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1.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 300: 111065, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234640

RESUMO

A systematic review was implemented according to PRISMA guidelines on Pubmed, Psychinfo, Medline, Embase to fill the existing literature gap on the effectiveness of using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Twenty-two articles were included. Four studies reported an increased density in 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HT1A) in fronto-temporo-parietal regions in both affected and recovered AN as well as in BN. The 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) binding was increased or diminished in different specific cortical areas and in relation to Eating Disorder (ED) subtypes. Some evidences of blunted Dopamine (DA) release in the putamen in BN patients suggest that their DA function might be impaired as in addictive behaviours. Studies estimating the regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) with SPECT demonstrated that temporal areas seem to play a key role in ED corroborating the hypothesis of a cingulate-temporal cortical dysfunction in AN. In addition, alterations of both parietal and prefrontal cortex provide a possible common neural substrate in AN. Studies included in this review are heterogeneous preventing robust conclusions, however, our findings add knowledge on some of the neurotransmitters involved in ED.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with functional abnormalities in frontostriatal and frontolimbic circuits. Although structural alterations in the frontal portions of these circuits have been observed, this is the first study of subcortical surface morphometry and the largest study of subcortical volume in BN. METHODS: Anatomical magnetic resonance scans were acquired from 62 female participants with full and subthreshold BN (mean age ± SD, 18.7 ± 4.0 years) and 65 group-matched healthy control participants (mean age ± SD, 19.3 ± 5.7 years). General linear models were used to compare groups and assess the significance of group-by-age interactions on the shape and total volume of 15 subcortical structures (p < .05, familywise error corrected). Associations with illness severity and duration were assessed in the BN group. RESULTS: Subcortical volumes did not differ across groups, but vertexwise analyses revealed inward shape deformations on the anterior surface of the pallidum in BN relative to control participants that were associated with binge-eating frequency and illness duration. Inward deformations on the ventrolateral thalamus and dorsal amygdala were more pronounced with advancing age in the BN group, and inward deformations on the caudate, putamen, and amygdala were associated with self-induced vomiting frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to localized deformations on the surface of subcortical structures in areas that comprise both reward and cognitive control circuits. These deformations were more pronounced among older BN participants and among those with the most severe symptoms. Such precise localization of alterations in subcortical morphometry may ultimately aid in efforts to identify markers of risk and BN persistence.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/patologia , Bulimia Nervosa/patologia , Tálamo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Bulimia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 286: 53-59, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903953

RESUMO

We examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) treatment on ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) and striatal brain activation in binge eating disorder (BED). We hypothesized that participants with BED have an abnormal brain response to palatable food cues, and that VPFC and striatal regions would respond to such cues after LDX treatment. Twenty women with moderate to severe BED consented to a 12-week, open-label trial of LDX with fMRI before and after treatment. Twenty obese women without BED served as healthy controls and received one fMRI. LDX was started at 30 mg/d with a target of 70 mg/d at week 12. At baseline, women with BED showed greater activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), striatum, and globus pallidus to food pictures and brain activation to food pictures predicted clinical outcome at 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of LDX treatment, BED women showed significant reductions in globus pallidus activation. Reductions in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and thalamus activation specifically correlated with binge eating and obsessive-compulsive symptom reductions, respectively. Results suggest that BED is characterized by an abnormally large VPFC-subcortical brain response to palatable foods that LDX treatment helps modify. Moreover, VPFC-subcortical activation at baseline is a potential biomarker of LDX response.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/uso terapêutico , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 276: 41-45, 2018 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655552

RESUMO

Both morbid obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) have previously been linked with aberrant brain opioid function. Behaviorally these two conditions are however different suggesting also differences in neurotransmitter function. Here we directly compared mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability between morbidly obese and BED subjects. Seven BED and nineteen morbidly obese (non-BED) patients, and thirty matched control subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with MOR-specific ligand [11C]carfentanil. Both subjects with morbid obesity and BED had widespread reduction in [11C]carfentanil binding compared to control subjects. However, there was no significant difference in brain MOR binding between subjects with morbid obesity and BED. Thus, our results indicate that there is common brain opioid abnormality in behaviorally different eating disorders involving obesity.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
5.
Pharmacol Ther ; 182: 15-27, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28830840

