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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477830

RESUMO

The forced swim stress test (FST) is widely used for screening pharmacological or non-pharmacological strategies with potential antidepressant activities. Recent data have suggested that repeated FST for five consecutive days (i.e., 5d-RFSS) could be used to generate a robust depressive-like phenotype in mice. However, the face, construct, and predictive validities of 5d-RFSS have been recently challenged. This study took advantage of recent findings showing that mice vulnerability to anxiety is enhanced when animals are stressed during the dark phase, to provide new insight into the relevance of this model. Our results showed a progressive increase in time of immobility in 5d-RFSS mice relative to control non-stressed animals (sham). Three weeks later, we noticed that 5d-RFSS mice injected with the vehicle compound (Veh) still exhibited a high level of immobility in the FST whereas this behavior was reversed by the antidepressant drug amitriptyline (AMI). However, 5d-RFSS/Veh and 5d-RFSS mice/AMI mice showed normal performances in the open field, the novelty suppressed feeding and the tail suspension tests. Despite this lack of generalized behavioral deficits, an impairment of different parameters characterizing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity was evidenced in 5d-RFSS mice/Veh but not in 5d-RFSS mice/AMI. Despite anomalies in the HPA axis, the activity of the central serotonergic system remained unaffected in 5d-RFSS mice relative to controls. From our results, it is suggested that learned immobility does not replicate the broad spectrum of depressive symptoms observed in other chronic models of depression such as the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model, the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model or chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure but its influence on the HPA axis is remarkable. Further experiments are warranted to makes this model suitable for modelling depression and therefore refine its translational applicability.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/patologia , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Natação
2.
Gene ; 754: 144817, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473965

RESUMO

Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is reported to have neuroprotective effects to suppress cell apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by Aß25-35 through inhibiting oxidative stress. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the effects of Tan IIA on depressive disorder. Here, we aimed to measure the effects of Tan IIA on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced mouse model and its underlying mechanism. For 28 days, mice were subjected to CUMS while Tan IIA was administered once daily at doses of 0, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg. CUMS exposure increased depressive-like behaviors, as indicated by increased immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, decreased sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test, and reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test. All of these behaviors were reversed dose-dependently by Tan IIA treatment. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity. Levels of pro-inflammatory factors IL-1ß and IL-18, cAMP response element binding protein and brain derived neurotrophic factor were detected by ELISA and western blot assay, respectively. The results showed that CUMS increased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors and decreased levels of cAMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Tan IIA treatment again reversed these effects. Importantly, RasGRF1 expression increased in CUMS-exposed mice but decreased after Tan IIA administration. Using RasGRF1-/- mice to determine the role of RasGRF1 in mice exposed to CUMS, we found that knockdown of RasGRF1 reversed the effects of CUMS on mice, just like Tan IIA. These results indicate that Tan IIA may reverse depressive-like behaviors in CUMS-exposed mice by regulating RasGRF1.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , ras-GRF1/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/psicologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação , ras-GRF1/genética
3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 347-359, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sexual dysfunction is an important concern of premenopausal women with early breast cancer. We investigated predictors of sexual problems in two randomized controlled trials. METHODS: A subset of patients enrolled in TEXT and SOFT completed global and symptom-specific quality-of-life indicators, CES-Depression and MOS-Sexual Problems measures at baseline, six, 12 and 24 months. Mixed models tested the association of changes in treatment-induced symptoms (baseline to 6 months), depression at 6 months, and age at randomization with changes in sexual problems over 2 years. RESULTS: Sexual problems increased by 6 months and persisted at this level. Overall, patients with more severe worsening of vaginal dryness, sleep disturbances and bone or joint pain at 6 months reported a greater increase in sexual problems at all time-points. Depression scores were significantly associated with sexual problems in the short-term. All other symptoms had a smaller impact on sexual problems. Age was not associated with sexual problems at any time-point. CONCLUSION: Among several key symptoms, vaginal dryness, sleep disturbance, and bone and joint pain significantly predicted sexual problems during the first 2 years. Early identification of these symptoms may contribute to timely and tailored interventions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/patologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/patologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150824

