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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 97-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006358

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex heterogeneous consortium of pervasive development disorders (PDD) which ranges from atypical autism, autism, and Asperger syndrome affecting brain in the developmental stage. This debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder results in both core as well as associated symptoms. Core symptoms observed in autistic patients are lack of social interaction, pervasive, stereotyped, and restricted behavior while the associated symptoms include irritability, anxiety, aggression, and several comorbid disorders.ASD is a polygenic disorder and is multifactorial in origin. Copy number variations (CNVs) of several genes that regulate the synaptogenesis and signaling pathways are one of the major factors responsible for the pathogenesis of autism. The complex integration of various CNVs cause mutations in the genes which code for molecules involved in cell adhesion, voltage-gated ion-channels, scaffolding proteins as well as signaling pathways (PTEN and mTOR pathways). These mutated genes are responsible for affecting synaptic transmission by causing plasticity dysfunction responsible, in turn, for the expression of ASD.Epigenetic modifications affecting DNA transcription and various pre-natal and post-natal exposure to a variety of environmental factors are also precipitating factors for the occurrence of ASD. All of these together cause dysregulation of glutamatergic signaling as well as imbalance in excitatory: inhibitory pathways resulting in glial cell activation and release of inflammatory mediators responsible for the aberrant social behavior which is observed in autistic patients.In this chapter we review and provide insight into the intricate integration of various genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors which play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disorder and the mechanistic approach behind this integration.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Epigênese Genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos
2.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 535-545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006372

RESUMO

Along with the issues of inflated social and financial burden associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), specific treatment for this disorder has also not been developed. Having a thorough look at previous trials done to treat autism, we find that nutrition intervention had been used frequently as a complementary form of therapy. Indeed, an early diagnosis of nutrition deficiency and metabolic disorders done concomitantly with accurate therapeutic interventions can be a cornerstone for improving cognitive and behavioral aptitudes of people with autism. Several studies have showed that increasing the intake of specific nutrients can reduce the symptoms and comorbidities associated with autism. Consequently, nutrition intervention and appropriate supplementation can be crucial in managing and treating autism. This paper will discuss recent literature on the significance of metabolic aspects in autistic disorder and highlight the influence of nutrition intervention on the symptoms of autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/dietoterapia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Humanos
3.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 587-600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006375

RESUMO

Characterized by a wide range of behavioural, social and language problems, autism is a complex developmental disability that affects an individual's capacity to communicate and interact with others. Although the real causes that lead to the development of autism are still unclear, the gastrointestinal tract has been found to play a major role in the development of autism. Alterations in macrobiotic compositions have been reported in autistic children. Irregularities in carbohydrate digestion and absorption could also explain some of the gastrointestinal problems reported in autistic patients, although their role in the neurological and behavioural problems remains uncertain. A relationship between improved gut health and decrease of symptoms in autism has been reported as well. Studies done to evaluate the gluten-free diets, casein-free diets, pre- and probiotic and multivitamin supplementation have shown promising results. Probiotics have been thought to alleviate the progression of autism and reduce cognitive and behavioural deficits.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/dietoterapia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos
4.
BMJ ; 368: l6880, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992555

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (referred to here as autism) is one of several overlapping neurodevelopmental conditions that have variable impacts on different individuals. This variability results from dynamic interactions between biological and non-biological risk factors, which result in increasing differentiation between individuals over time. Although this differentiation continues well into adulthood, the infancy period is when the brain and behavior develop rapidly, and when the first signs and symptoms of autism emerge. This review discusses advances in our understanding of the causal pathways leading to autism and overlapping neurodevelopmental conditions. Research is also mapping trajectories of brain and behavioral development for some risk groups, namely later born siblings of children with autism and/or infants referred because of developmental concerns. This knowledge has been useful in improving early identification and establishing the feasibility of targeted interventions for infant risk groups before symptoms arise. However, key knowledge gaps remain, such as the discovery of protective factors (biological or environmental) that may mitigate the impact of risk. Also, the dynamic mechanisms that underlie the associations between risk factors and outcomes need further research. These include the processes of resilience, which may explain why some individuals at risk for autism achieve better than expected outcomes. Bridging these knowledge gaps would help to provide tools for early identification and intervention that reflect dynamic developmental pathways from risk to outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fatores de Proteção , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Lactente , Prognóstico , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4679, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616000

