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1.
Ann Acad Med Singapore ; 49(1): 15-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Using data from Singapore Mental Health Study 2016 (SMHS 2016), we examined the prevalence of lifetime and 12-month obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), its sociodemographic correlates and association with comorbid psychiatric disorders and physical conditions, perceived social support and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (version 3.0) was administered by trained interviewers to 6126 residents aged ≥18 years old to assess OCD prevalence and that of other select psychiatric disorders. Details on sociodemographics, perceived social support and health-related quality of life were obtained. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of OCD was 3.6% and 2.9%, respectively. Adjusted regression analysis showed that those with OCD had significantly higher odds of major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR], 5.4), bipolar disorder (OR, 8.9), generalised anxiety disorder (OR, 7.3) and alcohol abuse (OR, 2.7). OCD was significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicidality (OR, 5.1). OCD subjects also had higher odds of chronic pain (OR, 2.4) and diabetes (OR, 3.1). Finally, OCD subjects had lower mean mental composite summary scores than controls (respondents without any of the psychiatric disorders and physical conditions included in SMHS 2016) and those with other lifetime psychiatric disorders and physical conditions. CONCLUSION: OCD prevalence in Singapore is high. Most people with OCD do not seek treatment despite experiencing significant comorbidity and loss of quality of life.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Razão de Chances , Singapura/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Ideação Suicida
2.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(2): 105-108, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102101

RESUMO

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a severe and disabling clinical condition that usually arises in late adolescence or early adulthood and, if left untreated, has a chronic course. The concept of OCD has considerably varied across history and cultures. Among refugees from arab cultures; religious and contamination obsessions were found to be the commonest kind of obsessive thoughts. This makes diagnosing OCD even more challenging due to associated shame and guilt which delays help-seeking behavior. The use of culturally sensitive diagnostic instruments is important to correctly identify obsessive compulsive symptoms in refugee populations. We propose adapting the Zohar-Fineberg Obsessive Compulsive Screen (ZF-OCS) in its Arabic version to address religious and contamination obsessions safely and explicitly.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia
3.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 29(4): 103-111, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) is a psychometrically sound and valid self-report measure for evaluating the severity of six dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms: washing, obsessing, hoarding, ordering, checking, and neutralising. We aimed to validate the Chinese version of the OCI-R (C-OCI-R) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in Hong Kong. METHODS: The C-OCI-R was forward and backward translated and reviewed by an expert panel and a focus group. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability (2-week interval) were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the C-OCI-R. Concurrent validity was examined by the correlation between the C-OCI-R and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), whereas divergent validity was examined by the correlation of the C-OCI-R with the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. RESULTS: 130 OCD patients were recruited. The C-OCI-R showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92) and test-retest reliability (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient = 0.96). The original six-factor model was supported by confirmatory factor analysis. Concurrent validity and divergent validity were established. However, the neutralising subscale may need further development, and the divergent validity of the obsessing subscale was unsatisfactory. The structure of OCD symptoms was similar in Chinese and western patients. CONCLUSION: The C-OCI-R is a valid and reliable measure for assessing the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in local Chinese patients with OCD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Autorrelato , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tradução
4.
Presse Med ; 48(10): 1065-1071, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653538

RESUMO

Othorexia Nevrosa is defined as an obsessive though regarding healthy food consumption, food properties and cooking tools. Orthorexia Nevrosa is not mentioned in the psychiatric nosography and is not considered as a disorder. While no formal diagnostic criteria currently exist, screening tools have been developed to explore characteristics of Orthorexia Nevrosa. While Orthorexia Nevrosa has specific characteristics, an overlapping exists with Eating Disorders (ED) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms.


Assuntos
Utensílios de Alimentação e Culinária , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 376-380, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobius syndrome is characterized by a bilateral congenital paralysis of the facial and abducens nerves which leaves the subject with an expressionless "mask-like" face. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Based on a literature review and a case discussion of an adult patient with Mobius syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder, initially undiagnosed and confused with a psychotic disorder, we will discuss the influence of Mobius syndrome in psychiatric evaluations. RESULTS: The lack of facial expressiveness and non-verbal emotional interactions may influence psychiatric evaluations and result in misdiagnosis and the inappropriate prescribing of antipsychotics. In the case analysis, we also observed other associated malformations such as renal atrophy, a bicuspid aortic valve and mitral valve prolapse. CONCLUSION: We feel that educating the patient about the communicative consequences of impaired facial expressions and facial interactions is a necessary prerequisite for any psychiatric or psychological evaluation in subjects with Mobius syndrome. We also recommend using caution when prescribing antipsychotics in patients with Mobius syndrome given the motor side effects secondary to a potentially pre-existing hypotonia.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Síndrome de Möbius/complicações , Síndrome de Möbius/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Síndrome de Möbius/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Möbius/patologia , Comunicação não Verbal , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/patologia
6.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(2): 44-55, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433593