RESUMO

Clinical evidence indicated that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was more effective than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in depression treatment. However, possible mechanisms remain unclear. Here, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced model of depression was used to compare EPA and DHA anti-depressant effects. After EPA or DHA feeding, depression-like behavior, brain n-3/n-6 PUFAs profile, serum corticosterone and cholesterol concentration, hippocampal neurotransmitters, microglial and astrocyte related function, as well as neuronal apoptosis and survival signaling pathways were studied. EPA was more effective than DHA to ameliorate CUMS-induced body weight loss, and depression-like behaviors, such as increasing sucrose preference, shortening immobility time and increasing locomotor activity. CUMS-induced corticosterone elevation was reversed by bother fatty acids, while increased cholesterol was only reduced by EPA supplement. Lower hippocampal noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations in CUMS rats were also reversed by both EPA and DHA supplement. However, even though CUMS-induced microglial activation and associated increased IL-1ß were inhibited by both EPA and DHA supplement, increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels were only reduced by EPA. Compared to DHA, EPA could improve CUMS-induced suppressive astrocyte biomarkers and associated BDNF-TrkB signaling. Moreover, EPA was more effective than DHA to attenuate CUMS-induced higher hippocampal NGF, GDNF, NF-κB, p38, p75, and bax expressions, but reversed bcl-2 reduction. This study for the first time revealed the mechanisms by which EPA was more powerful than DHA in anti-inflammation, normalizing astrocyte and neurotrophin function and regulating NF-κB, p38 and apoptosis signaling. These findings reveal the different mechanisms of EPA and DHA in clinical depression treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 42, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous individual studies have shown the differences in inflammatory cytokines and gray matter volumes between bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar depression (UD). However, few studies have investigated the association between pro-inflammatory cytokines and differences in brain gray matter volumes between BD and UD. METHODS: In this study, 72 BD patients and 64 UD patients were enrolled, with comparable gender and age distributions (33.8% males and an average age of 39.3 ± 13.7 years). Each participant underwent metabolic profiling (including body mass index (BMI), glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, insulin, adiponectin), pro-inflammatory cytokine (including soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNF-R1) examinations, and structural magnetic resonance imaging exams. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate the gray matter volume differences between BD and UD patients. Correlations between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the gray matter volume difference were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared to UD patients, the BD group had significantly higher BMI, and higher levels of sIL-6R and sTNF-R1 than the UD patients. The BMI significantly correlated with the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Adjusted for age, sex, BMI, duration of illness and total intracranial volume, the BD individuals had significantly more reduced gray matter volumes over 12 areas: R. cerebellar lobule VIII, R. putamen, L. putamen, R. superior frontal gyrus, L. lingual gyrus, L. precentral gyrus, R. fusiform gyrus, L. calcarine, R. precuneus, L. inferior temporal gyrus, L. hippocampus, and L. superior frontal gyrus. These 12 gray matter volume differences between BP and UD patients negatively correlated with sIL-6R and sTNF-R1 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that BD patients had higher BMI and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in comparison to UD patients, especially IL-6 and sTNF-R1, which may contribute to greater gray matter reductions in BD patients in comparison to UD patients. The results support the neuro-inflammation pathophysiology mechanism in mood disorder. It is clinically important to monitor BMI, which, in this investigation, positively correlated with levels of inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/imunologia , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/imunologia , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Encefalite/metabolismo , Encefalite/patologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105269