RESUMO

Postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here, we present detailed clinical and genetic data for 20 patients with likely gene-disrupting mutations in TANC2-whose protein product interacts with multiple PSD proteins. Pediatric patients with disruptive mutations present with autism, intellectual disability, and delayed language and motor development. In addition to a variable degree of epilepsy and facial dysmorphism, we observe a pattern of more complex psychiatric dysfunction or behavioral problems in adult probands or carrier parents. Although this observation requires replication to establish statistical significance, it also suggests that mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders consistent with its postsynaptic function. We find that TANC2 is expressed broadly in the human developing brain, especially in excitatory neurons and glial cells, but shows a more restricted pattern in Drosophila glial cells where its disruption affects behavioral outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 340-346, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism is a widespread developmental disorder that occurs mostly among children. Children with autism are prone to problematic behaviors due to their deficiencies in language communication and social development. Thus, children with a high degree of autism suffer lower life satisfaction. Moreover, sensory integration dysfunction is closely related to autism. Therefore, the effect of Sensory Integration Training (SIT) on the behaviors and quality of life of children with autism was explored in this study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From September 2017 to December 2018, 108 patients from Fuzhou Fourth Hospital and Xiangtan Fifth Hospital were included in the intervention group (group A) and the control group (group B), with 54 members in each group. The 54 members in group B, with an average age of 5.18±2.94, received routine treatment. In addition to the same routine treatment, the members in group B also received sensory integration training and physical exercise intervention, which lasted for three months. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) were used before and after the intervention experiment to evaluate the curative effect. RESULTS: After the treatment, statistically significant differences were observed in the CARS and ABC scores (P<0.05); the total effective rate was 86.11% in group A and 64.10% in group B. The difference in the CARS score was statistically significant (P<0.05), whereas the difference in the ABC score was also statistically significant (P<0.05). In general, the difference in CARS is statistically significant. Specifically, group A is better than group B, t=3.492, df=73, and bilateral P=0.001<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: SIT intervention had a certain effect on autism and is of great value for the future development of SIT courses or intervention programs for children with autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Lista de Checagem , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
7.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 5023-5035, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493155

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to identify the profiles of families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability (ID) based on several risk indicators: sociodemographic and emotional indicators, parental stress, confidant social support, and coping strategies. A second aim was to determine the differences in communicative skills between children of family subtypes empirically established according to the aforementioned risk factors. Participants were 52 Spanish mothers and their children with ASD. Through cluster analysis, three subtypes of families were identified, classifying them as "high risk, moderate risk, and little risk". The "little risk" profile showed significantly less stress and greater use of coping strategies and confidant social support. Furthermore, the children's communication exhibited better development, compared to children from the other family environments.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Comunicação , Família , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Masculino , Habilidades Sociais
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 5036-5046, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494785

RESUMO

The rate of diagnosis of autism in adults has increased over recent years; however, the profile of behaviours in these individuals is less understood than the profile seen in those diagnosed in childhood. Better understanding of this profile will be essential to identify and remove potential barriers to diagnosis. Using an abbreviated form of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, comparisons were drawn between the profile of a sample of able adults diagnosed in adulthood and the profile of a sample of able children. Results revealed both similarities and differences. A relative strength in non-verbal communication highlighted a potential barrier to diagnosis according to DSM-5 criteria for the adult sample, which may also have prevented them from being diagnosed as children.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Comunicação/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Transtornos da Comunicação/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 5078-5085, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489539

RESUMO

Past research suggested that, due to difficulties in mentalistic reasoning, individuals with autism tend to base their moral judgments on the outcome of agents' actions rather than on agents' intentions. In a novel task, aimed at reducing the processing demands required to represent intentions and generate a judgment, autistic children were presented with agents that accidentally harmed or attempted but failed to harm others and were asked to judge those agents. Most of the times, children blamed the character who attempted to harm and exculpated the accidental wrongdoer, suggesting that they generated intent-based moral judgments. These findings suggest that processing limitations rather than lack of conceptual competence explain the poor performance reported in previous research on moral judgment in autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino
10.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(4): 168-174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to compare the adult-onset and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients in terms of the subthreshold autistic traits. METHODS: 29 adolescent, and 45 adult-onset OCD patients were assessed by Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). RESULTS: The ratio of males to females, the frequency of ritualistic compulsions, and the mean number of lifetime compulsions were significantly higher in adolescents with OCD compared to adult-onset patients. Adult-onset OCD patients had significantly higher scores on total, social skills, attention shifting, and imagination subscales of AQ than adolescent OCD patients. The mean number of compulsions, attention shifting scores of AQ, and female gender significantly predicted the distinction between adolescent and adult-onset OCD patients. In adult-onset patients, there were significant correlations between the mean number of lifetime obsessions and total, social skills, attention switching, communication, and imagination subscale scores of AQ. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that subthreshold autistic traits may play a significant role in the occurence of obsessive-complusive symptoms (OCS) in adult-onset OCD. Autistic traits seemed to be higher and had an closer relationship with the frequency of lifetime obsessions in AO-OCD patients than in adolescent patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Comportamento Obsessivo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação de Sintomas
11.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4421-4428, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385175