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms and their relationship with pregnancy- related anxiety, perinatal depression and clinical anger among pregnant black African women in South Africa. The sample consisted of 206 women attending their antenatal check-ups at the Mankweng, Nobody, and Rethabile Clinics, and the Mankweng hospital in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Quantitative data was collected from a convenience sample, within a cross-sectional survey design. First, the prevalence of OCD among the women was established. Then Pearson's correlation analysis was used to establish if there was a linear relationship between the variables of the study. Variables that were related were then subjected to regression analysis, seeking to establish if the independent variables, pregnancy-related anxiety, perinatal depression and clinical anger, together with other pregnancy-related variables, would predict OCD symptoms. When correlational analysis was conducted, the patient characteristics of having undergone a medical check-up, and having previously delivered a live baby generally did not correlate with any of the main scales measuring OCD symptoms, perinatal depression, pregnancy-related anxiety and clinical anger (p<0.05). Almost 39.5% of the pregnant women could be classified as obsessive-compulsive disordered, when using the cut-off score of 36. Furthermore, findings from regression analyses indicated that higher age, the number of gestation weeks, having previously experienced pregnancy-related complications, perinatal depression, pregnancy-related anxiety and clinical anger were variably positive predictors of the Revised version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI-R) measured OCD symptoms. The predictors were specific to each of the symptoms. It can be concluded from the study that there is a relationship between OCD symptoms and all the independent variables used.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(7): 462-469, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403840

RESUMO

Background: An abnormal interaction between cognition and emotion may contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate theory of mind and emotion regulation skills in adolescents diagnosed with OCD. In addition, the results were evaluated in accordance with patients' insight levels. Methods: This study was conducted with 50 patients, who were aged between 11 and 16 and who were newly diagnosed with OCD and 50 healthy individuals. The Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime was used to diagnose OCD and other comorbidities. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used for clinical evaluation. The intelligence levels were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Short Form. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was used in patients. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was also used to evaluate the skills of regulating emotions. Results: Patients with OCD had lower ability with regard to reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than the healthy individuals. Patients with OCD, who had a poor insight, had more difficulty in reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than those with good insight. Conclusions: This study supports the idea that OCD is related to deficits in theory of mind and emotion regulation skills. Thus, further studies are required to confirm the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade
8.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 335-340, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185362

RESUMO

Background: The Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (BEAQ) has been suggested as the most appropriate instrument for measuring experiential avoidance. However, no Spanish validation has been published. The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the BEAQ in a clinical sample treated at a community mental health unit. Methods: Participants (N = 332) completed the BEAQ as well as other self-report measures of experiential avoidance and psychopathology. Results: Internal consistency was satisfactory (α = .82). No statistically significant gender differences were found in the BEAQ scores. The data also showed high test-retest reliability after four to six weeks, acceptable concurrent validity with another experiential avoidance measure and acceptable convergent validity with the psychopathology measure. The principal component analysis, forcing the one factor solution proposed in the original scale, produced indicators similar to the English version of the BEAQ. Conclusions: These results firmly support the reliability and validity of this Spanish validation, stressing its usefulness as a measure of experiential avoidance in clinical populations


Antecedentes: el Cuestionario Breve de Evitación Experiencial (BEAQ) ha sido propuesto como el instrumento más adecuado para medir la evitación experiencial. Sin embargo, todavía no ha sido publicada ninguna validación en español. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio ha sido la validación de una versión española del BEAQ, en una muestra clínica atendida en un Centro de Salud Mental Comunitario. Método: los participantes (N = 332) completaron el BEAQ, así como otras medidas de autoinforme de evitación experiencial y psicopatología. Resultados: la consistencia interna fue satisfactoria (α = .82). No se encontraron diferencias de género estadísticamente significativas en las puntuaciones del BEAQ. Los datos también mostraron una alta fiabilidad test-retest en un intervalo de cuatro a seis semanas, validez concurrente aceptable con otra medida de evitación experiencial y validez convergente aceptable con la medida de psicopatología. El análisis de componentes principales forzando a la solución de un factor, como se propuso en la escala original, obtuvo unos indicadores similares a los obtenidos en dicha versión inglesa. Conclusiones: los resultados confirman la adecuada fiabilidad y validez de la presente versión española del BEAQ, destacando su utilidad como medida de la evitación experiencial en población clínica


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Autorrelato , Transtornos de Adaptação/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Distímico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Distímico/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha
9.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 98(4): 273-278, jul.-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023537

RESUMO

Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric condition that leads to significant impairment in everyday life. Advancements in neurobiological investigations contributed to a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms behind OCD, leading to the understanding that current models employed to conceptualize OCD are not adequate and might be a significant factor in precluding further advancements in how OCD is treated. In this paper, we will use OCD as a model to discuss the limitations of the current diagnostic systems in Psychiatry and to present the novel perspectives based on neurobiological findings that might lead to considerable advancements in treatments for OCD.


