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1.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(2): 105-108, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102101

RESUMO

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a severe and disabling clinical condition that usually arises in late adolescence or early adulthood and, if left untreated, has a chronic course. The concept of OCD has considerably varied across history and cultures. Among refugees from arab cultures; religious and contamination obsessions were found to be the commonest kind of obsessive thoughts. This makes diagnosing OCD even more challenging due to associated shame and guilt which delays help-seeking behavior. The use of culturally sensitive diagnostic instruments is important to correctly identify obsessive compulsive symptoms in refugee populations. We propose adapting the Zohar-Fineberg Obsessive Compulsive Screen (ZF-OCS) in its Arabic version to address religious and contamination obsessions safely and explicitly.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia
2.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(2): 163-165, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893946

RESUMO

Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are defined as intrusive, recurrent and distressing thoughts, images or impulses, whereas compulsions are defined as repetitive behaviors or mental acts. While there is an associated distress, and indeed oftentimes, the individual's awareness that these behaviors are excessive and unreasonable, the individual continues to be disabled by an inability to cease their compulsions. The postpartum period may herald the onset of OCD or precipitate an exacerbation of the preexisting OCD symptoms. Common OCD symptom clusters occur in the postpartum period, with specific challenges associated with motherhood and lactation.Areas covered: This brief review aims to review the extent and nature of publications evaluating pharmacological treatment of OCD in the postpartum period.Expert opinion: Education and training should aim to improve the recognition and treatment of postpartum OCD. Due to the limited nature of studies, more research is required to assess the role of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Período Pós-Parto , Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 1) To compare levels of emotional symptoms and health-related quality of life between patients with heart failure and their family caregivers; and 2) to examine whether patients' and caregivers' emotional symptoms were associated with their own, as well as their partner's health-related quality of life. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, 41 patients-caregiver dyads (78% male patients, aged 68.6 years; and 83% female caregivers, aged 65.8 years) completed all nine dimensions of the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Minnesota Living with Heart failure Questionnaire. Dyadic data were analysed for 6 sub-scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory, using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in emotional symptoms and health-related quality of life between patients with heart failure and their caregivers. Patients' and caregivers' emotional symptoms were associated with their own health-related quality of life. Caregivers' anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsession-compulsion, depression and hostility negatively influenced their partner's (i.e. the patient's) health-related quality of life. There were no partner effects of patients' emotional symptoms on the health-related quality of life of caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that patients may be particularly vulnerable to the emotional distress, i.e. thoughts, impulses and actions of their caregivers. It may be possible to improve patients' health-related quality of life by targeting specific detrimental emotional symptoms of caregivers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0225970, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940308

RESUMO

High levels of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) could contribute to abnormal decision making in uncertain situations. Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) often report high IU, indecisiveness and the need to seek greater certainty before making decisions. The Beads task is a commonly used task assessing the degree of information gathering prior to making a decision and so would be predicted to show impairments in OCD patients. Results to date have found mixed support for this, possibility due to methodological issues. Here, a group of OCD patients (n = 50) with no comorbidities was compared with age, gender, and verbal-IQ matched controls (n = 50) on the most commonly used version of the Beads task. An independent sample of healthy volunteers with high versus low OC symptoms, and high versus low IU were also assessed (n = 125). There was no evidence that patients with OCD differed from control volunteers in the degree of information gathering prior to making a decision. Medication status and age did not appear to mediate performance. Similarly, there were no association in healthy volunteers between task performance and OC or IU characteristics. Additional measures examining the degree of certainty initially showed support for greater uncertainty in patients, but this was due to deviations from task instructions in a subset of patients. We conclude that despite the large sample size and good matching between groups, the Beads task in its most widely used form is not a useful measure of IU or of information gathering in OCD. The results argue against a robust behavioural difference in OCD when compared to controls. Recommendations for future studies employing the task are discussed.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Incerteza , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
6.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 25(1): 133-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464534

RESUMO

This study investigated whether intensive group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with family involvement for children with anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would facilitate children's return to their daily routines. The focus shifted from the usual emphasis on remission to an improvement in functioning. The aim was to capture potentially missed gains when children pursue their fears and engage in more adaptive behaviors as these efforts may result in ongoing symptoms. Two hundred twelve children and adolescents aged 8-19 years old, who were patients in an intensive outpatient group-based treatment program at an academic hospital, participated in this study. Results indicated that both children and their parents endorsed significant improvement in children's functioning from admission to discharge. Symptom reduction was assessed for reference, and both children and parents reported significant decreases in child anxiety symptoms from admission to discharge, and children endorsed decreases in their comorbid depression symptoms. Short-term group-based intensive treatment in a clinical setting may help children return to their daily activities quickly.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(6)2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846244

