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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 35-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002921

RESUMO

Electrocortical network dynamics are integral to brain function. Linear and nonlinear connectivity applications enrich neurophysiological investigations into anxiety disorders. Discrete EEG-based connectivity networks are unfolding with some homogeneity for anxiety disorder subtypes. Attenuated delta/theta/beta connectivity networks, pertaining to anterior-posterior nodes, characterize panic disorder. Nonlinear measures suggest reduced connectivity of ACC as an executive neuro-regulator in germane "fear circuitry networks" might be more central than considered. Enhanced network complexity and theta network efficiency at rest define generalized anxiety disorder, with similar tonic hyperexcitability apparent in social anxiety disorder further extending to task-related/state functioning. Dysregulated alpha connectivity and integration of mPFC-ACC/mPFC-PCC relays implicated with attentional flexibility and choice execution/congruence neurocircuitry are observed in trait anxiety. Conversely, state anxiety appears to recruit converging delta and beta connectivity networks as panic, suggesting trait and state anxiety are modulated by discrete neurobiological mechanisms. Furthermore, EEG connectivity dynamics distinguish anxiety from depression, despite prevalent clinical comorbidity. Rethinking mechanisms implicated in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety from the perspective of EEG network science across micro- and macroscales serves to shed light and move the field forward.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Rede Nervosa , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Medo , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793544

RESUMO

AIM: To assess spatial working memory disorders in patients with mild depressive disorders and determine their neurophysiological correlates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients (right-handed) with ICD-10 diagnosis Mood Disorders (F31.3, F32.0, F33.0, F34.1), aged 37±8 years, were examined before treatment. A control group included 30 mentally and somatically healthy individuals (32±7 years old). The study of spatial working memory was carried out using the Corsi Block-Tapping test. EEG was recorded and the values of the spectral power of theta, alpha and beta rhythms were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A decrease in the level of working memory that was correlated with higher values of theta rhythm power in the frontal and occipital regions and alpha rhythm in the frontal cortex was observed in affective disorders with mild depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo , Transtornos da Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adulto , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor , Ritmo Teta
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1180: 135-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784961

RESUMO

Depression is a devastating disorder with a combination of diverse symptoms such as low self-esteem, lack of motivation, anhedonia, loss of appetite, low energy, and discomfort without a clear cause. Depression has been suggested to be the result of maladaptive changes in specific brain circuits. Recently, the lateral habenula (LHb) has emerged as a key brain region in the pathophysiology of depression. Increasing evidence from rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies indicates that the aberrant activity of the LHb is associated with depressive symptoms such as helplessness, anhedonia, and excessive negative focus. Revealing the molecular, cellular, and circuit properties of the LHb will help explain how abnormalities in LHb activity are linked to depressive disorders and shed light on developing novel strategies for depression treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Habenula/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1180: 147-178, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784962

RESUMO

Stress is an adaptive response to environment aversive stimuli and a common life experience of one's daily life. Chronic or excessive stress especially that happened in early life is found to be deleterious to individual's physical and mental health, which is highly related to depressive disorders onset. Stressful life events are consistently considered to be the high-risk factors of environment for predisposing depressive disorders. In linking stressful life events with depressive disorder onset, dysregulated HPA axis activity is supposed to play an important role in mediating aversive impacts of life stress on brain structure and function. Increasing evidence have indicated the strong association of stress, especially the chronic stress and early life stress, with depressive disorders development, while the association of stress with depression is moderated by genetic risk factors, including polymorphism of SERT, BDNF, GR, FKBP5, MR, and CRHR1. Meanwhile, stressful life experience particularly early life stress will exert epigenetic modification in these risk genes via DNA methylation and miRNA regulation to generate long-lasting effects on these genes expression, which in turn cause brain structural and functional alteration, and finally increase the vulnerability to depressive disorders. Therefore, the interaction of environment with gene, in which stressful life exposure interplay with genetic risk factors and epigenetic modification, is essential in predicting depressive disorders development. As the mediator of environmental risk factors, stress will function together with genetic and epigenetic mechanism to influence brain structure and function, physiology and psychology, and finally the vulnerability to depressive disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Epigênese Genética , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(12): 1306-1318, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591521

