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1.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1620-1625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterised by abnormal development in the first two years of life and impairment with respect to the following three areas: social interactions, communication, and behaviour. The disorder is more common in males than females. The aim: The study was conducted to assess the effects of sensory integration therapy on selected fitness skills in autistic children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The study assessed a group of 20 children (15 boys and 5 girls) aged 3 to 10 years. All children were diagnosed with autism and underwent 2-year therapy. The children showed impaired sensory modulation with abnormal stimulus reception and processing in the tactile, auditory, vestibular (balance), olfactory, and gustatory sensory systems. The study assessed fitness skills and their correlations with sensory integration therapy used in the children. The assessment used the Sensorimotor Development Questionnaire developed by Zbigniew Przyrowski and selected tests from "Obserwacja Kliniczna" as well as history-taking conducted with the parents. The following aspects were analysed: muscle tone, static balance, dynamic balance, jumping on two legs, jumping on one leg, catching and throwing a ball, and self-care activities, such as putting on shoes. RESULTS: Results: Sensory integration therapy contributed to an improvement in motor, sensory, cognitive, emotional, communication, and social development in the study patients. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: The use of sensory integration effectively supports sensory processes in autistic children.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21651, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Teaching has been found to be 1 of the most stressful occupations worldwide. Stress associated with teaching is more critical among teachers teaching children with special needs in general and those with autism specifically, partly due to the heterogeneous nature of the disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Occupational Health Coaching (REOHC) in minimizing job stress in teachers of children with autism (CWA). METHODS: A group-randomized waitlist control-trial design was adopted. A sample of 87 teachers of CWA who participated in the study was randomized into the immediate intervention group (IIG) and waitlist group (WLG). Participants were evaluated on 3 occasions: pretest, post-test and follow-up. Three instruments (Occupational Stress Index, Perceived Occupational Stress Scale and Stress Symptom Scale) were used to measure dimensions of job stress. After the pretest exercise, the IIG participated in a 2-hour REOHC programme weekly for a period of 12 weeks. Post- and follow-up evaluations were conducted respectively at 2 weeks and 3 months after the REOHC programme. Those in WLG were exposed to the REOHC after the follow-up assessment. Data collected were analysed using t-test statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance and bar charts. RESULTS: Results revealed that the perceived stress and stress symptoms of the REOHC group reduced significantly over WLG at post-test, and follow-up assessments. Changes in the occupational stress index scores across pre-, post- and follow-up measurements were minimal and could not account for a significant difference between the IIG and WLG. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that REOHC is effective in reducing subjective feelings and physiological symptoms of job stress, even when the objective stressors remain constant among teachers of CWA and other employees who work in stressful occupational environments.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crianças com Deficiência/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Elife ; 92020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746964

RESUMO

A metric called the Hurst exponent could be a useful biomarker for studies exploring brain differences between men and women with autism spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(31): 2446-2451, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819061

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the characteristics of executive function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with high functioning autism. Methods: A total of 165 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD group), 65 children with attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder comorbid with high functioning autism (ADHD-HFA group), and 84 healthy controls (control group) (based on the criteria of DSM-5) were recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of Child Healthcare Department of Shen Zhen Children's Hospital. The Rey complex figure test (RCFT), trail making test (TMT), Stroop color-word test were used to assess working memory, shifting and inhibition. Results: ADHD group (2.1±1.9, 7±5, 2.1±2.0 and 7±5) and ADHD-HFA group (2.0±2.0, 7±6, 2.0±2.1 and 6±5) performed worse than control group (3.4±2.0, 10±5, 3.4±2.0 and 10±6) in Rey complex figure test (all P<0.05). ADHD group ((171±8) s, (27.40±0.82) s and (52.29±1.62) s) and ADHD-HFA group ((197±11) s, (29.7±1.1) s and (58.6±2.1) s) group took longer time on the TMT-2, Stroop2 and Stroop4 test than control group ((135±18) s, (22.4±1.9) s and (38.7±3.8) s) (all P<0.05). In children with low intelligence quotient (IQ), ADHD group ((30±8) s) and ADHD-HFA group ((34±9) s) performed worse on Stroop3 test than control group ((20±4) s) (all P<0.05). In children with average IQ, ADHD group ((19±5) s and (24±8) s) took longer time on the Stroop1 and Stroop3 test than control group ((16±3) s and (19±4) s) (all P<0.05). In children with high IQ, ADHD-HFA group ((20±8) s) spent more time on Stroop1 than control group ((15±4) s) (P<0.05). Inattention symptoms were associated with the time on TMT-2 of ADHD-HFA group (r=0.275 and 0.329, all P<0.05). The score of item 1 in autism spectrum screening questionnaire (ASSQ) was negatively correlated with immediate recall structure and detail scores as well as delay structure scores of Rey complex figure test (r=-0.358, -0.326 and -0.306, all P<0.05). The score of item 4 was positively correlated with errors of Stroop4 (r=0.296, P<0.05). The score of item 22 was positively correlated with time of color interference (r=0.279, P<0.05). Conclusions: Children with ADHD-HFA are likely to demonstrate the spatial working memory, shifting and inhibition deficits associated with ADHD alone. Some domains of executive function impairment in ADHD-HFA group are related with symptoms of inattention/hyperactivity and autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Comorbidade , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760152

