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1.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1053-1058, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859971

RESUMO

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Filosofia/história , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , História do Século XV , Humanos
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3614960, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428223

RESUMO

Depression is a mental disorder that affects 300 million people of all ages worldwide, but fewer than half of those with the condition receive adequate treatment. In addition, the high pharmacological refractoriness (affecting 30%-50% of patients) and toxicity of some classical antidepressants support the pursuit of new therapies. People with this condition show depressed mood, loss of pleasure, high levels of oxidative stress, and accelerated biological aging (decreased telomere length and expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the enzyme responsible for telomere maintenance). Because of the close relationship between depression and oxidative stress, nutraceuticals with antioxidant properties are excellent candidates for therapy. This study represents the first investigation of the possible antidepressant and antiaging effects of commercial samples of clarified açaí (Euterpe oleracea) juice (EO). This fruit is rich in antioxidants and widely consumed. In this study, mice were treated with saline or EO (10 µL/g, oral) for 4 days and then with saline or lipopolysaccharide (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce depressive-like behavior. Only four doses of EO were enough to abolish the despair-like and anhedonia behaviors and alterations observed in electromyographic measurements. The antidepression effect of EO was similar to that of imipramine and associated with antioxidant and antiaging effects (preventing lipid peroxidation and increasing TERT mRNA expression, respectively) in three major brain regions involved in depression (hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex). Additionally, EO significantly protected hippocampal cells, preventing neuronal loss associated with the depressive-like state and nitrite level increases (an indirect marker of nitric oxide production). Moreover, EO alone significantly increased TERT mRNA expression, revealing for the first time a potent antiaging action in the brain that suggests neuroprotection against long-term age-related consequences.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Euterpe/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Euterpe/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3617129, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467884

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has showed that depression disorder (DD) is a risk factor for cancer. The aim of this study is to explore the association of DD and the overall occurrence risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the mechanism. Methods: In this study, 60 mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control group, DD group, HCC group, HCC-DD group. Mice received a chronic dose of reserpine to establish depression model, followed by Diethylnitrosamine and Carbon tetrachloride administration to establish HCC models. Behavioral depression was assessed by sucrose preference test (SPT) and the expression of Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor in the hippocampal. The expression of Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 in the digestive system tissues was detected by PCR and western blotting. Results: Reserpine-administrated mice had a reducing sucrose preference at Day 14 compared with blank mice (P<0.05). The expression of 5-HT1A receptor in the hippocampal was decreased in DD mice compared with blank mice. The survival analysis indicated that the HCC mice with DD have poorer survival rate compared with the HCC mice. Compared with HCC mice, the expression of Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 was lower in liver and stomach tissue and higher in hepatic carcinoma and colon tissue of HCC-DD mice (P<0.05), and the expression of Oatp2a1 was higher in the spleen tissue of HCC-DD mice while the expression of Oatp2b1 was lower (P<0.05). However, no difference was found in the expression of Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 in the small intestine tissue between HCC group and HCC-DD group. Conclusions: DD was the adverse factors for the overall occurrence risk of HCC. Mechanistically, be the downregulation of Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 in liver tissue induced by DD might be involved.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(27): e188, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate resilience as a protective factor for depressive mood and anxiety among Korean employees. METHODS: Participants were employees of eight private and local government organizations in Korea, aged 19 to 65 years. A self-report questionnaire that included items on resilience, job stress, levels of depression and anxiety, and socio-demographic factors, was administered to 1,079 Korean employees, with 1,076 valid responses. We performed hierarchical linear regression analyses with the levels of depression and anxiety scores as dependent variables. RESULTS: Being women and having a high level of job stress were associated with greater depressive mood and anxiety. In contrast, resilience was negatively related to depressive mood and anxiety, after adjusting for demographic variables and the level of job stress. Among the five factors for resilience, "support" and "hardiness" were protective factors for depressive mood and anxiety after adjusting for demographic variables and the level of job stress. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the current study, we suggest that focusing on the resilience of employees, especially on "support" and "hardiness," factors as well as developing and engaging in interventions that increase resilience in the workplace, can protect against depressive mood and anxiety, especially for those with high levels of job stress.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Fatores de Proteção , República da Coreia , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(3): 1759-1764, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235090