RESUMO

Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder with estimates of 2-5% of the general adult population. Nonetheless, its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Furthermore, there exist few therapeutic options for its effective treatment. Here we review the current state of binge-eating neurobiology and pharmacology, drawing from clinical therapeutic, neuroimaging, cognitive, human genetic and animal model studies. These studies, which are still in their infancy, indicate that while there are many gaps in our knowledge, several key neural substrates appear to underpin binge-eating and may be conserved between human and animals. This observation suggests that behavioral intermediate phenotypes or endophenotypes relevant to BED may be modeled in animals, facilitating the identification and testing of novel pharmacological targets. The development of novel, safe and effective pharmacological therapies for the treatment of BED will enhance the ability of clinicians to provide optimal care for people with BED.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos
6.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 27(12): 1281-1288, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032922

RESUMO

Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED), appear to be associated with specific changes in brain dopamine and opioid function, but the role of other neurotransmitter systems is less clear. Given the crucial role of serotonin in a number of psychiatric disorders, we aimed to compare brain serotonergic function among individuals with BED, PG and healthy controls. Seven BED patients, 13 PG patients and 16 healthy controls were scanned with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) using the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [11C]MADAM. Both region-of-interest and voxel-wise whole brain analyses were performed. Patients with BED showed increased SERT binding in the parieto-occipital cortical regions compared to both PG and healthy controls, with parallel decreases in binding in the nucleus accumbens, inferior temporal gyrus and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. No differences between PG patients and controls were observed. None of the subjects were on SSRI medications at the time of imaging, and there were no differences in the level of depression between PG and BED patients. The results highlight differences in brain SERT binding between individuals with BED and PG and provide further evidence of different neurobiological underpinnings in behavioral addictions that are unrelated to the co-existing mood disorder. The results aid in the conceptualization of behavioral addictions by characterizing the underlying serotonin changes and provide a framework for additional studies to examine syndrome-specific pharmaceutical treatments.


Assuntos
Benzilaminas/metabolismo , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Jogo de Azar/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/patologia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
7.
Appetite ; 117: 294-302, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698012

RESUMO

The role of craving in binge eating characteristic of bulimia nervosa (BN) is inconclusive. A network of regions associated with cue reactivity to food and substances has been identified, comprised of the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and striatum. The goal of this study was to examine individual differences in BOLD response in this appetitive network as moderators of the relationship between craving and binging in the natural environment in women with BN. Women with BN (N = 16) completed a baseline measure of craving and a fMRI scan, where they viewed neutral cues and food cues. After each run, craving for food was assessed. Participants then completed an ecological momentary assessment six times a day via smart phone and recorded binge eating and craving. Participants exhibited significantly increased BOLD response in the left amygdala in response to food cues compared to neutral cues. However, individual differences in BOLD response were not correlated with self-report craving throughout the scan. The relationship between craving and binging in everyday life was moderated by individual differences in activation in the caudate, insula, and amygdala. Women with greater activation in these regions demonstrated significant increases in craving prior to binge eating. Those who did not exhibit increases in activation did not exhibit increases in craving prior to binge eating in the natural environment. Craving may not underlie binge eating for all individuals with BN. However, these results indicate that neural response to food cues may affect individual differences in the daily experience of craving and binge eating.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Fissura , Preferências Alimentares , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Sinais (Psicologia) , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Registros de Dieta , District of Columbia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Smartphone , Adulto Jovem
8.
Physiol Behav ; 176: 59-70, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28363840

RESUMO

Recurrent binge eating, or overeating accompanied by a sense of loss of control, is a major public health concern. Identifying similarities and differences among individuals with binge eating and those with other psychiatric symptoms and characterizing the deficits that uniquely predispose individuals to eating problems are essential to improving treatment. Research suggests that altered reward and control-related processes may contribute to dysregulated eating and other impulsive behaviors in binge-eating populations, but the best methods for reliably assessing the contributions of these processes to binge eating are unclear. In this review, we summarize standard neurocognitive and neuroimaging tasks that assess reward and control-related processes, describe adaptations of these tasks used to study eating and food-specific responsivity and deficits, and consider the advantages and limitations of these tasks. Future studies integrating both general and food-specific tasks with neuroimaging will improve understanding of the neurocognitive processes and neural circuits that contribute to binge eating and could inform novel interventions that more directly target or prevent this transdiagnostic behavior.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Neuroimagem , Animais , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos
9.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 42(3): 628-637, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27301429