RESUMO

Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy induces a cytokine storm that alters neurodevelopment and behavior in the progeny. In humans, MIA increases the odds of developing neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In mice, MIA can be induced by injecting the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) to pregnant dams. Although the murine model of MIA has been extensively studied, it is not clear whether MIA results in cytokine changes in the progeny at early postnatal stages. Further, the murine model of MIA suffers from a lack of reproducibility and high inter-individual variability. Multivariable (MV) statistical analysis is widely used in human studies to control for confounders and covariates such as sex, age and exposure to environmental factors. We therefore reasoned that animal studies in general and studies on the MIA model in particular could benefit from MV analyses to account for complex phenotype interactions and high inter-individual variability. Here, we used MV statistical analysis to identify cytokines associated with MIA after adjustment for covariates. Besides confirming the association between previously described variables and MIA, we identified new cytokines that could play a role in behavioural alterations in the progeny during the early postnatal period.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Citocinas/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Análise Multivariada , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3959, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770077

RESUMO

It is unclear whether transgender and gender-diverse individuals have elevated rates of autism diagnosis or traits related to autism compared to cisgender individuals in large non-clinic-based cohorts. To investigate this, we use five independently recruited cross-sectional datasets consisting of 641,860 individuals who completed information on gender, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diagnoses including autism, and measures of traits related to autism (self-report measures of autistic traits, empathy, systemizing, and sensory sensitivity). Compared to cisgender individuals, transgender and gender-diverse individuals have, on average, higher rates of autism, other neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diagnoses. For both autistic and non-autistic individuals, transgender and gender-diverse individuals score, on average, higher on self-report measures of autistic traits, systemizing, and sensory sensitivity, and, on average, lower on self-report measures of empathy. The results may have clinical implications for improving access to mental health care and tailoring adequate support for transgender and gender-diverse individuals.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify a working hypothesis that thrombodynamic parameters of hypercoagulation and neuro-immune test correlate with the severity of catatonia in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the combination of these indicators can predict the severity of catatonia with high accuracy and precision. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ASD (22 boys and 2 girls) with infantile psychosis in childhood autism (ICD-10 F84.02) were studied. The median age of the patients was 5,5 years. Neuro-immune and thrombodynamics tests were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Thrombodynamic parameters of clot growth rates from the activator (V, Vi and Vst) are significantly higher than their normal values. The values of the time of spontaneous clots occurrence (Tsp) are significantly less than the lower limit values for the norm (30 min). It was also shown that the activity of leukocyte elastase (LE) and the functional activity of the α1 protein inhibitor (α1-PI) are significantly higher than their normal values. The values of the levels of autoantibodies to S100 protein (aabS100B) and the basic myelin protein (aabOBM) are within the normal range. The initial clot growth rate (Vi) and the time of spontaneous clots occurrence (Tsp) significantly correlate with the severity of catatonia: Spearman's R is 0,55 for Vi (p=0,009) and -0,61for Tsp (p=0,002). Among the parameters of the neuro-immuno-test, only aabS100B indicator significantly correlates with the severity of catatonia. To increase the informative significance and accuracy of the contribution of the studied correlates of thrombodynamics and the neuro-immuno-test to the assessment of the severity of catatonia in children with ASD, a multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to construct a linear equation for the relationship between the severity of catatonia and correlates of thrombodynamics and a neuro-immuno-test. The determination coefficient R2, which determines the informational significance of the regression model, is 0,63. The remaining 37% is explained by unaccounted and not yet known factors.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Catatonia , Transtornos Psicóticos , Trombofilia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 37(2): 490-514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822553