RESUMO

AIM: To study neurophysiological processes during multichannel electrostimulation in patients with depressive disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 6 patients with depressive disorder (F33). The technology noninvasive multichannel stimulation of neck neural struct SYMPATHOKOR-01 device. Clinical and psychometric methods, functional neuroimaging (fMRTP) and multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) were used to assess treatment effect. RESULTS: In all patients, fMRTP and EEG results show the disturbances of brain connectivity, which are correlated with the clinical state of the disease, before treatment. After five stimulation procedures, there is an increase in functional connection of the medial prefrontal cortex (according to rs-fMRI results) and an increase in the synchronization of various parts of the cortex (EEG results). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the possibilities of multichannel electrical stimulation of the neck nervous structures to restore the intracerebral connections disturbed during depression due to the activation of neuroplasticity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Plasticidade Neuronal
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about depressive symptoms among adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and its association with self-esteem, individual, parental and family factors among adolescents aged 12 to 18 in UAE. METHODS: Six hundred adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years were recruited from 4 of 111 schools in a cross-sectional study. We administered Beck Depression Inventory Scale and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale to measure self-report symptoms of depression and self-esteem. We used multiple linear regression to identify significant predictors of depression. RESULTS: Over 86% of the identified sample participated to the survey. The mean age of the sample was 14.3 (±1.3) with an excess of girls (61%). Depressive symptoms were detected in 17.2% (95% CI 14.2-20.7). There was an inverse relationship between self-esteem scores and depressive symptoms. Positive predictors of depressive symptoms, having controlled for age, gender, and ethnicity included experiencing neglect, being verbally abused in school, having no monthly allowance to spend in school, a history of physical morbidities requiring treatment, being a current or past smoker and a low family income. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of depressive symptoms measured in this survey suggests a significant public health problem among adolescents in the UAE. Public health interventions aimed at facilitating education and early detection and potential treatment of depressive symptoms are a priority in the region.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18344, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797979

RESUMO

This study investigated the influence of culture and depression on (1) emotion priming reactions, (2) the recall of subjective experience of emotion, and (3) emotion meaning. Members of individualistic culture (Australia, n = 42) and collectivistic culture (Iran, n = 32, Malaysia, n = 74) with and without depression completed a biological motion task, subjective experience questionnaire and emotion meaning questionnaire. Those with depression, regardless of cultural group, provided significantly fewer correct responses on the biological motion task than the control group. Second, the collectivistic control groups reported greater social engaging emotion than the Australian control group. However, the three depressed groups did not differ culturally. The Australian depressed group reported significantly greater interpersonally engaging emotion than the Australian control group. Third, the collectivistic groups reported significantly greater social worth, belief changes and sharing of emotion than the individualistic group. Depression did not influence these cultural effects. Instead we found that those with depression, when compared to controls, considered emotions as subjective phenomena, that were qualifying for relationships with others, and associated with greater agency appraisals. The applicability of the biocultural framework of emotion in depression was considered.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Individualidade , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Cultura , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Malásia , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881712

RESUMO

Depression is a common and severe neuropsychiatric disorder that is one of the leading causes of global disease burden. Although various anti-depressants are currently available, their efficacies are barely adequate and many have side effects. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's mane mushroom, has been shown to have various health benefits, including antioxidative, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. It has been used to treat cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Bioactive compounds extracted from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus have been found to promote the expression of neurotrophic factors that are associated with cell proliferation such as nerve growth factors. Although antidepressant effects of H. erinaceus have not been validated and compared to the conventional antidepressants, based on the neurotrophic and neurogenic pathophysiology of depression, H. erinaceus may be a potential alternative medicine for the treatment of depression. This article critically reviews the current literature on the potential benefits of H. erinaceus as a treatment for depressive disorder as well as its mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like activities.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indóis/química , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Micélio/química , Micélio/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo
10.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1053-1058, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859971

RESUMO

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Filosofia/história , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , História do Século XV , Humanos
11.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 460-466, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708010