RESUMO

Most psychopathological disorders develop in adolescence. The biological basis for this development is poorly understood. To enhance diagnostic characterization and develop improved targeted interventions, it is critical to identify behavioural symptom groups that share neural substrates. We ran analyses to find relationships between behavioural symptoms and neuroimaging measures of brain structure and function in adolescence. We found two symptom groups, consisting of anxiety/depression and executive dysfunction symptoms, respectively, that correlated with distinct sets of brain regions and inter-regional connections, measured by structural and functional neuroimaging modalities. We found that the neural correlates of these symptom groups were present before behavioural symptoms had developed. These neural correlates showed case-control differences in corresponding psychiatric disorders, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in independent clinical samples. By characterizing behavioural symptom groups based on shared neural mechanisms, our results provide a framework for developing a classification system for psychiatric illness that is based on quantitative neurobehavioural measures.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Anisotropia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Correlação de Dados , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5705232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612144

RESUMO

Postmenopausal depression is closely associated with depletion of estrogen which modulates transmission of 5-HT, a key neurotransmitter that regulates stress-managing circuits in the brain. In this study, antidepressive efficacy of white ginseng (Panax gingseng Meyer, WG) was evaluated in stressed ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and repeatedly restraint stressed for 2 weeks (2h/day). Thirty minutes before restraint stress, rats were administered saline (control), WG 200 mg/kg (p.o.), WG 400 mg/kg (p.o.), or fluoxetine (PC, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed to assess antidepressant effect of WG. After behavioral tests, levels of serum corticosterone (CORT) and hippocampal 5-HT were measured. Significant decrease of immobility time in TST and FST was shown in rats administered with PC or WG 400 compared to the control. WG200-treated rats showed remarkable reduction in immobility time of TST. PC, WG 200, or WG 400-administred group exhibited significant reduction of CORT compared to the control. PC or WG-treated rats exhibited remarkable increase in hippocampal 5-HT concentration compared to the control. Hippocampal 5-HT levels in WG groups were higher than those in the PC group. The present study demonstrated that WG had antidepressant efficacy in an animal model of menopausal depression. Treatment with WG enhanced hippocampal 5-HT level while suppressing depressive symptom and serum CORT level. These results provide evidence that WG plays an important role in activating serotonergic neurons in stressful situation, suggesting that WG might be a reliable natural alternative of antidepressant drugs to treat menopausal depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/métodos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Natação
7.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(3): 232-237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587015

RESUMO

Emotional stress is considered a serious pathogenetic factor of depression. In this study an ultrasound model of emotional stress developed in our laboratory was applied. It is characterized by the use of ultrasound as the stressor agent. Animals are triggered not by any organic or physical disturbances but by the perception of adverse information. This type of stress can induce depressive-like behavioral changes in rodents, manifested by decreased sucrose preference and increased time of immobility in a forced swim test. Ultrasound stress also increased the levels of oxidative stress markers. This is important, as stress has an established association with increased oxidative processes in the central nervous system. Total glutathione and carbonyl protein content were selected as relevant brain markers, as glutathione plays a critical role in cellular defensive mechanisms during oxidative stress and the level of protein carbonyls can be a measure of global protein oxidation. We demonstrated that two weeks of chronic exposure to ultrasound was enough to cause depressive-like behavioral changes in rats. Increased levels of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were also observed after two weeks of such stress. The current study has two goals: the first is to study the relationship of depression and oxidative stress; the second is an additional validation of our approach to modeling stress­induced depressive-like states in rats. The present data further support the validity of the ultrasound model by expanding information related to the influence of ultrasound stress on behavioral and physiological parameters, which are of great importance in the development of stress-induced depression. A time correlation between the onset of symptoms and a change in the level of oxidative stress markers in the brain is also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ratos
8.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 438-444, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482756