RESUMO

The definition of diagnostic categories, such as autism, is not always consensual. It can be the cause of political struggles between various actors, including professionals, public administrations or patient associations. However, little is known about the situation of patient or parent associations in these "diagnostic politics." We assert here that these associations are more sensitive to the politics of definition than is suggested by the current historiography. Through an analysis of discourses and strategies of the Quebec Autism Society from 1982 to 2017, we document the role that this association intended to play in the politics of autism and we show how the adoption by the state of diagnostic-based policies intensify definitional debates in civil society, including among parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/história , Política de Saúde/história , Sociedades/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Ativismo Político , Quebeque
11.
Nature ; 584(7820): 252-256, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760004

RESUMO

A fundamental challenge in developing treatments for autism spectrum disorders is the heterogeneity of the condition. More than one hundred genetic mutations confer high risk for autism, with each individual mutation accounting for only a small fraction of cases1-3. Subsets of risk genes can be grouped into functionally related pathways, most prominently those involving synaptic proteins, translational regulation, and chromatin modifications. To attempt to minimize this genetic complexity, recent therapeutic strategies have focused on the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin4-6, which regulate aspects of social behaviour in mammals7. However, it is unclear whether genetic risk factors predispose individuals to autism as a result of modifications to oxytocinergic signalling. Here we report that an autism-associated mutation in the synaptic adhesion molecule Nlgn3 results in impaired oxytocin signalling in dopaminergic neurons and in altered behavioural responses to social novelty tests in mice. Notably, loss of Nlgn3 is accompanied by a disruption of translation homeostasis in the ventral tegmental area. Treatment of Nlgn3-knockout mice with a new, highly specific, brain-penetrant inhibitor of MAP kinase-interacting kinases resets the translation of mRNA and restores oxytocin signalling and social novelty responses. Thus, this work identifies a convergence between the genetic autism risk factor Nlgn3, regulation of translation, and oxytocinergic signalling. Focusing on such common core plasticity elements might provide a pragmatic approach to overcoming the heterogeneity of autism. Ultimately, this would enable mechanism-based stratification of patient populations to increase the success of therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/deficiência , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Life Sci ; 258: 118197, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781059

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, usually suffer from bone diseases. Many studies have revealed a higher risk of fracture after atypical antipsychotic drug Risperidone (RIS) treatment, which is usually used to treat such disorders. It remains debatable whether neurodevelopmental disorders by itself are the cause of bone diseases or pharmacotherapy may be the reason. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study attempts to evaluate the biomechanical, histological, stereological, and molecular properties of bones in the offspring of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and saline-treated mothers that received saline, drug vehicle or the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone (RIS) at different days of postnatal development. After postnatal drug treatment, animals were assessed for autistic-like behaviors. Then their bones were taken for evaluations. RESULTS: Maternal LPS exposure resulted in deficits in all behavioral tests and RIS ameliorated these behaviors (p < 0.01& p < 0.05). The administration of LPS and RIS individually led to a significant decrease in the biomechanical parameters such as bone stiffness, strength and the energy used to fracture of bone. The numerical density of osteocalcin-positive cells were significantly decreased in these groups. These rats also had decreased RUNX2 and osteocalcin gene expression. When LPS rats were treated with RIS, these conditions were accelerated (p < 0.001). DISCUSSIONS: The results of our preclinical study, consistent with previous studies in animals, explore that autistic-like deficits induced by prenatal exposure to LPS, can reduce bone stability and bone mass similar to those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, and, for the first time, reveal that this condition worsened when these animals were treated with RIS.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/induzido quimicamente , Reabsorção Óssea/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Transtorno Autístico/sangue , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Comportamento Animal , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Reabsorção Óssea/sangue , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Risperidona/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Estereotipado
13.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(5): 7405205140p1-7405205140p17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804632