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia are highly prevalent chronic conditions associated with social, medical, and economic burdens. Although there are several epidemiological studies that have reported the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment or depressive syndrome in elderly diabetic population little is known about the comorbidity of these conditions. We aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and depression in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its relation to glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the present work was carried on 400 patients with T2DM. History taking, physical examination, laboratory investigations (with special emphasis on glycemic profile and lipid profile parameters) were done for every patient. Assessment of anxiety and depression using the HADS score and assessment of mild cognitive impairment using MoCA score were done. RESULTS: 76% of studied patients had depression of varying degrees while 56.8% of studied patients had MCI. Decreased level of HDL-cholesterol and increased HADS anxiety score were significant predictors of depression. On the other hand, increased level of total cholesterol, decreased level of HDL-cholesterol, increased HADS depression score and decreased MoCA score were significant predictors of anxiety. HDL-cholesterol HADS anxiety score, FBG, and duration of DM were the significant predictors of MCI. CONCLUSION: Increased level of total cholesterol, decreased level of HDL-cholesterol, increased HADS depression score and decreased MoCA score were significant predictors of anxiety. HDL-cholesterol, HADS anxiety score, FBG, and duration of DM were the significant predictors of MCI.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 53, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brainstem raphe (BR) hypoechogenicity in transcranial sonography (TCS) has been depicted in patients with major depression (MD) and in depressed patients with different neurodegenerative diseases. But, up to date, the association of BR alterations in TCS with depression in migraineurs has never been reported. This study was to investigate the possible role of BR examination via TCS in migraineurs with depression. METHODS: Forty two migraine without aura (MwoA) patients and 40 healthy controls were recruited. Echogenicity of lentiform nuclei (LN), caudate nuclei (CN), substantia nigra (SN) and brainstem raphe (BR) and width of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle were assessed with TCS. The diagnosis of depression was based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM -IV), and the severity of depression was measured by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression subscale (HADS-D). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between migraineurs and controls in the width of frontal horn of the lateral ventricle (p = 0.955), width of third ventricle (p = 0.129) as well as in the echogenicity of SN (p = 0.942), CN (p = 0.053), LN (p = 0.052) and BR (p = 0.677). Here, it seems that more migraineurs were detected with increased echogenecity of CN and LN compared with controls (33.3% versus 15.0% for CN, 19.0% versus 5.0% for LN) though they had no statistical significance. Patients with hypoechogenic BR had significantly higher HAM-D and HADS-D scores than those with normal BR signal (p = 0.000 for both HAM-D and HADS-D), and most (83.33%) migraineurs with depression exhibited hypoechogenic raphe but none (0.00%) of the migraineurs without depression exhibited hypoechogenic raphe (p = 0.000). CONLUSIONS: TCS signal alteration of BR can be a biomarker for depression in migraine but it is not associated with migraine headache itself. LN and CN alterations in TCS may reflect a potential role of them in the pathogenesis of migraine, which needs to be further elucidated.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/patologia , Núcleos da Rafe/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleos da Rafe/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Negra/patologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
7.
Life Sci ; 225: 88-97, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953642

RESUMO

AIMS: Given the lasting impact of chronic paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) on behavior and organism metabolic alternations, along with the role of the microbiome in neurobehavioral development and metabolism, we sought to examine the relationship between the microbiota and chronic PSD-induced behavioral and metabolic changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Psychological status of 7-day PSD (7d-PSD) male rats was tested by behavioral method, serum inflammatory cytokines and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related hormones. In addition, GC-MS based urine metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were applied to estimate the influences of chronic PSD on host metabolism and gut-microbiota. Furtherly, microbial functional prediction and Spearman's correlation analysis were implemented to manifest the relations between the differential urinary metabolites and gut microbiota. KEY FINDINGS: 7d-PSD rats displayed depression-like behavior, metabolic and microbial changes. By integrating differential gut bacteria with indicators of depression and differential metabolites, we found that the alterations of Akkermansia, Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, Parabacteroides, Aggregatibacter and Phascolarctobacterium were closely related to abnormalities of depression symptoms and inflammatory cytokines. These bacteria also had close connections with host energy metabolism concerning arginine and proline metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, which overlapped with the results of 16S rRNA gene function annotation. SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that a specific situation of circadian disturbance, chronic PSD-induced alterations in gut microbiota and related host changes in metabolism may be the pathogenesis of depression.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metaboloma , Privação do Sono/complicações , Animais , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 22(5): 349-357, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide and major depression are prevalent in individuals reporting early-life adversity. Prefrontal cortex volume is reduced by stress acutely and progressively, and changes in neuron and glia density are reported in depressed suicide decedents. We previously found reduced neurotrophic factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor in suicide decedents and with early-life adversity, and we sought to determine whether cortex thickness or neuron or glia density in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex are associated with early-life adversity or suicide. METHODS: A total of 52 brains, constituting 13 quadruplets of nonpsychiatric controls and major depressive disorder suicide decedents with and without early-life adversity, were matched for age, sex, race, and postmortem interval. Brains were collected at autopsy and frozen, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex were later dissected, postfixed, and sectioned. Sections were immunostained for neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) to label neurons and counterstained with thionin to stain glial cell nuclei. Cortex thickness, neuron and glial density, and neuron volume were measured by stereology. RESULTS: Cortical thickness was 6% less with early-life adversity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and 12% less in anterior cingulate cortex (P < .05), but not in depressed suicide decedents in either region. Neuron density was not different in early-life adversity or with suicide, but glial density was 17% greater with early-life adversity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and 15% greater in anterior cingulate cortex, but not in suicides. Neuron volume was not different with early-life adversity or suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Reported early-life adversity, but not the stress associated with suicide, is associated with thinner prefrontal cortex and greater glia density in adulthood. Early-life adversity may alter normal neurodevelopment and contribute to suicide risk.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Suicídio , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão
9.
J Med Syst ; 43(5): 117, 2019 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905048