RESUMO

Despite its clinical relevance and the recent recognition as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5, binge eating disorder (BED) has rarely been investigated from a cognitive neuroscientific perspective targeting a more precise neurocognitive profiling of the disorder. BED patients suffer from a lack of behavioral control during recurrent binge eating episodes and thus fail to adapt their behavior in the face of negative consequences, eg, high risk for obesity. To examine impairments in flexible reward-based decision-making, we exposed BED patients (n=22) and matched healthy individuals (n=22) to a reward-guided decision-making task during functional resonance imaging (fMRI). Performing fMRI analysis informed via computational modeling of choice behavior, we were able to identify specific signatures of altered decision-making in BED. On the behavioral level, we observed impaired behavioral adaptation in BED, which was due to enhanced switching behavior, a putative deficit in striking a balance between exploration and exploitation appropriately. This was accompanied by diminished activation related to exploratory decisions in the anterior insula/ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, although so-called model-free reward prediction errors remained intact, representation of ventro-medial prefrontal learning signatures, incorporating inference on unchosen options, was reduced in BED, which was associated with successful decision-making in the task. On the basis of a computational psychiatry account, the presented findings contribute to defining a neurocognitive phenotype of BED.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychol Med ; 47(4): 585-596, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27804899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficient organization and communication of brain networks underlie cognitive processing and their disruption can lead to pathological behaviours. Few studies have focused on whole-brain networks in obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Here we used multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) along with a data-driven graph theory approach to assess brain network characteristics in obesity and BED. METHOD: Multi-echo rsfMRI scans were collected from 40 obese subjects (including 20 BED patients) and 40 healthy controls and denoised using multi-echo independent component analysis (ME-ICA). We constructed a whole-brain functional connectivity matrix with normalized correlation coefficients between regional mean blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals from 90 brain regions in the Automated Anatomical Labeling atlas. We computed global and regional network properties in the binarized connectivity matrices with an edge density of 5%-25%. We also verified our findings using a separate parcellation, the Harvard-Oxford atlas parcellated into 470 regions. RESULTS: Obese subjects exhibited significantly reduced global and local network efficiency as well as decreased modularity compared with healthy controls, showing disruption in small-world and modular network structures. In regional metrics, the putamen, pallidum and thalamus exhibited significantly decreased nodal degree and efficiency in obese subjects. Obese subjects also showed decreased connectivity of cortico-striatal/cortico-thalamic networks associated with putaminal and cortical motor regions. These findings were significant with ME-ICA with limited group differences observed with conventional denoising or single-echo analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Using this data-driven analysis of multi-echo rsfMRI data, we found disruption in global network properties and motor cortico-striatal networks in obesity consistent with habit formation theories. Our findings highlight the role of network properties in pathological food misuse as possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Conectoma/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Putamen/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 24(4): 277-85, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26856396

RESUMO

In this study, possible differences in the neural correlates of set-shifting abilities between the restrictive (AN-R) and bingeing/purging (AN-BP) subtypes of anorexia nervosa have been explored. Three groups of participants performed a set-shifting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging: patients with AN-R (N = 16), AN-BP (N = 13) and healthy control participants (N = 15). As in a typical set-shifting experiment, participants had to switch between two easy tasks (i.e. 'Is the presented number odd/even' or 'Is the presented number smaller/larger than 5'). The trials in which the task was repeated (repeat trials) were compared with trials in which the task was switched (switch trials). With regards to the level of task performance, no significant group differences could be established. However, when comparing switch specific brain activity across study groups, a stronger activation was found in the insula and the precuneus in AN-R when compared to AN-BP and HC. These results suggest that the both subtypes of AN might have different neurobiological correlates, and thus, might benefit from different treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Enquadramento Psicológico , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
12.
Appetite ; 96: 195-202, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26275334

RESUMO

Obese individuals show altered neural responses to high-calorie food cues. Individuals with binge eating [BE], who exhibit heightened impulsivity and emotionality, may show a related but distinct pattern of irregular neural responses. However, few neuroimaging studies have compared BE and non-BE groups. To examine neural responses to food cues in BE, 10 women with BE and 10 women without BE (non-BE) who were matched for obesity (5 obese and 5 lean in each group) underwent fMRI scanning during presentation of visual (picture) and auditory (spoken word) cues representing high energy density (ED) foods, low-ED foods, and non-foods. We then compared regional brain activation in BE vs. non-BE groups for high-ED vs. low-ED foods. To explore differences in functional connectivity, we also compared psychophysiologic interactions [PPI] with dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [dACC] for BE vs. non-BE groups. Region of interest (ROI) analyses revealed that the BE group showed more activation than the non-BE group in the dACC, with no activation differences in the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]. Exploratory PPI analyses revealed a trend towards greater functional connectivity with dACC in the insula, cerebellum, and supramarginal gyrus in the BE vs. non-BE group. Our results suggest that women with BE show hyper-responsivity in the dACC as well as increased coupling with other brain regions when presented with high-ED cues. These differences are independent of body weight, and appear to be associated with the BE phenotype.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ingestão de Energia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 19(8): 1601-8, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21350434

RESUMO

Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [(11)C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Privação de Alimentos , Humanos , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto Jovem
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