RESUMO

Pain is a subjective experience that is influenced by genetics, gender, social, cultural and personal parameters. Opposed to chronic pain, which by definition has to last for at least 3 months, acute pain is mostly because of trauma, acute medical conditions or treatment. The link between mood disorders and acute pain has proven to be increasingly significant since the link is bi-directional, and both act as risk factors for each other. Depression and anxiety are associated with increased perception of pain severity, whereas prolonged duration of acute pain leads to increased mood dysregulation. Although both depression and anxiety have a proven association with acute pain, the link between depression and acute pain is more thoroughly studied. Pain can be the presenting or sole complaint in depressed patients who present to primary care practices and is often overlooked by clinicians. However, reports on the perception of experimentally-induced pain in depressed patients are mixed, showing both an increased and decreased pain threshold and pain tolerance across various studies. Although less data is published about anxiety and pain, the relationship is consistent across studies as increased anxiety leads to increased severity of pain perceived and decreased pain tolerance. Anxiety as well as fear, stress, and catastrophizing are also shown to be mediators in the causal pathway between pain and disability.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Dor Aguda/epidemiologia , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Dor Aguda/terapia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Catastrofização/epidemiologia , Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(6): 596-609, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368736

RESUMO

Associations between stressful life events (SLEs) and internalizing psychopathology are complex and bidirectional, involving interactions among stressors across development to predict psychopathology (i.e., stress sensitization) and psychopathology predicting greater exposure to SLEs (i.e., stress generation). Although stress sensitization and generation theoretical models inherently focus on within-person effects, most previous research has compared average levels of stress and psychopathology across individuals in a sample (i.e., between-person effects). The present study addressed this gap by investigating stress sensitization and stress generation effects in a multiwave, prospective study of SLEs and adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Depression, anxiety, and SLE exposure were assessed every 3 months for 2 years (8 waves of data) in a sample of adolescents (n = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline). Multilevel modeling revealed within-person stress sensitization effects such that the association between within-person increases in SLEs and depression, but not anxiety, symptoms were stronger among adolescents who experienced higher average levels of SLEs across 2 years. We also observed within-person stress generation effects, such that adolescents reported a greater number of dependent-interpersonal SLEs during time periods after experiencing higher levels of depression at the previous wave than was typical for them. Although no within-person stress generation effects emerged for anxiety, higher overall levels of anxiety predicted greater exposure to dependent-interpersonal SLEs. Our findings extend prior work by demonstrating stress sensitization in predicting depression following normative forms of SLEs and stress generation effects for both depression and anxiety using a multilevel modeling approach. Clinical implications include an individualized approach to interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
10.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(5): 746-750, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277789