RESUMO

Meta-analyses suggest that clinical psychopathology is preceded by dimensional behavioral and cognitive phenotypes such as psychotic experiences, executive functioning, working memory and affective dysregulation that are determined by the interplay between genetic and nongenetic factors contributing to the severity of psychopathology. The liability to mental ill health can be psychometrically measured using experimental paradigms that assess neurocognitive processes such as salience attribution, sensitivity to social defeat and reward sensitivity. Here, we describe the TwinssCan, a longitudinal general population twin cohort, which comprises 1202 individuals (796 adolescent/young adult twins, 43 siblings and 363 parents) at baseline. The TwinssCan is part of the European Network of National Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia project and recruited from the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey. The main objective of this project is to understand psychopathology by evaluating the contribution of genetic and nongenetic factors on subclinical expressions of dimensional phenotypes at a young age before the onset of disorder and their association with neurocognitive processes, such as salience attribution, sensitivity to social defeat and reward sensitivity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/epidemiologia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/genética , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222818, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647818

RESUMO

Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that has been poorly understood. Consequently, current antidepressant agents have clinical limitations. Until today, most have exhibited the slow onset of therapeutic action and, more importantly, their effect on remission has been minimal. Thus, the need to find new forms of therapeutic intervention is urgent. The inflammation hypothesis of depression is widely acknowledged and is one that theories the relationship between the function of the immune system and its contribution to the neurobiology of depression. In this research, we utilized an environmental isolation (EI) approach as a valid animal model of depression, employing biochemical, molecular, and behavioral studies. The aim was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor on a toll-like receptor 7 (TLR 7) signaling pathway in a depressive rat model, and compare these actions to fluoxetine, a standard antidepressant agent. The behavioral analysis indicates that depression-related symptoms are reduced after acute administration of fluoxetine and, to a lesser extent, etanercept, and are prevented by enriched environment (EE) housing conditions. Experimental studies were conducted by evaluating immobility time in the force swim test and pleasant feeling in the sucrose preference test. The mRNA expression of the TLR 7 pathway in the hippocampus showed that TLR 7, MYD88, and TRAF6 were elevated in isolated rats compared to the standard group, and that acute treatment with an antidepressant and anti-inflammatory drugs reversed these effects. This research indicates that stressful events have an impact on behavioral well-being, TLR7 gene expression, and the TLR7 pathway. We also found that peripheral administration of etanercept reduces depressive-like behaviour in isolated rats: this could be due to the indirect modulation of the TLR7 pathway and other TLRs in the brain. Furthermore, fluoxetine treatment reversed depressive-like behaviour and molecularly modulated the expression of TLR7, suggesting that fluoxetine exerts antidepressant effects partially by modulating the TLR7 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221918, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders (depression / anxiety) are linked to coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary slow flow (CSF) is a relatively common form of CAD with the same underlying mechanisms that are attributed to many anatomic and pathophysiologic factors. However, the relationship between psychiatric disorders and CSF is less well-established; and this is the aim of this study. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted on the first 50 consecutive patients diagnosed with CSF by elective coronary angiography (CAG). They were compared with another 50 consecutive patients showing normal coronaries by CAG. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were used for assessment. CSF was diagnosed by coronary angiography "Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction" frame count. Lipid profile was obtained for all patients. RESULTS: Traditional risk factors (male gender, smoking, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides) were higher in the CSF group. Depression and anxiety scores were also higher in the CSF group. On multivariate analysis, male gender, depression and high triglycerides were the only significant independent predictors of CSF. A significant correlation existed between CSF and both anxiety and depression scores. Both scores were also significantly higher in multivessel vs single vessel affection. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric depression, male gender and high triglycerides are highly associated with CSF in patients undergoing elective CAG. There is a significant correlation between CSF severity and the severity of both anxiety and depression. Further studies are warranted to explore the impact of psychological intervention on CSF and its long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Circulação Coronária , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3617129, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467884