RESUMO

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who do not respond adequately to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy commonly receive SRI augmentation in the form of an atypical antipsychotic drug. Memantine is another augmentation strategy that has been trialed. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found very large improvements associated with memantine augmentation in OCD. Specifically, in 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the response rate was 81% in 67 memantine-treated patients vs only 19% in 68 placebo-treated patients. The weighted mean difference between memantine and placebo groups was nearly 8 points on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Such striking differences for intervention vs placebo in a difficult-to-treat disorder demand scrutiny. An examination of the RCTs on which the meta-analysis was based showed that all 4 RCTs emerged from the same geographical area, limiting the generalizability of the findings. Of greater concern, all 4 RCTs presented what were effectively completer analyses of data, compromising the scientific validity of the findings. There were several other concerns about the individual studies and about the meta-analysis, itself. Therefore, a reasonable conclusion is that, when the internal and external validity of studies in a meta-analysis are compromised, the findings and conclusions of the meta-analysis cannot be considered sound. It is concluded that, despite the very large benefits reportedly associated with memantine augmentation, the routine use of memantine as an augmentation agent for OCD cannot as yet be recommended.


Assuntos
Memantina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Memantina/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
8.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(6): 494-498, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055329

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale - Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II). Method: A total of 86 adults with a primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), ranging in age from 15 to 78 years, participated in the study. Participants were administered the Y-BOCS-II by a trained clinician who also rated overall illness severity on two additional measures. Patients completed the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Results: Results indicated high internal consistency and fair 1-week test retest reliability. The Y-BOCS-II scales correlated strongly with clinician-rated obsessive-compulsive severity and modestly with self-reported obsessive-compulsive symptom frequency and distress. The relationship between Y-BOCS-II total score and depressive and anxiety symptoms was strong, which may reflect high rates of comorbid conditions in this sample or the linkage between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and distress. Factor analysis demonstrated a two-factor structure consisting of obsession and compulsion factors, with interference due to obsessions cross-loading. Conclusions: Overall, these results support the use of the Y-BOCS-II among individuals from China. Future study by an independent group is necessary to replicate these findings, as well as investigate interrater reliability and treatment sensitivity.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Psicometria , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , China , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Idioma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia
9.
Behav Ther ; 50(6): 1150-1163, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735249

RESUMO

Clinically significant anxiety is associated with an array of attentional symptoms (e.g., difficulty concentrating; unwanted thought) that are subjectively experienced as severe. However, neuropsychological findings are mixed with respect to the presence of cognitive deficits that can account for these symptoms. Contextualizing predictions from established clinical theories (e.g., Attentional Control Theory) within contemporary, neurobiologically derived models of cognitive control (Dual Mechanisms of Control Theory), the present study investigated the relationship between "cold" proactive and reactive cognitive control, task effort, and subjective attentional symptoms (difficulty concentrating; unwanted thought) in a mixed clinical sample of individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a comparison sample of healthy controls. Clinical status moderated the relationship between attentional symptoms (attentional focusing and trait worry) and proactive cognitive control response time. Clinical status also moderated the relationship between trait worry and task effort. Higher trait worry was associated with slower proactive control and lower effort in healthy participants, but faster proactive control in clinical participants. Self-reported attentional focusing showed differential validity vis-à-vis proactive control response time in clinical versus healthy participants. Post-hoc conditional effects analysis suggested more accurate self-appraisals in healthy controls, but was not significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Preliminary evidence suggested that differences in task effort in anxious versus healthy adults may relate to subjective attentional symptoms in GAD and OCD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção , Cognição , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Autorrelato
10.
Presse Med ; 48(10): 1065-1071, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653538

RESUMO

Othorexia Nevrosa is defined as an obsessive though regarding healthy food consumption, food properties and cooking tools. Orthorexia Nevrosa is not mentioned in the psychiatric nosography and is not considered as a disorder. While no formal diagnostic criteria currently exist, screening tools have been developed to explore characteristics of Orthorexia Nevrosa. While Orthorexia Nevrosa has specific characteristics, an overlapping exists with Eating Disorders (ED) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms.


Assuntos
Utensílios de Alimentação e Culinária , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(19)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561601

RESUMO

Obsessive‒compulsive disorder (OCD), and especially contamination obsessions and washing compulsions, has been related to disgust. However, when its cardiovascular correlates have been studied, contradictory results have been found, including heart rate accelerations and decelerations. The aim of this study is to analyze emotional, cognitive, and cardiovascular responses in nonclinical (control) and subclinical participants with obsessive‒compulsive contamination/washing symptoms when confronted with a disgusting stimulus. Twenty-seven participants (14 subclinical OCD) completed a behavioral avoidance task with a contamination-based stimulus while their heart rate and subjective variables were measured. Results showed heart rate reductions in both samples, whereas subjective measures reflected higher disgust, anxiety, dirtiness, and emotional valence in the subclinical sample. However, at the same time, the sense of dominance was lower in the control group. In conclusion, our results support a heart rate deceleration during exposure to a disgusting stimulus dissociated from the subjective experience.