RESUMO

In order to explore the brain functional and structural imaging results of patients with bipolar disorder and depressive episode without taking medicine, and to further explore the disease mechanism of bipolar disorder by combining with clinical symptoms and cognitive function (neuropsychological test), DPABI (Data Processing and Analysis (Resting-State) For Brain Image) software is used to pre-process fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) data and calculate fALFF (ratio low frequency fluctuation amplitude) index. In addition, SPM8 is applied for grey matter volume analysis based on voxel morphology. Pearson correlation model is used to analyze the relationship between functional and morphological changes and clinical symptoms and cognitive tests. DPABI software and SPSS 22.0 software are used to analyze the data. The results show that corresponding abnormal brain areas are found in both functional and structural aspects of patients with bipolar disorder and depression, involving LCSPT emotional circuits. More importantly, the superior frontal gyrus shows significant abnormalities in both functional and structural analysis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213099, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845244

RESUMO

In the last two decades, the number of studies focused on the mediators connecting insecure attachment with Eating Disorders (EDs), at both clinical and sub-clinical level, has considerably increased. However, there has not been a systematic synthesis of this literature to date. To fill this gap, the current meta-analytic review aimed at identifying and quantifying the extent to which mediators contribute to the explanation of this relationship. The present study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017076807). A comprehensive search process in seven different electronic databases retrieved 24 studies that examined how insecure attachment leads to ED symptoms through mediation analysis. Standardized regression coefficients of the indirect and total paths of 21 mediation models were pooled. Studies were coded and ranked for quality. We found evidence to show that maladaptive emotion regulation and depressive symptoms had the highest effect size for mediation (mediation ratio [PM] = 0.71). Further, body dissatisfaction, neuroticism, perfectionism, mindfulness and social comparison had significant, but moderate to low mediating effects (PM = 0.21-0.58). The methodological quality of these studies was mostly low to moderate and potential areas for development were highlighted. Our findings support the direct targeting of these psychological constructs in prevention programs and treatment of EDs. Future investigations addressing the time sequence between the variables will provide valuable clues to untangle the prospective contribution of each variable on the development and maintenance of eating pathology.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Fatores Sociológicos
11.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101710, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849644