Assuntos
Neurobiologia/tendências , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia
10.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 335-340, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (BEAQ) has been suggested as the most appropriate instrument for measuring experiential avoidance. However, no Spanish validation has been published. The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the BEAQ in a clinical sample treated at a community mental health unit. METHODS: Participants ( N = 332) completed the BEAQ as well as other self-report measures of experiential avoidance and psychopathology. RESULTS: Internal consistency was satisfactory (α = .82). No statistically significant gender differences were found in the BEAQ scores. The data also showed high test-retest reliability after four to six weeks, acceptable concurrent validity with another experiential avoidance measure and acceptable convergent validity with the psychopathology measure. The principal component analysis, forcing the one factor solution proposed in the original scale, produced indicators similar to the English version of the BEAQ. CONCLUSIONS: These results firmly support the reliability and validity of this Spanish validation, stressing its usefulness as a measure of experiential avoidance in clinical populations.


Assuntos
Autorrelato , Transtornos de Adaptação/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Distímico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Distímico/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos das Sensações/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, it is aimed to determine obsessive compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) comorbidity among the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and compare patients with OCD with or without comorbid OCRDs in terms of the severity of their OCD symptoms, symptom dimensions, and comorbidity with other axis I disorders. METHODS: The study included 90 patients diagnosed as having OCD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for OCRDs were used to determine the presence of OCRDs. In order to determine the symptom dimensions and severity of these individuals' OCD symptoms, we administered the Dimensional Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DOCS) and The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). RESULTS: In our study, 20% of the patients with OCD simultaneously met the criteria for at least one OCRD, we also found that a significantly greater proportion of this group were men. None of the mentioned disorders was associated with any symptom dimensions we evaluated using DOCS. In addition, no differences were found in the severity of OCD symptoms and comorbid axis I disorders between the group with comorbid OCRDs and the group without comorbid OCRDs. DISCUSSION: There was no significant relationship between the symptom dimensions of OCD and OCRDs. It is found that OCRD comorbidity does not increase the severity of OCD symptoms and the prevalence of an axis I diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eat Behav ; 34: 101298, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176948

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly comorbid. However, little research has examined which specific cognitive-behavioral aspects (e.g., checking, obsessing) of OCD are most relevant in those with AN. Furthermore, there is no research examining aspects of OCD in Atypical AN. The current two studies (N = 139 and N = 115 individuals diagnosed with AN/Atypical AN) examined a) which aspects of OCD were most related to AN symptomatology and b) if there were differences in OCD between individuals diagnosed with AN vs Atypical AN. We found that obsessing was most related to AN symptoms. We also found that there were no substantial significant differences between AN and Atypical AN. These findings add to the literature suggesting minimal differences between AN and Atypical AN, specifically regarding OCD symptomatology. These findings clarify that obsessions (rather than compulsions) may be the specific aspect of OCD most warranting treatment intervention in AN and Atypical AN.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Comportamento Obsessivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Comportamento Compulsivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 276: 115-123, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075706

RESUMO

Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occurs frequently with other mental health conditions, adding to the burden of disease and complexity of treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious for both OCD and two of its most common comorbid conditions, anxiety and depression. Therefore, treating OCD may yield secondary benefits for anxiety and depressive symptomatology. This study examined whether anxiety and/or depression symptoms declined over the course of OCD treatment and, if so, whether improvements were secondary to reductions in OCD severity, impairment, and/or global treatment response. The sample consisted of 137 youths who received 12 sessions of manualized CBT and were assessed by independent evaluators. Mixed models analysis indicated that youth-reported anxiety and depression symptoms decreased in a linear fashion over the course of CBT, however these changes were not linked to specific improvements in OCD severity or impairment but to global ratings of treatment response. Results indicate that for youth with OCD, CBT may offer benefit for secondary anxiety and depression symptoms distinct from changes in primary symptoms. Understanding the mechanisms underlying carryover in CBT techniques is important for furthering transdiagnostic and/or treatment-sequencing strategies to address co-occurring anxiety and depression symptoms in pediatric OCD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/tendências , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 43: 34-36, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078093