Assuntos
Asco , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Qual Life Res ; 28(12): 3385-3394, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating (Y-BOCS-BE) assesses the obsessiveness of binge eating thoughts and compulsiveness of binge eating behaviors. The findings of this study extend previously published Y-BOCS-BE psychometric evaluations in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). METHODS: Data from three phase 3 lisdexamfetamine dimesylate studies in adults with BED (two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled short-term efficacy studies; one double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized-withdrawal maintenance-of-efficacy study) were used. Psychometric evaluations included assessment of Y-BOCS-BE dimensionality, internal consistency, convergent validity, test?retest reliability, and determinations of clinically meaningful improvement using distribution- and anchor-based methods. RESULTS: Domain specification analyses determined that the Y-BOCS-BE possessed a bifactor structure composed of a general binge eating severity domain and three subdomains (obsessive/compulsive, restraint, and control). Y-BOCS-BE internal consistency was maximized at week 12 (Cronbach?s ?, 0.95) and test?retest reliability was maximized in the 8-week retest interval from week 4 to week 12 across all no-change anchors (r?=?0.74?0.90). Likewise, convergent validity of the Y-BOCS-BE across all validators was maximized at week 12 (all r???0.66). Meaningful improvement for Y-BOCS-BE total scores was estimated to require score reductions of 12 to 17 points depending on the anchor. CONCLUSIONS: The Y-BOCS-BE is a valuable tool for assessing BED symptoms. Maximization of Y-BOCS-BE reliability and validity at later study time points may be related to both treatment effects and improved insight into BED by participants during the study.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Transtorno da Conduta , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(4): 168-174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to compare the adult-onset and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients in terms of the subthreshold autistic traits. METHODS: 29 adolescent, and 45 adult-onset OCD patients were assessed by Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). RESULTS: The ratio of males to females, the frequency of ritualistic compulsions, and the mean number of lifetime compulsions were significantly higher in adolescents with OCD compared to adult-onset patients. Adult-onset OCD patients had significantly higher scores on total, social skills, attention shifting, and imagination subscales of AQ than adolescent OCD patients. The mean number of compulsions, attention shifting scores of AQ, and female gender significantly predicted the distinction between adolescent and adult-onset OCD patients. In adult-onset patients, there were significant correlations between the mean number of lifetime obsessions and total, social skills, attention switching, communication, and imagination subscale scores of AQ. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that subthreshold autistic traits may play a significant role in the occurence of obsessive-complusive symptoms (OCS) in adult-onset OCD. Autistic traits seemed to be higher and had an closer relationship with the frequency of lifetime obsessions in AO-OCD patients than in adolescent patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Comportamento Obsessivo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação de Sintomas
15.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(7): 462-469, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403840

RESUMO

Background: An abnormal interaction between cognition and emotion may contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate theory of mind and emotion regulation skills in adolescents diagnosed with OCD. In addition, the results were evaluated in accordance with patients' insight levels. Methods: This study was conducted with 50 patients, who were aged between 11 and 16 and who were newly diagnosed with OCD and 50 healthy individuals. The Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime was used to diagnose OCD and other comorbidities. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used for clinical evaluation. The intelligence levels were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Short Form. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was used in patients. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was also used to evaluate the skills of regulating emotions. Results: Patients with OCD had lower ability with regard to reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than the healthy individuals. Patients with OCD, who had a poor insight, had more difficulty in reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than those with good insight. Conclusions: This study supports the idea that OCD is related to deficits in theory of mind and emotion regulation skills. Thus, further studies are required to confirm the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade
16.
Brain Stimul ; 12(6): 1565-1571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex disorder with 40 to 60 % of patients resistant to treatment. Theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) is a promising new technique that has been shown to induce potent and long lasting effects on cortical excitability. The present study evaluated for the first time therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of continuous TBS (cTBS) over the supplementary motor area (SMA) in treatment resistant OCD patients using a double blind, sham-controlled design. METHODS: Thirty treatment resistant OCD outpatients were randomized to receive either active cTBS or sham cTBS for 6 weeks (5 sessions per week). Each treatment session consisted of 600 stimuli at an intensity of 70% of resting motor threshold. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 6), and follow-up (week 12). Response to treatment was defined as at least 25% decrease on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between active and sham cTBS groups in treatment efficacy. Responder rates were not different between the two groups at week 6 (cTBS 28% versus sham 36%; p = 0.686) and week 12 (cTBS 28% versus sham 36%; p = 0.686). Depressive and anxious symptoms improvements were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study is the first controlled trial using cTBS in treatment resistant OCD patients. The use of cTBS over the SMA is safe but not sufficient to improve OCD symptoms. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters to be used in OCD patients.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(2): 44-55, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433593