RESUMO

Mood depressive disorder is one of the most disabling chronic diseases with a high rate of everyday life disability that affects 350 million people around the world. Recent advances in neuroimaging have reported widespread structural abnormalities, suggesting a dysfunctional frontal-limbic circuit involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of depression. However, a variety of different white matter regions has been implicated and is sought to suffer from lack of reproducibility of such categorical-based biomarkers. These inconsistent results might be attributed to various factors: actual categorical definition of depression as well as clinical phenotype variability. In this study, we 1/ examined WM changes in a large cohort (114 patients) compared to a healthy control group and 2/ sought to identify specific WM alterations in relation to specific depressive phenotypes such as anhedonia (i.e. lack of pleasure), anxiety and psychomotor retardation -three core symptoms involved in depression. Consistent with previous studies, reduced white matter was observed in the genu of the corpus callosum extending to the inferior fasciculus and posterior thalamic radiation, confirming a frontal-limbic circuit abnormality. Our analysis also reported other patterns of increased fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity as well as decreased apparent diffusion coefficient and radial diffusivity in the splenium of the corpus callosum and posterior limb of the internal capsule. Moreover, a positive correlation between FA and anhedonia was found in the superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as a negative correlation in the cingulum. Then, the analysis of the anxiety and diffusion metric revealed that increased anxiety was associated with greater FA values in genu and splenium of corpus callosum, anterior corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiation. Finally, the motor retardation analysis showed a correlation between increased Widlöcher depressive retardation scale scores and reduced FA in the body and genu of the corpus callosum, fornix, and superior striatum. Through this twofold approach (categorical and phenotypic), this study has underlined the need to move forward to a symptom-based research area of biomarkers, which help to understand the pathophysiology of mood depressive disorders and to stratify precise phenotypes of depression with targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Affect Disord ; 250: 410-418, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression's relationship with cerebral abnormalities and cognitive decline is temporally dynamic. Despite clear clinical utility, understanding depression's effect on cerebral structures, cognitive impairment and the interaction between these symptoms has had limited consideration. METHODS: This review summarised studies examining a clinical depression diagnosis or validated scales measuring depressive symptoms, data concerning amyloid-beta (Aß) levels, brain structure and function focusing on hippocampal alterations, or white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and at least one validated neuropsychological test. Online database searches of: PsycINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Scopus were conducted to identify potential articles. RESULTS: While depression was consistently associated with cross-sectionally cognitive decline across multiple domains, the neuropathological basis of this dysfunction remained unclear. Hippocampal, frontal, and limbic dysfunction as well as cortical thinning, WMH, and Aß burden all provide inconsistent findings, likely due to depression subtypes. The consistency of these findings additionally decreases when examining this relationship longitudinally, as these results are further confounded by pre-dementia states. The therapeutic interventions examined were more efficacious in the younger compared with the older samples, who were characterised by greater WMH and Aß burden. LIMITATIONS: The limited number of longitudinal and interventional studies in addition to the heterogeneity of the samples restricts their generalisability. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatological differences between early-onset and late-onset depression (EOD and LOD) appear crucial in understanding whether late-life depression is the primary or secondary source of cerebral pathology. Though severe cognitive impairments and clearer neuropathological underpinnings are more characteristic of LOD than EOD, the inconsistency of valid biomarkers remains problematic.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Demência/patologia , Depressão , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Lobo Temporal/patologia
13.
Neurol Res ; 41(5): 437-445, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) protein in the hippocampus of model rats of comorbid epilepsy and depression. METHODS: A rat model of epilepsy was established using lithium chloride.pilocarpine. Among these epileptic rats, those with comorbid depression were selected by a battery of behavioral tests starting on the 14th day after establishing the epilepsy model. A depression group was established by unpredicted chronic mild stress (UCMS) and separate housing. These treatment groups were compared to an untreated control group. Thirteen rats per group were examined by immunofluorescence staining with optical density quantitation to determine the distribution of BDNF- and TrkB-positive cells in the hippocampus and by western blotting to estimate total protein expression levels during the 4th week after establishing the models. Immunofluorescence staining for NeuN was also conducted in hippocampus to evaluate neuronal survival. Depression-like behaviors were also assessed. RESULTS:  Compared to the untreated control group and the epilepsy alone group, the comorbid group exhibited lower average optical densities of BDNF- and TrkB-immunopositive cells as well as lower total BDNF and TrkB protein expression levels (all P = 0.000). The comorbid group exhibited lower behavioral scores compared to all other groups (all P=0.000). Numbers of NeuN-positive cells were lower in the hippocampus of all three experimental groups compared to the untreated control group (all P = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS:  These results suggest that hypofunctional BDNF-TrkB signaling may contribute to depression in epilepsy. ABBREVIATIONS: BDNF: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; TrkB: tyrosine kinase B; UCMS: unpredicted chronic mild stress; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; HS: Hippocampal sclerosis.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Cloreto de Lítio , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Pilocarpina , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Neurol Res ; 41(4): 369-377, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Depression is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood and loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities, and often results in the impairment of learning and memory. Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) has been reported to be involved in the pathological mechanisms for neurodegenerative disorders including depression. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of BI-1 in regulating depression-like behavior induced by olfactory bulbectomy (OB) in rats and the possible mechanism. METHODS: Adeno-associated virus vectors expressing BI-1 (AAV-BI-1) were bilaterally microinjected into the prelimbic cortex (PFC-PL) to establish a BI-1 overexpression model in the PFC-PL of rats. TUNEL staining was used to evaluate the cellular apoptosis rate in the PFC-PL. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the expressions of apoptotic and inflammatory signals. RESULTS: BI-1 overexpression significantly attenuated the OB-induced behavioral abnormalities, including the decreased hyperactivity in the open field, decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test, as well as the increased sucrose consumption. BI-1 overexpression significantly inhibited cellular apoptosis in the PFC-PL of OB rats. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 associated X protein (Bax), and caspase-3 in the PFC-PL of OB rats were significantly increased as compared with the sham rats, but the Bcl-2 and IL-10 expressions were decreased, whereas BI-1 overexpression significantly suppressed the changes of these proteins in the PFC-PL of OB rats. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that BI-1 may play an anti-depression function with concurrent regulation of apoptotic and inflammatory signals.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/lesões , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório , Preferências Alimentares , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Natação/psicologia , Transdução Genética/métodos
15.
Neurol Res ; 41(5): 446-455, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most prevalent emotional disorders after stroke and often results in poor outcomes. However, the underlying physiopathologic mechanism and effective treatment of PSD remain poorly elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether paeoniflorin has antidepressant-like activity in a rat model of PSD. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated control (Sham), PSD, paeoniflorin (with PSD) and fluoxetine group(with PSD). PSD was developed by the right middle cerebral artery occlusion followed 21 days chronic unpredictable mild stress combined (CUMS) with raised alone. Tests of sucrose preference and open field were used to assess the depression-like behavior. Neurological function was evaluated by neurological deficit score and beam balance test. Expression of phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the CA1 region of the hippocampal complex was evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Te depressive-like behaviors markedly improved after paeoniflorin and fluoxetine treatment. Furthermore, paeoniflorin treatment significantly increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the CA1 region. CONCLUSIONS: Observed results suggested that paeoniflorin could ameliorate the symptoms and improve the functional capability of PSD rats, similar to the effect of fluoxetine. ABBREVIATIONS: PSD: post-stroke depression; CUMS: chronic unpredictable mild stress stimulation; MCAO: middle cerebral artery occlusion; OFT: open field test; SPT: sucrose preference test, NDS: neurological deficit score, BBT: beam balance test; BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein; p-CREB: phosphorylated Cyclic-AMP responsive element binding protein.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Região CA1 Hipocampal/patologia , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212304, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763396