RESUMO

Beta blockers reduce mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Early reports linking ß-blockers with depression may have limited their use in heart failure patients with co-morbid depression. Although more recent studies have challenged the association between ß-blocker therapy and depression, patient and physicians remain concerned. The goal of this study is to evaluate the utilization and outcomes of ß-blocker therapy in heart failure patients with depression. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients at a multicenter integrated healthcare system with a diagnosis of heart failure from 2008 to 2014. Among 6,915 patients with heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of <50%, 1,252 (18.1%) had a diagnosis of depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be women and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Depression was associated with decreased odds of ß-blocker treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.95; p = 0.016). During a mean follow-up of 2.6 years, 439 (35.1%) patients with depression died compared with 1,549 (27.4%) patients without depression. Depressed patients not treated with ß-blocker had higher mortality compared with nondepressed patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.4, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.7, p = 0.005). When treated with ß-blockers, their risk of mortality was attenuated (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.2, p = 0.14). In conclusion, ß-blocker therapy remains underutilized in heart failure patients with depression, and its underutilization contributes to the reduced survival rate observed in this cohort.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Volume Sistólico , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(14): 1689-1699, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression affects approximately 5% of elderly people and its etiology might be related to chronic stress exposure during neurodevelopmental periods. In this study, we examined the effects of adolescent chronic social stress in aged mice on depressive behaviors and the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance in stress-sensitive regions of the brain. METHODS: Sixty-four adolescent, male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either the 7-week (from post-natal days 29 to 77) social instability stress (stress group, n = 32) or normal housing conditions (control group, n = 32). At 15 months of age, 16 mice were randomly selected from each group for a series of behavioral tests, including two depression-related tasks (the sucrose preference test and the tail suspension test). Three days following the last behavioral test, eight mice were randomly selected from each group for immunohistochemical analyses to measure the cell density of parvalbumin (PV)- and calretinin (CR)-positive gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory inter-neurons, and the expression levels of vesicular transporters of glutamate-1 (VGluT1) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in three stress-sensitive regions of the brain (the medial pre-frontal cortex [mPFC], hippocampus, and amygdala). RESULTS: Behaviorally, compared with the control group, adolescent chronic stress increased depression-like behaviors as shown in decreased sucrose preference (54.96 ±â€Š1.97% vs. 43.11 ±â€Š2.85%, t(22) = 3.417, P = 0.003) and reduced latency to immobility in the tail suspension test (92.77 ±â€Š25.08 s vs. 33.14 ±â€Š5.95 s, t(25) = 2.394, P = 0.025), but did not affect anxiety-like behaviors and pre-pulse inhibition. At the neurobiologic level, adolescent stress down-regulated PV, not CR, inter-neuron density in the mPFC (F(1, 39) = 19.30, P < 0.001), and hippocampus (F(1, 42) = 5.823, P = 0.020) and altered the CR, not PV, inter-neuron density in the amygdala (F(1, 28) = 23.16, P < 0.001). The VGluT1/VGAT ratio was decreased in all three regions (all F > 10.09, all P < 0.004), which suggests stress-induced hypoexcitability in these regions. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic stress during adolescence increased depression-like behaviors in aged mice, which may be associated with the E/I imbalance in stress-sensitive brain regions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Proteína Vesicular 1 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
12.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(2): 184-192, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342954

RESUMO

Depression is a chronic illness of unknown etiology. Trace elements, such as copper and zinc, and defense antioxidants, such as catalase, are important factors that determine the clinical course of brain diseases. Furthermore, altered glucose metabolism in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex has been associated with depression. Identifying factors that can precipitate depressive-like behavior is of particular importance as it can direct clinicians towards the etiology of the disease. In this study, 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: socialized and socially isolated. After one week of acclimatization, animals were housed in isolation for 14 days. Rats in the social group were socialized together for 14 days. On day 15, the forced swim test was performed and blood sugar was analyzed. The brain was removed immediately for biochemical analysis. Socially isolated rats showed more pronounced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test than socialized rats. Moreover, socially isolated rats demonstrated significantly lower copper and zinc concentrations, as well as a marked reduction in catalase activity, in both prefrontal cortex and hippocampus compared to socialized rats. Additionally, blood sugar levels were higher in socially isolated animals. Isolation causes reduction in copper and zinc levels and catalase activity, which may precipitate depressive-like behavior in these animals.


Assuntos
Catalase/metabolismo , Cobre/sangue , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Zinco/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Isolamento Social
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(6): e1006903, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185008