RESUMO

Children and adolescents with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) can present in atypical and unusual ways. We present the case of a 13 year old boy with an unusual presentation of OCD. He presented with irritability, aggression, poor sleep, reduced attention, hyperreligiosity, social withdrawal and disinhibition (i.e. inappropriately touching females) for 1 week and was found to have obsessional thoughts and impulses related to sex and the compulsion of seeking absolution from lord buddha. He was diagnosed as OCD after excluding organic causes, manic episode, acute psychotic episode, drug induced psychosis and sexual abuse. He initially responded to fluoxetine 20mg, olanzapine 2.5 and a short course of lorazepam. He was functioning well for 2 weeks and thus olanzapine and lorazapam were tailed off. A week later he presented with similar symptoms with the added symptoms of singing, masturbating in public and talking excessively to his mother about sex. He was found to have obsessional thoughts, impulses and images and the compulsions of reassurance seeking from his mother and seeking absolution from lord buddha. He responded to an increase in fluoxetine to 40mg and olanzapine 2.5mg. He has now remained in remission for 4 months with good functioning. This case shows that in contrast to adults, children may not recognize that their obsessional thoughts are irrational and may not be able to resist the obsessions as a result. It stresses the importance of being mindful of the atypical presentations of OCD in children to avoid misdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 19(2): 85-96, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184930

RESUMO

Background/Objective: Unwanted mental intrusions (UMIs), typically discussed in relation to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), are highly prevalent, regardless of the specific nationality, religion, and/or cultural context. Studies have also shown that UMIs related to Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), Illness anxiety/Hypochondriasis (IA-H), and Eating Disorders (EDs) are commonly experienced. However, the influence of culture on these UMIs and their transdiagnostic nature has not been investigated. Method: Participants were 1,473 non-clinical individuals from seven countries in Europe, the Middle-East, and South America. All the subjects completed the Questionnaire of Unpleasant Intrusive Thoughts, which assesses the occurrence and discomfort of four UMI contents related to OCD, BDD, IA-H, and EDs, and symptom questionnaires on the four disorders. Results: Overall, 64% of the total sample reported having experienced the four UMIs. The EDs intrusions were the most frequently experienced, whereas hypochondriacal intrusions were the least frequent but the most disturbing. All the UMIs were significantly related to each other in frequency and disturbance, and all of them were associated with clinical measures of OCD, BDD, IA-H, and EDs. Conclusions: UMIs are a common phenomenon across different cultural contexts and operate transdiagnostically across clinically different disorders


Introducción/Objetivo: Las intrusiones mentales no deseadas (IM), clásicamente estudiadas en relación con el trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo (TOC), tienen una prevalencia elevada independientemente de la nacionalidad, religión, y/o el contexto cultural. Las investigaciones muestran que también es habitual experimentar IM sobre contenidos relacionados con el trastorno dismórfico corporal (TDC), la ansiedad por la enfermedad/hipocondría (AE-H) y los trastornos alimentarios (TCA). Sin embargo, la influencia de la cultura sobre estas IM y su naturaleza transdiagnóstica no se han investigado. Método: Participaron 1.473 personas de siete países de Europa, Oriente Medio y Suramérica. Todas completaron el Cuestionario de Pensamientos Intrusos Desagradables, que evalúa la ocurrencia y malestar asociados a cuatro contenidos de IM relacionados con TOC, TDC, AE-H y TCA, y cuestionarios sobre síntomas de los cuatro trastornos. Resultados: El 64% de la muestra total había experimentado las cuatro modalidades de IM. Las IM-TCA fueron las más frecuentes y las hipocondríacas las menos, pero las más molestas. Todas las IM mantuvieron relaciones entre sí, tanto en frecuencia como en molestia, y todas se asociaron con las medidas clínicas de TOC, TDC, AE-H y TCA. Conclusiones: Las IM son una experiencia habitual en diferentes contextos culturales y operan de modo transdiagnóstico en trastornos clínicamente distintos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transculturação , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Europa (Continente) , Oriente Médio , América do Sul , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/etnologia , Hipocondríase/etnologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia
16.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 608-620, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030877

RESUMO

Limited research has examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study addresses this gap by investigating preliminary associations between SRPs, demographic factors (gender and age), family variables (family accommodation and parental stress), and clinical factors (medication status, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, OCD severity, OCD-related impairment), and treatment outcomes in a sample of 103 youth (aged 7 to 17 years; 53% female) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Clinician, parent, and child measures were used to assess demographic, family, and clinical predictors. SRPs were assessed using an 8-item measure comprising items of the Child Behaviour Checklist, Child Depression Inventory, and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children as used in previous studies. Results showed that SRPs were highly prevalent among this sample and that more SRPs were associated with younger age, internalizing problems, and functional impairment. However, SRPs were not an independent predictor of OCD severity, impairment, or treatment response. Preliminary findings suggest that SRPs among youth with OCD may be more strongly associated with broader internalizing symptoms than with OCD itself. Future longitudinal research is warranted to further explore the complexity of SRPs when co-occurring with pediatric OCD.