RESUMO

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can improve anxiety and depression in autistic adults, but few autistic adults receive this treatment. We examined factors that may influence clinicians' use of CBT with autistic adults. One hundred clinicians completed an online survey. Clinicians reported stronger intentions (p = .001), more favorable attitudes (p < .001), greater normative pressure (p < .001), and higher self-efficacy (p < .001) to start CBT with non-autistic adults than with autistic adults. The only significant predictor of intentions to begin CBT with clients with anxiety or depression was clinicians' attitudes (p < .001), with more favorable attitudes predicting stronger intentions. These findings are valuable for designing effective, tailored implementation strategies to increase clinicians' adoption of CBT for autistic adults.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Cognição , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416123

RESUMO

As a result of various barriers, several pediatric populations are at risk for poor oral health, including children with disabilities and children from under-represented populations, such as Latinos. To this end, this study aimed to better understand the factors that affect the oral health experiences of 32 Latino parents/caregivers from 18 families (n = 8 with a typically developing child and n = 10 with a child with Autism). Using a qualitative descriptive methodology, each family was interviewed twice. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded thematically to identify the individual, social, systemic, and culturally rooted factors contributing to oral health disparities in the families. The three themes that arose were "Why would I want to start trouble?": Latino parents' dissatisfaction with dental treatments, costs, and fear of the dentist and health care providers because of their ethnic minority status as key factors inhibiting receipt of dental care; "We have to put our children first": prioritizing the oral care activities of their children over their own individual oral care needs; and "We always keep baking soda around": familial and cultural influences on oral care habits. Understanding the oral health beliefs and experiences of Latino parents and caregivers of children with and without autism is critical for developing targeted prevention and intervention programs and reducing oral health disparities.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Saúde Bucal , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia
13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4559-4571, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414264

RESUMO

Autistic people often show difficulty with facial expression recognition. However, the degree of difficulty varies widely, which might reflect varying symptom profiles. We examined three domains of autistic traits in the typical population and found that more autistic-like social skills were associated with greater difficulty labelling expressions, and more autistic-like communication was associated with greater difficulty labelling and perceptually discriminating between expressions. There were no associations with autistic-like attention to detail. We also found that labelling, but not perceptual, difficulty was mediated by alexithymia. We found no evidence that labelling or perceptual difficulty was mediated by weakened adaptive coding. Results suggest expression recognition varies between the sub-clinical expressions of autistic symptom domains and reflects both co-occurring alexithymia and perceptual difficulty.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Atenção , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Transtornos da Comunicação/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtornos da Comunicação/complicações , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(10): 4123-4133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440868

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare cognitive and memory abilities between older adults with and without autism over the age of 50. Twenty-eight individuals with autism and 29 typically developing (TD) older adults took part in the current study. Participants' cognitive and memory abilities were assessed by WAIS-IV and WMS-IV. Older autistic adults were found to have poorer performance in processing speed and visual working memory, but they performed at a similar level as TD controls in all other domains. Poorer processing speed and visual working memory are also often found to be associated with age-related decline in neurotypical adults. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore how the combination of ageing and autism affects cognitive functioning in older adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Cognição , Memória de Curto Prazo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4646-4657, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463630

RESUMO

In a context described as a challenge in parenting (having an autistic child), we sought to highlight the emotional skills that mothers gain as a result of interacting with their child, and how they then use these skills. Mothers of autistic children (n = 136) and mothers of non-autistic children (n = 139) responded to emotional intelligence, resilience, and coping scales. Comparisons revealed smaller differences between groups than expected. Nevertheless, mothers of autistic children showed greater resilience abilities than mothers of non-autistic children. Moreover, we noted differences between both groups regarding their use of emotional skills. Emotional intelligence is a resource that deserves to be explored in terms of its clinical implications, especially among the parents of autistic children.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 4834-4846, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463632