RESUMO

Popular computational models of decision-making make specific assumptions about learning processes that may cause them to underfit observed behaviours. Here we suggest an alternative method using recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to generate a flexible family of models that have sufficient capacity to represent the complex learning and decision- making strategies used by humans. In this approach, an RNN is trained to predict the next action that a subject will take in a decision-making task and, in this way, learns to imitate the processes underlying subjects' choices and their learning abilities. We demonstrate the benefits of this approach using a new dataset drawn from patients with either unipolar (n = 34) or bipolar (n = 33) depression and matched healthy controls (n = 34) making decisions on a two-armed bandit task. The results indicate that this new approach is better than baseline reinforcement-learning methods in terms of overall performance and its capacity to predict subjects' choices. We show that the model can be interpreted using off-policy simulations and thereby provides a novel clustering of subjects' learning processes-something that often eludes traditional approaches to modelling and behavioural analysis.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Biologia Computacional , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Neurosci ; 20(1): 30, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distinctive patterns of functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities in neural circuitry has been reported in patients with bipolar depression (BD) and unipolar depression (UD). However, it is unclear that whether this distinct functional connectivity patterns are diagnosis specific between BD and UD. This study aimed to compare patterns of functional connectivity among BD, UD and healthy controls (HC) and determine the distinct functional connectivity patterns which can differentiate BD from UD. METHOD: Totally 23 BD, 22 UD, and 24 HC were recruited to undergo resting-state fMRI scanning. FC between each pair of brain regions was calculated and compared among the three groups, the associations of FC with depressive symptom were also analyzed. RESULTS: Both patient groups showed significantly decreased cerebral-limbic FC located between the default mode network [posterior cingulated gyrus (PCG) and precuneus] and limbic regions (hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus) than HC. Moreover, the BD group exhibited more decreased FC mainly in the cortical regions (middle temporal gyrus, PCG, medial superior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus and superior temporal gyrus), but the UD group is more associated with limbic alterations. These decreased FCs were negatively correlated with HAMD scores in both BD and UD patients. CONCLUSIONS: BD and UD patients demonstrate different patterns of abnormal cerebral-limbic FC, reflected by decreased FC within cerebral cortex and limbic regions in BD and UD, respectively. The distinct FC abnormal pattern of the cerebral-limbic circuit might be applied as biomarkers to differentiate these two depressive patient groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216413, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150419

RESUMO

The latent variable "δ" (for "dementia") provides an etiologically "agnostic" omnibus dementia severity metric capable of recognizing the dementing potential of any condition. Depressive symptoms are independent predictors of δ and are thereby implicated as "dementing". Serum resistin levels partially mediate the association between depressive symptoms and δ. We use a novel "off-diagonal" CHI SQ algorithm to demonstrate our ability to select individuals demented solely by depression's effect in both the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC) (N ≌ 3,500), and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI (N ≌ 1,750), and demonstrate the higher resistin levels of such cases in TARCC. This approach can be adapted to any δ-related dementia risk factor or biomarker and used identify individuals who might revert back to non-demented states after its successful treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008214, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251738

RESUMO

Postpartum depression is a severe emotional and mental disorder that involves maternal care defects and psychiatric illness. Postpartum depression is closely associated with a combination of physical changes and physiological stress during pregnancy or after parturition in stress-sensitive women. Although postpartum depression is relatively well known to have deleterious effects on the developing fetus, the influence of genetic risk factors on the development of postpartum depression remains unclear. In this study, we discovered a novel function of T cell death-associated gene 51 (TDAG51/PHLDA1) in the regulation of maternal and depressive-like behavior. After parturition, TDAG51-deficient dams showed impaired maternal behavior in pup retrieving, nursing and nest building tests. In contrast to the normal dams, the TDAG51-deficient dams also exhibited more sensitive depressive-like behaviors after parturition. Furthermore, changes in the expression levels of various maternal and depressive-like behavior-associated genes regulating neuroendocrine factor and monoamine neurotransmitter levels were observed in TDAG51-deficient postpartum brain tissues. These findings indicate that TDAG51 plays a protective role against maternal care defects and depressive-like behavior after parturition. Thus, TDAG51 is a maternal care-associated gene that functions as a crucial regulator of maternal and depressive-like behavior after parturition.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Comportamento Materno , Parto/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurotransmissores/genética , Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2097415, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119155

