing ≥1 social need, respondents who did not answer social needs screening questions reported longer duration since their child's last primary care visit, lower perceptions of primary care, and less social support. For the 61 respondents participating in the 2-week follow-up survey, reported use of a community resource packet was 37% among those who had reported a social need, 26% among those who had denied all social needs, and 0% among those who had not answered ≥1 social needs questions. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians and systems implementing screening for health-related social risks should plan for individuals who choose not to respond to specific items and may also wish to consider strategies that do not rely on screening and disclosure, particularly in communities known to have high prevalence of social needs.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Apoio Social , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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