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms and their relationship with pregnancy- related anxiety, perinatal depression and clinical anger among pregnant black African women in South Africa. The sample consisted of 206 women attending their antenatal check-ups at the Mankweng, Nobody, and Rethabile Clinics, and the Mankweng hospital in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Quantitative data was collected from a convenience sample, within a cross-sectional survey design. First, the prevalence of OCD among the women was established. Then Pearson's correlation analysis was used to establish if there was a linear relationship between the variables of the study. Variables that were related were then subjected to regression analysis, seeking to establish if the independent variables, pregnancy-related anxiety, perinatal depression and clinical anger, together with other pregnancy-related variables, would predict OCD symptoms. When correlational analysis was conducted, the patient characteristics of having undergone a medical check-up, and having previously delivered a live baby generally did not correlate with any of the main scales measuring OCD symptoms, perinatal depression, pregnancy-related anxiety and clinical anger (p<0.05). Almost 39.5% of the pregnant women could be classified as obsessive-compulsive disordered, when using the cut-off score of 36. Furthermore, findings from regression analyses indicated that higher age, the number of gestation weeks, having previously experienced pregnancy-related complications, perinatal depression, pregnancy-related anxiety and clinical anger were variably positive predictors of the Revised version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI-R) measured OCD symptoms. The predictors were specific to each of the symptoms. It can be concluded from the study that there is a relationship between OCD symptoms and all the independent variables used.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(7): 671-677, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448932

RESUMO

Hyperactive error monitoring is a robust neurocognitive characteristic in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet, relatively little is known about the flexibility and potential moderators of error monitoring in OCD. The current study investigates error monitoring in 30 healthy participants and 28 patients with OCD using a flanker task in 2 conditions either emphasizing speed or accuracy. Results indicate that no group difference is observable in error-related negativity (ERN) under the accuracy-focused condition. Both groups show an ERN attenuation in the speed condition; however, this reduction is larger in healthy controls leading to pronounced group differences in the speed-focused condition. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic analyses yield an area under the curve (AUC) of .62 in the accuracy-focused condition, whereas under speed instruction an AUC of .85 suggests a marked increase in classification accuracy. Behavioral results and results from a drift-diffusion model of decision making indicate a more cautious response strategy and less adaptability to experimental manipulations in OCD. Overall, results suggest that the observed increases in error-related neural activity in OCD might stem from a reduced flexibility and diminished ability to disengage from an accuracy-oriented, error-avoidant response style. Further, the present results suggest that emphasizing speed in experimental instructions may lead to a better neural differentiation between patients with OCD and healthy controls which has important implications for the use of the ERN as a risk indicator. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 335-340, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185362

RESUMO

Background: The Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (BEAQ) has been suggested as the most appropriate instrument for measuring experiential avoidance. However, no Spanish validation has been published. The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the BEAQ in a clinical sample treated at a community mental health unit. Methods: Participants (N = 332) completed the BEAQ as well as other self-report measures of experiential avoidance and psychopathology. Results: Internal consistency was satisfactory (α = .82). No statistically significant gender differences were found in the BEAQ scores. The data also showed high test-retest reliability after four to six weeks, acceptable concurrent validity with another experiential avoidance measure and acceptable convergent validity with the psychopathology measure. The principal component analysis, forcing the one factor solution proposed in the original scale, produced indicators similar to the English version of the BEAQ. Conclusions: These results firmly support the reliability and validity of this Spanish validation, stressing its usefulness as a measure of experiential avoidance in clinical populations


Antecedentes: el Cuestionario Breve de Evitación Experiencial (BEAQ) ha sido propuesto como el instrumento más adecuado para medir la evitación experiencial. Sin embargo, todavía no ha sido publicada ninguna validación en español. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio ha sido la validación de una versión española del BEAQ, en una muestra clínica atendida en un Centro de Salud Mental Comunitario. Método: los participantes (N = 332) completaron el BEAQ, así como otras medidas de autoinforme de evitación experiencial y psicopatología. Resultados: la consistencia interna fue satisfactoria (α = .82). No se encontraron diferencias de género estadísticamente significativas en las puntuaciones del BEAQ. Los datos también mostraron una alta fiabilidad test-retest en un intervalo de cuatro a seis semanas, validez concurrente aceptable con otra medida de evitación experiencial y validez convergente aceptable con la medida de psicopatología. El análisis de componentes principales forzando a la solución de un factor, como se propuso en la escala original, obtuvo unos indicadores similares a los obtenidos en dicha versión inglesa. Conclusiones: los resultados confirman la adecuada fiabilidad y validez de la presente versión española del BEAQ, destacando su utilidad como medida de la evitación experiencial en población clínica


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Autorrelato , Transtornos de Adaptação/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Distímico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Distímico/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha
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