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has showed that depression disorder (DD) is a risk factor for cancer. The aim of this study is to explore the association of DD and the overall occurrence risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the mechanism. Methods: In this study, 60 mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control group, DD group, HCC group, HCC-DD group. Mice received a chronic dose of reserpine to establish depression model, followed by Diethylnitrosamine and Carbon tetrachloride administration to establish HCC models. Behavioral depression was assessed by sucrose preference test (SPT) and the expression of Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor in the hippocampal. The expression of Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 in the digestive system tissues was detected by PCR and western blotting. Results: Reserpine-administrated mice had a reducing sucrose preference at Day 14 compared with blank mice (P<0.05). The expression of 5-HT1A receptor in the hippocampal was decreased in DD mice compared with blank mice. The survival analysis indicated that the HCC mice with DD have poorer survival rate compared with the HCC mice. Compared with HCC mice, the expression of Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 was lower in liver and stomach tissue and higher in hepatic carcinoma and colon tissue of HCC-DD mice (P<0.05), and the expression of Oatp2a1 was higher in the spleen tissue of HCC-DD mice while the expression of Oatp2b1 was lower (P<0.05). However, no difference was found in the expression of Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 in the small intestine tissue between HCC group and HCC-DD group. Conclusions: DD was the adverse factors for the overall occurrence risk of HCC. Mechanistically, be the downregulation of Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 in liver tissue induced by DD might be involved.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3614960, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428223

RESUMO

Depression is a mental disorder that affects 300 million people of all ages worldwide, but fewer than half of those with the condition receive adequate treatment. In addition, the high pharmacological refractoriness (affecting 30%-50% of patients) and toxicity of some classical antidepressants support the pursuit of new therapies. People with this condition show depressed mood, loss of pleasure, high levels of oxidative stress, and accelerated biological aging (decreased telomere length and expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the enzyme responsible for telomere maintenance). Because of the close relationship between depression and oxidative stress, nutraceuticals with antioxidant properties are excellent candidates for therapy. This study represents the first investigation of the possible antidepressant and antiaging effects of commercial samples of clarified açaí (Euterpe oleracea) juice (EO). This fruit is rich in antioxidants and widely consumed. In this study, mice were treated with saline or EO (10 µL/g, oral) for 4 days and then with saline or lipopolysaccharide (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce depressive-like behavior. Only four doses of EO were enough to abolish the despair-like and anhedonia behaviors and alterations observed in electromyographic measurements. The antidepression effect of EO was similar to that of imipramine and associated with antioxidant and antiaging effects (preventing lipid peroxidation and increasing TERT mRNA expression, respectively) in three major brain regions involved in depression (hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex). Additionally, EO significantly protected hippocampal cells, preventing neuronal loss associated with the depressive-like state and nitrite level increases (an indirect marker of nitric oxide production). Moreover, EO alone significantly increased TERT mRNA expression, revealing for the first time a potent antiaging action in the brain that suggests neuroprotection against long-term age-related consequences.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Euterpe/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Euterpe/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(8): 1053-1058, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058642