RESUMO

Current understandings of the sexuality of autistic females have been predominantly drawn from qualitative studies. This study aimed to quantitatively examine the sexual functioning of autistic females (N = 135), by comparing these to the sexual interest, behaviours, and experiences to 96 autistic males and 161 typically developing females. Autistic females reported less sexual interest, yet more experiences than autistic males. More autistic females also reported engaging in sexual behaviours that were later regretted, unwanted, or receiving unwanted sexual advances. Differences between autistic and typically developing females were significant. Results indicate that due to a mismatch between less sexual interest, yet increased sexual behaviours, autistic women are at greater risk of negative sexual experiences including victimisation and abuse than autistic men.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4482-4487, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451966

RESUMO

People with autism are often characterized as having difficulties with theory of mind abilities such as emotion recognition. However, rather than being a pervasive deficit of 'mindblindness,' a number of studies suggests these difficulties vary by context, and when people with autism mindread non-human agents, such as animals or cartoons, these abilities improve. To replicate this effect, 15 adolescents with both autism and intellectual disability participated in a test of facial emotion recognition, with both human and animal faces. Participants performed significantly better on the animal version of the assessment compared to the human version, and human rather than animal scores were the strongest predictor of symptom severity. These results were shown to be primarily driven by improvement in recognition of the emotions happiness and anger in animal rather than human faces. Implications with regards to social motivation and theory of mind interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Emoções , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Adolescente , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Teoria da Mente
18.
Estilos clín ; 24(2): 329-341, maio-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1039858

RESUMO

Este artigo visa estender a noção de estrutura do sujeito - entendida como efeito de um encontro contingencial, marcado pela ruptura e fadado à repetição - para o campo dos autismos. Apresenta-se uma investigação do processo que leva à constituição do falante, associada à hipótese de que o autismo evidencia fortes indícios de um processo de subjetivação particular. Tal proposição incide sob a direção do tratamento, como um modo de abordar os sujeitos autistas com uma presença de demanda calculada.


Este artículo pretende extender la noción de estructura del sujeto - entendida como efecto de un encuentro contingencial, marcado por la ruptura e condenado a la repetición - en los casos autismos. Se presenta una investigación del proceso que lleva a la constitución del hablante, asociada a la hipótesis de que el autismo evidencia fuertes indicios de un proceso de subjetivación particular. Esta proposición se refiere bajo la dirección del tratamiento, como un modo de abordar a los sujetos autistas con una presencia de demanda calculada.


This article aims to extend the notion of the structure of the subject - understood as the effect of a contingent meeting, marked by the rupture and bound to the repetition - to the field of autisms, articulating it to its impact in the psychoanalytic approach of the people with autism. We present an investigation of the process that leads to the constitution of the speaker, associated with the hypothesis that the autism shows strong indications of a particular subjectivation process. Such a proposition focuses under the direction of treatment, as a way of approaching autistic subjects with a presence of calculated demand.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia
19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(10): 4079-4096, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267287

RESUMO

Investigated between-group differences in cognitive/affective theory of mind (ToM) and predictors of cognitive ToM both within broad autism phenotype/non (BAP/Non-BAP) groups as well as across the sample. The BAP group (n = 45) performed worse than the Non-BAP group (n = 102) on the unexpected outcomes test (UOT), but groups were similar regarding reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET). Stepwise regression indicated RMET best predicted UOT for the BAP group; block design best predicted UOT in the Non-BAP group. BAP traits did not mediate the relation of RMET to UOT performance. While RMET and UOT appear similarly related in BAP/Non-BAP samples, use of emotion recognition abilities in a cognitive ToM task may reflect over-reliance on this skill in the BAP.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência , Teoria da Mente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(10): 4067-4078, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267288

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether empathizing and systemizing are part of the parental broad autism phenotype (BAP). Parents (N = 76) of preschool children with a diagnosis of ASD and parents (N = 48) of typically developing (TD) children completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) questionnaires. The E-S discrepancy (D score) was used to test for sex differences in five "brain types". Our results suggest that the E-S theory do not seem to be part of the BAP. However, a stronger drive to systemize than empathize (Type S brain) could be a highly inheritable cognitive endophenotype of mothers of children with ASD. This study should be repeated with a larger sample size.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Empatia , Adulto , Encéfalo , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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