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study is to investigate whether type of depressive symptoms (i.e. cognitive-affective or somatic) is related to a patient-perceived need for professional psychological care in individuals with diabetes. METHODS: In total 2266 participants were recruited as part of the screening procedure for a multi-center randomized controlled trial on the treatment of depressive symptoms among individuals with diabetes. Individuals were invited to complete Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Patients with elevated depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥14) were interviewed about their psychological care need. Based on their care needs patients were categorized into: unmet need, no need, met need and unclear need. These groups were compared on type of depressive symptoms, as categorized into cognitive-affective symptoms and somatic symptoms. RESULTS: 568 eligible individuals had elevated depressive symptoms, of whom 519 were reached. Among these depressed individuals, 19.7% (102 of 519) had an unmet need for psychological care. Participants with an unmet need were younger (p<0.001) and had higher total depression scores compared to the group with no need (p<0.001). They also scored higher on cognitive-affective symptoms (p<0.001), whereas somatic symptoms did not significantly differ (p = 0.232). Logistic regression revealed that cognitive-affective symptoms predicted an unmet need (p = 0.001). However, overall predictive capacity of type of depressive symptoms on care needs was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive-affective symptoms of depression-but not somatic symptoms-were associated with an unmet need for psychological care among depressed individuals with diabetes. Future research is needed to reveal better predictors explaining the discrepancy between distress and low care needs in order to optimize screening procedures.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Idoso , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
17.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(4): 365-374, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that the lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortices (lOFC and mOFC) may contribute distinct neural mechanisms in depression. This study investigated the relations of their functional and structural organizations with postnatal maternal depressive symptoms in young children. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural magnetic resonance imaging were acquired in children at age 4 (n = 199) and 6 years (n = 234). Child's withdrawal behavior problems were assessed using Child's Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: In 4-year-old girls, postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were positively associated with the lOFC functional connectivity with the visual network but negatively with the cognitive control network. The lOFC functional connectivity with the visual network and cerebellum, which was influenced by postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, was also associated with child's withdrawal behavior problems in 6-year-old girls. Moreover, postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were also negatively associated with the mOFC functional connectivity with the cognitive control and motor networks in 4-year-old girls. Furthermore, postnatal maternal depressive symptoms influenced the structural connectivity of left mOFC with the right middle frontal cortex and left inferior temporal cortex in 4-year-old girls. Unlike girls, boys showed that postnatal maternal depressive symptoms selectively impacted the mOFC functional connectivity with the memory system at age 6 years. CONCLUSION: Our study provided novel evidence on the distinct neural mechanisms of the lOFC and mOFC structural and functional organizations for intergenerational transmission of maternal depression to the offspring. Boys and girls may potentially employ different neural mechanisms to adapt to maternal environment at different timings of early life.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Mães/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/patologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia
18.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(1): 162-168, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is common in stroke survivors and may lead to a poor prognosis and more severe functional impairment. Although subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are associated with late-life depression, few studies have examined the association between depression and WMHs after a stroke. We investigated the associations of periventricular (PVWMH) and deep (DWMH) WMHs with poststroke depression (PSD) at two time points after stroke. METHODS: A total of 408 patients were evaluated 2 weeks after stroke (baseline), and of those, 284 (70%) were followed up 1 year later. Magnetic resonance images were obtained in all subjects at baseline. PVWMHs and DWMHs were rated using the four-point modified Fazekas scale and categorized as mild (grades 0 and 1) or severe (grades 2 and 3). Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and subjects were divided into without PSD, any PSD, and major PSD groups at baseline, and follow-up examinations were conducted according to the severity of depression. Associations of PSD with PVWMHs and DWMHs were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses after adjusting for various demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The adjusted analyses revealed that severe PVWMHs were significantly associated with any PSD at baseline and severe DWMHs were significantly associated with major PSD at follow-up. CONCLUSION: The association between WMH and PSD varies according to type of WMH, and time after stroke, such that early depressive symptoms are associated with PVWMHs, and delayed severe depression is associated with DWMHs.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
19.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(3): 1908-1920, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978424