RESUMO

In this study, several factors (social status, age, gender, education, knowledge about healthy eating, and attitude to food) affecting consumer food choices (FC), including the relationship between the taste of food, FC, and depression, were analysed by using sensory traits and face reading technology. The first stage of the experimental scheme was the analysis of factors affecting consumer food preferences by using a questionnaire, while the second stage was evaluation of emotional expressions evoked by different food tastes in individuals with and without depressive disorders (DD), using the FaceReader 6 software. We show that gender is a significant factor for most emotional motivations, with a higher effect in females where there was an indication of increased cravings for sweets when feeling depressed. Age was a significant factor in the motivation to eat for positive feelings, while education had a significant influence on perceptions regarding healthy eating. Face reading technology was found to be sufficiently accurate to detect differences in facial expressions induced by different tastes of food, for groups with and without DD. In conclusion, many factors are of high importance in the analysis of food choices, and the results obtained using the FaceReader 6 technique are very promising for food-mood relation analysis. We suggest that mood has a strong link with the choice of food.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Face , Expressão Facial , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(8): 753-765, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal depression (PMD) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are associated with increased developmental risk in infants. Reports suggest that PMD is associated with hyperconnectivity of the insula and the amygdala, while SSRI exposure is associated with hyperconnectivity of the auditory network in the infant brain. However, associations between functional brain organization and PMD and/or SSRI exposure are not well understood. METHODS: We examined the relation between PMD or SSRI exposure and neonatal brain functional organization. Infants of control (n = 17), depressed SSRI-treated (n = 20) and depressed-only (HAM-D ≥ 8) (n = 16) women, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at postnatal Day 6. At 6 months, temperament was assessed using Infant Behavioral Questionnaire (IBQ). We applied GTA and partial least square regression (PLSR) to the resting-state time series to assess group differences in modularity, and connector and provincial hubs. RESULTS: Modularity was similar across all groups. The depressed-only group showed higher connector hub values in the left anterior cingulate, insula, and caudate as well as higher provincial hub values in the amygdala compared to the control group. The SSRI group showed higher provincial hub values in Heschl's gyrus relative to the depressed-only group. PLSR showed that newborns' hub values predicted 10% of the variability in infant temperament at 6 months, suggesting different developmental patterns between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposures to maternal depression and SSRIs have differential impacts on neonatal functional brain organization. Hub values at 6 days predict variance in temperament between infant groups at 6 months of age.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Mães/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Temperamento/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(1): 43-49, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091847

RESUMO

Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in the onset and treatment of depressive disorders. Previous studies suggest that paeoniflorin could be used as an antidepressant for treating rats subjected to chronic unpredictable stress. In this study, the effects of paeoniflorin on neurogenesis in the hippocampus dentate gyrus and potential mechanism of action are further investigated in chronic unpredictable stress-induced rat. Results suggest that paeoniflorin markedly increased both sucrose consumption and the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of chronic unpredictable stress-induced rats, and the ratio of co-expressed 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells, but exerted no significant effect on the ratio of co-expressed 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and neuronal nuclei-positive cells. Compared with the vehicle group, a significant increase was detected in the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-positive cells and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the hippocampus of the paeoniflorin-treated group. According to the results, paeoniflorin promoted neural stem cell proliferation, their differentiation into astrocytes, and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of chronic unpredictable stress-induced rats. Apart from enhancing the protein expression and gene transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, it also activated the expression of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (a high-affinity receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor). This suggests that paeoniflorin might promote neurogenesis in the hippocampus dentate gyrus of chronic unpredictable stress-induced rats and act as an antidepressant by regulating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Giro Denteado/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imipramina/farmacologia , Masculino , Neurogênese/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Incerteza
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(19): e15564, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083224

RESUMO

Depression is one of the most common mental health problems which affects more than 10% of the global population. The prevalence of this disorder is higher in fibromyalgia patients. However, the influence of the combination of depression and fibromyalgia in the brain processing is poorly understood.To explore the modifications of EEG power spectrum in women with fibromyalgia when depressive feelings are elicited.Twenty eight women with fibromyalgia participated in this cross-sectional study. They were classified as women with depression or women without depression according to the score in the Geriatric Depression Scale. This questionnaire was used to elicit depression symptoms during the EEG recording. Analyses were performed with the standardized LOw Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectrum were compared in the following frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2, and beta-3.Fibromyalgia patients with untreated depression showed a hypoactivation of the left hemisphere when compared with fibromyalgia patients without depression. In addition, when compared fibromyalgia patients without depression and women with both fibromyalgia and depression who were taking antidepressant medications, differences in EEG power spectrum in the studied frequency bands were not found.The current study contributes to the understanding on the influence of the combination of fibromyalgia and depression in the brain activity patterns. Patients with untreated depression showed a hypoactivation of the left hemisphere while eliciting depression symptoms. However, further research is needed, antidepressant medication might reduce the differences between patients with depression and those who do not suffer from depression symptoms.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Fibromialgia/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
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