Assuntos
Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 621-629, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030878

RESUMO

Disgust propensity (DP) has been conceptualized as a stable personality trait that confers risk for contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). However, the extent to which DP leads to the subsequent development of C-OCD is unclear. In fact, the presence of C-OCD might lead to an increase in DP rather than the inverse. The present study was aimed to test this hypothesis in a large clinical sample of OCD patients (≥ 21 years of age) with (C-OCD; n = 56) and without (NC-OCD; n = 103) contamination-related symptoms that completed measures of OCD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and DP. DP was assessed twice, in reference to the present situation (T1) and to when the participant was 18 years old (T0). The two groups did not significantly differ in DP at T0. However, C-OCD participants reported higher DP scores than NC-OCD at T1. Furthermore, the T1 vs T0 difference in DP was significant only in the C-OCD group. Subsequent analyses also showed that T1 DP levels, but not T0 levels, significantly predicted contamination-related symptoms. Despite study limitations, these findings question the role of DP as a risk factor for C-OCD.


Assuntos
Asco , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 672-681, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030882

RESUMO

Symptom reduction over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy is not always distributed evenly across sessions. Some individuals experience a sudden gain, defined as a large, rapid, and stable decrease in symptoms during treatment. Although research documents a link between sudden gains and treatment for depression and anxiety, findings in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment are mixed. The present study investigated the relationship between sudden gains and treatment outcome in 44 adults with OCD and addressed limitations of previous studies by measuring OCD symptoms dimensionally and comparing individuals who experience sudden gains to those who experience gradual gains of similar magnitude. Sudden gains were observed among 27% of participants, with highest rates among individuals with primary contamination symptoms. Participants who experienced a sudden gain had greater OCD symptom reductions at posttreatment (but not at follow-up), and this difference did not persist after controlling for gain magnitude. Thus, the importance of sudden gains during OCD treatment may be limited. Findings are discussed in light of inhibitory learning models of cognitive-behavioral therapy.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(1): 49-60, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is a presentation of the adaptation process of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale (SCC) to measure cyberchondria and verification of reliability and construct validities of the test in the Polish population. METHODS: The study included 380 participants (203 women and 177 men) aged 19-68 (M = 26.5; SD = 11.1). The CSS-PL was used to measure cyberchondria, the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) for measuring hypochondria, and the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) to verify obsessive-compulsive tendencies. RESULTS: Four-factor structure of cyberchondria measured with the CSS-PL was supported. Internal consistency indices of the CSS-PL were between 0.87 and 0.95, test-retest reliability results were 0.58-0.76. This study demonstrated construct validity of the CSS-PL via its correlations with health anxiety (r = 0.31-0.56) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (r = 0.17-0.48). CONCLUSIONS: The CSS-PL is an initial standardized version of an instrument for measuring cyberchondria and meets the psychometric criteria of reliability and validity for psychological testing tools. The CSS-PL may be used both in diagnostic and scientific research.


Assuntos
Hipocondríase/diagnóstico , Internet , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Polônia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(4): 363-370, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anger attacks have been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), often triggered by obsessional triggers. However, few studies have reported the clinical characteristics and correlates of anger attacks among Chinese patients with OCD. METHODS: A total of 90 adults with a primary diagnosis of OCD, ranging from 15 to 78 years old, participated in the study. Participants were administered the Rage Outbursts and Anger Rating Scale (ROARS), Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Second Edition, and Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale by a trained clinician. Patients completed the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. RESULTS: A total of 31.3% of participants reported anger outbursts in the past week, and ROARS scores had no significant correlation with age, duration of illness, OCD severity, depression, or stress. However, ROARS scores were negatively related to education level, and positively related to obsessing symptoms and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that anger attacks are relatively common in Chinese patients with OCD. The severity of anger attacks is related to educational level, obsessing symptoms, and anxiety, which may be a latent variable reflecting executive functioning and emotion regulation skills.


Assuntos
Ira , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China , Depressão/complicações , Emoções , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
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