RESUMO

Klotho, encoded by the KL gene, is a single-pass transmembrane protein and a circulating factor that plays a key role in cellular metabolism and body homeostasis and has been associated with age-related diseases. Alterations of this protein seem to influence the development of serotonergic neurons and could play a role in major depression in the elderly. Pretreatment of neurons with Klotho protein can avoid neuronal injury related to the toxic amyloid-ß and glutamate, centrally related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in order that Klotho protein could play a neuroprotective role in AD patients. Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia are different nosological entities but share common neurobiological facets and could represent a clinical continuum. Enhancement of Klotho levels in the early stages of the disease could represent a therapeutic strategy to prevent further deterioration and to ameliorate the outcome of elderly AD patients with or without major depression.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Idoso , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Glucuronidase/genética , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia
20.
Brain Res Bull ; 144: 213-222, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385146

RESUMO

This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) combined with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on depressive-like behavior, cerebral oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis markers in mice. To induce a depressive-like model, mice were subjected to sub-chronic restraint stress for 5 consecutive days. NIR PBM (810 nm laser, 33.3 J/cm2) and/or CoQ10 (500 mg/kg/day, gavage) were administered for five days concomitantly with immobilization. Behavior was evaluated by the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open field test (OFT). Mitochondrial membrane potential as well as oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory, and markers of apoptosis were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP). The serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cortisol, and corticosterone were also measured. PBM or CoQ10, or the combination, ameliorated depressive-like behaviors induced by restraint stress as indicated by decreased immobility time in both the FST and TST. PBM and/or CoQ10 treatments decreased lipid peroxidation and enhanced total antioxidant capacity (TAC), GSH levels, GPx and SOD activities in both brain areas. The neuroinflammatory response in the HIP and PFC was suppressed, as indicated by decreased NF-kB, p38, and JNK levels in PBM and/or CoQ10 groups. Intrinsic apoptosis biomarkers, BAX, Bcl-2, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 and -9, were also significantly down-regulated by both treatments. Furthermore, both treatments decreased the elevated serum levels of cortisol, corticosterone, TNF-α, and IL-6 induced by restraint stress. Transcranial NIR PBM and CoQ10 therapies may be effective antidepressant strategies for the prevention of psychopathological and behavioral symptoms induced by stress.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neuroimunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/farmacologia
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