RESUMO

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XV , Filosofia/história , Transtorno Depressivo/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(27): e188, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate resilience as a protective factor for depressive mood and anxiety among Korean employees. METHODS: Participants were employees of eight private and local government organizations in Korea, aged 19 to 65 years. A self-report questionnaire that included items on resilience, job stress, levels of depression and anxiety, and socio-demographic factors, was administered to 1,079 Korean employees, with 1,076 valid responses. We performed hierarchical linear regression analyses with the levels of depression and anxiety scores as dependent variables. RESULTS: Being women and having a high level of job stress were associated with greater depressive mood and anxiety. In contrast, resilience was negatively related to depressive mood and anxiety, after adjusting for demographic variables and the level of job stress. Among the five factors for resilience, "support" and "hardiness" were protective factors for depressive mood and anxiety after adjusting for demographic variables and the level of job stress. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the current study, we suggest that focusing on the resilience of employees, especially on "support" and "hardiness," factors as well as developing and engaging in interventions that increase resilience in the workplace, can protect against depressive mood and anxiety, especially for those with high levels of job stress.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Fatores de Proteção , República da Coreia , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mov Disord ; 34(11): 1644-1654, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether structural alterations underpin apathy and depression in de novo parkinsonian patients is unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether apathy and depression in de novo parkinsonian patients are related to structural alterations and how structural abnormalities relate to serotonergic or dopaminergic dysfunction. METHODS: We compared the morphological and microstructural architecture in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging coupled with white matter tract-based spatial statistics in a multimodal imaging case-control study enrolling 14 apathetic and 13 nonapathetic patients with de novo Parkinson's disease and 15 age-matched healthy controls, paired with PET imaging of the presynaptic dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. RESULTS: De novo parkinsonian patients with apathy had bilateral microstructural alterations in the medial corticostriatal limbic system, exhibiting decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity in the anterior striatum and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex in conjunction with serotonergic dysfunction. Furthermore, microstructural alterations extended to the medial frontal cortex, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and subcallosal gyrus, the medial thalamus, and the caudal midbrain, suggesting disruption of long-range nondopaminergic projections originating in the brainstem, in addition to microstructural alterations in callosal interhemispheric connections and frontostriatal association tracts early in the disease course. In addition, microstructural abnormalities related to depressive symptoms in apathetic and nonapathetic patients revealed a distinct, mainly right-sided limbic subnetwork involving limbic and frontal association tracts. CONCLUSIONS: Early limbic microstructural alterations specifically related to apathy and depression emphasize the role of early disruption of ascending nondopaminergic projections and related corticocortical and corticosubcortical networks which underpin the variable expression of nonmotor and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Depressão/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/complicações
19.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 140(3): 205-216, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have found an increase in hippocampal volume following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), but the effect on cortical thickness has been less investigated. We aimed to examine the effects of ECT on cortical thickness and their associations with clinical outcome. METHOD: Using 3 Tesla MRI scanner, we obtained T1-weighted brain images of 18 severely depressed patients at three time points: before, right after and 6 months after a series of ECT. The thickness of 68 cortical regions was extracted using Free Surfer, and Linear Mixed Model was used to analyze the longitudinal changes. RESULTS: We found significant increases in cortical thickness of 26 regions right after a series of ECT, mainly within the frontal, temporal and insular cortex. The thickness returned to the baseline values at 6-month follow-up. We detected no significant decreases in cortical thickness. The increase in the thickness of the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex was associated with a greater antidepressant effect, r = 0.75, P = 0.0005. None of the cortical regions showed any associations with cognitive side effects. CONCLUSION: The increases in cortical thickness induced by ECT are transient. Further multimodal MRI studies should examine the neural correlates of these increases and their relationship with the antidepressant effect.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(10): 769-778, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence supports the notion that early-life stress and trauma impact cortical development and increase vulnerability to depression. However, it remains unclear whether common stressful life events in community-dwelling adolescents have similar consequences for cortical development. METHODS: A total of 232 adolescent girls (mean age 15.29 ± 0.65 years) were assessed with the Stressful Life Events Schedule (a semistructured interview of stressors in the previous 9 months) and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging scan. FreeSurfer 5.3.0 was used to perform whole-brain surface-based morphometry. Dysphoria was assessed at the time of imaging and prospectively at three 9-month follow-up appointments using the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms II. RESULTS: At least one stressful life event was reported in 90% of the adolescent participants during the 9 months preceding imaging. Greater burden of recent life stress was associated with less left precuneus and left postcentral cortical thickness and smaller left superior frontal and right inferior parietal volume (all p < .05 after multiple comparisons correction). Left precuneus thickness in the stress-associated cluster significantly predicted dysphoria for 27 months after imaging controlling for prior dysphoria (ß = -.11, p = .004). Left precuneus cortical thickness accounted for 17.0% of the association between stress and dysphoric mood for 27 months after imaging (ß = .04, p = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with evidence from imaging studies of trauma-exposed youths and preclinical stress models, a heavy burden of recent common life stress in community-dwelling adolescent girls was associated with altered frontal/parietal cortical morphology. Stress-linked precuneus cortical thickness represents a candidate prospective biomarker of adolescent depression.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Adolescente , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tamanho do Órgão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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