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Autistic adults face decreased community participation for employment, education, and social activities plus barriers to driving and transportation. However, little is known about their experiences of moving around community environments. OBJECTIVE: To explore contextual issues and experiences of independent community mobility and driving for autistic adults and to determine the modes of community mobility, regions studied, and methodologies used. DATA SOURCES: Seven databases were searched from 2000 to 2019. All empirical research relating to autism, community mobility, and driving for people older than age 5 yr was mapped. Studies examining experiences of community mobility and driving were selected for scoping review. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA COLLECTION: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews methodology was used. Thirteen studies reporting specifically on autistic adults' experiences with public transportation, driving, and pedestrian navigation of community environments were included. These studies were analyzed using concepts from the Person-Environment-Occupation-Performance Model. FINDINGS: Nine studies examined experiences of autistic adults. Seven studies explored proxy perspectives. Those studies examining driving primarily focused on learner driver experiences. Although most studies reported on personal and environmental factors, some studies reported on broader social communication and personal narrative factors. None used inclusive methodology involving autistic adults. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A broader focus on the contextual experiences of community mobility and driving is needed to support participation of autistic adults in their communities. Linking community mobility experiences with participation outcomes and expanding research to include experienced drivers and nonurban populations is an important component of this work. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Occupational therapy interventions should address community mobility and driving skills before school transition. Autistic adults' skill development may be affected by person factors such as motivation, anxiety, social skills, communication, and occupational performance desires. Environmental factors such as parental concerns, community safety, pedestrian environments, traffic volume, and public transportation design are important. Further research partnering with autistic adults could better inform future occupational therapy interventions for community mobility and driving.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Condução de Veículo , Terapia Ocupacional , Adulto , Humanos , Meio Social , Transportes
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236994, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854110

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prematurity has been identified as a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and birth-week has not been strongly evidenced. We evaluated the correlation between the degree of prematurity and the incidence of autism in a cohort of 871 children born prematurely and followed from birth. The cohort was reduced to 416 premature infants born between 2011-2017 who were followed for 2-14 years, and analyzed according to birth week (degree of prematurity), and according to gender. RESULTS: 43 children (10.3%) received a definite diagnosis of ASD. There was a significant correlation between birth week and the risk of ASD, with 22.6% of children diagnosed with ASD when born at 25 weeks, versus 6% of ASD diagnoses at 31 weeks of prematurity. For children born after 32 weeks, the incidence decreased to 8-12.5%. A strong link was found between earlier birth week and increased autism risk; the risk remained elevated during near-term prematurity in boys. A correlation between early birth week and an elevated risk for ASD was seen in all children, but accentuated in females, gradually decreasing as birth week progresses; in males the risk for ASD remains elevated for any birth week. CONCLUSION: A statistically significant increase in rates of autism was found with each additional week of prematurity. Females drove this direct risk related to degree of prematurity, while males had an elevated risk throughout prematurity weeks, even at near-term. We recommend including ASD screening in follow up of infants born prematurely, at all levels of prematurity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e122, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645795

RESUMO

Autism has been described as a neural deficit in prediction, people with autism manifest low perceptual construal and are impaired at traversing psychological distances, and Gilead et al.'s hierarchy from iconic to multimodal to fully abstract, socially communicated representations is exactly the hierarchy of representational impairment in autism, making autism a natural behavioural and neurophysiological test case for the prediction-abstraction relationship.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Encéfalo , Humanos , Futilidade Médica , Rios
17.
Mol Autism ; 11(1): 61, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698850

RESUMO

The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is changing how society operates. Environmental changes, disrupted routines, and reduced access to services and social networks will have a unique impact on autistic individuals and their families and will contribute to significant deterioration in some. Access to support is crucial to address vulnerability factors, guide adjustments in home environments, and apply mitigation strategies to improve coping. The current crisis highlights that our regular care systems are not sufficient to meet the needs of the autism communities. In many parts of the world, people have shifted to online school and increased use of remote delivery of healthcare and autism supports. Access to these services needs to be increased to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19 and future epidemics/pandemics. The rapid expansion in the use of telehealth platforms can have a positive impact on both care and research. It can help to address key priorities for the autism communities including long waitlists for assessment and care, access to services in remote locations, and restricted hours of service. However, system-level changes are urgently needed to ensure equitable access and flexible care models, especially for families and individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. COVID-19 mandates the use of technology to support a broader range of care options and better meet the diverse needs of autistic people and their families. It behooves us to use this crisis as an opportunity to foster resilience not only for a given individual or their family, but also the system: to drive enduring and autism-friendly changes in healthcare, social systems, and the broader socio-ecological contexts.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Resiliência Psicológica , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Neuropsychopharmacol Hung ; 22(2): 60-71, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683330

RESUMO

In our review we describe the development of savant syndrome as a concept, its historical antecedents, most important characteristics and spectrum of savantism, and the frequency and features of the most common savant abilities. We present the relationship between autism and savant syndrome, the eff ect of genetic and familial factors, and the characteristics of savant memory functions and intelligence. We provide an overview of the most important theories explaining savantism and the future direction of research.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Humanos , Inteligência , Memória
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