Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.681
Filtrar
1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(7): 572-587, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734545

RESUMO

The present case report presents the treatment of an adolescent with a diagnosis of F 91.1 conduct disorder, childhood-onset type. The treatment refers to the theoretical concepts of trauma-, psychodrama- and mentalization based psychotherapy. Before starting treatment several test diagnostic procedures were carried out. The psychotherapy targeted at changing the representations of attachment and at a process based development of healthy self-parts in the sense of mentalization. The therapeutic relationship took on a special position. The purpose of this paper is the question of how mental processes can be promoted, developed and integrated and to find out the importance of an integrative treatment approach.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Mentalização , Adolescente , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Humanos , Psicoterapia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Conduct disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by repetitive and persistent norm-breaking behavior. This study aimed to compare the risk of conduct disorder between first- and second-generation immigrant children and adolescents and their native controls. METHODS: In this nationwide, open-cohort study from Sweden, participants were born 1987-2010, aged 4-16 years at baseline, and were living in the country for at least one year during the follow-up period between 2001 and 2015. The sample included 1,902,526 and 805,450 children-adolescents with native and immigrant backgrounds, respectively. Data on the conduct disorder diagnoses were retrieved through the National Patient Register. We estimated the incidence of conduct disorder and calculated adjusted Hazard Ratios. RESULTS: Overall, the adjusted risk of conduct disorder was lower among first-generation immigrants and most second-generation immigrant groups compared with natives (both males and females). However, second-generation immigrants with a Swedish-born mother and a foreign-born father had a higher risk of conduct disorder than natives. Similar results were found for sub-diagnoses of conduct disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk of conduct disorder among second-generation immigrants with a Swedish-born mother and the lower risk among most of the other immigrant groups warrants special attention and an investigation of potential underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 492, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561420

RESUMO

Conduct disorder (CD), a psychiatric disorder characterized by a repetitive pattern of antisocial behaviors, results from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The clinical presentation of CD varies both according to the individual's sex and level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, but it remains unclear how genetic and environmental factors interact at the molecular level to produce these differences. Emerging evidence in males implicates methylation of genes associated with socio-affective processes. Here, we combined an epigenome-wide association study with structural neuroimaging in 51 females with CD and 59 typically developing (TD) females to examine DNA methylation in relation to CD, CU traits, and gray matter volume (GMV). We demonstrate an inverse pattern of correlation between CU traits and methylation of a chromosome 1 region in CD females (positive) as compared to TD females (negative). The identified region spans exon 1 of the SLC25A24 gene, central to energy metabolism due to its role in mitochondrial function. Increased SLC25A24 methylation was also related to lower GMV in multiple brain regions in the overall cohort. These included the superior frontal gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and supramarginal gyrus, secondary visual cortex and ventral posterior cingulate cortex, which are regions that have previously been implicated in CD and CU traits. While our findings are preliminary and need to be replicated in larger samples, they provide novel evidence that CU traits in females are associated with methylation levels in a fundamentally different way in CD and TD, which in turn may relate to observable variations in GMV across the brain.


Assuntos
Antiporters/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Transtorno da Conduta , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem
4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(6): 499-519, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519617

RESUMO

The controlled, prospective intervention study without randomization with a non-inferiority study design investigates the effectiveness of psychoanalytic treatments without medication in comparison to behavioral therapy treatments with and without medication in children aged 6 to 11 years with a diagnosis of ADHD and/or conduct disorder. 73 children (58 boys and 15 girls) were included in the study. Diagnostics before treatment, at end of treatment and at follow-up after 38 months included a standardized clinical interview (DISYPS-KJ), questionnaires for parents, teachers and children (DISYPS-KJ, CBCL, TRF, CPRS, CTRS, ILK), intelligence test and behavioral observation of the child. Primary outcome criterion was disorder-specific symptom reduction at end of treatment and follow-up. Both treatment groups showed significant symptom reductions at end of treatment and at follow-up. There were no significant differences between treatment groups. Parent and teacher ratings showed significant improvements in both groups at end of treatment and at follow-up on the ADHD index, oppositional behavior, and hyperactivity/impulsivity scales, as well as on the externalizing and internalizing behavior problems scales. Quality of life improved for children in both treatment groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Behav Ther ; 52(5): 1237-1250, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452676

RESUMO

Limited prosocial emotions (LPE) are characterized by a lack of remorse or guilt, callousness/lack of empathy, being unconcerned about performance, and shallow/deficient affect. While previous research has largely focused on the presence or absence of LPE in youth, there is considerable evidence that symptom presence/absence and symptom impairment are separable dimensions, where impairment often is found to play a significant, unique role in assessing child psychopathology. The current study utilized a newly developed questionnaire with the purpose of exploring its psychometric properties and better understand the dual and potentially differential role LPE symptom presence and LPE-related impairment have in youth. Mothers (n = 265) of children (Mage = 8.04, SD = 2.07) completed questionnaires assessing LPE impairment, LPE symptoms, externalizing disorder symptoms, and functional impairment. Results demonstrated strong support for the psychometric properties of the newly developed measure of LPE impairment. Importantly, LPE-related impairment uniquely predicted all impairment domains above-and-beyond the effects of LPE symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder, and CD symptoms (as well as child age and sex covariates). Moreover, youth in the top 25th percentile on both LPE symptoms and LPE-related impairment (compared to youth only in the top 25th percentile in LPE symptoms) had greater mean externalizing symptoms and functional impairment. The preliminary evidence provided suggests researchers and clinicians may benefit from assessing both LPE symptoms and LPE-related impairment when attempting to identify youth with high levels of conduct problem symptoms and/or psychosocial impairment. Future research should aim to replicate and expand our findings to other clinical populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Criança , Emoções , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos
6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 1-8, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that offspring born to mothers who smoked tobacco during pregnancy may have elevated risk of developing conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. We examined associations between maternal and paternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy and CD symptoms in offspring at the age of 14 years. METHODS: We obtained data from the Raine Study, a multi-generational cohort study based in Western Australia. DSM-oriented scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to measure CD symptoms in offspring. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the rate ratio (risks) (RR) of CD symptoms in offspring. We also produced the E-values to investigate the extent of unmeasured confounding. Paternal smoking during pregnancy was used as a proxy for environmental tobacco smoke exposure. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 1747 mother-offspring and 1711 father-offspring pairs. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found elevated risks (rates) of CD symptoms in offspring born to mothers smoking tobacco during the first trimester [RR 1.52 (95 % CI: 1.24-1.87)], third trimester [RR 1.36 (95 % CI: 1.09-1.69)] and during both trimesters of pregnancy [RR 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.19-1.90)]. The rates of CD symptoms in offspring increased with the level of exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy. However, we noted insufficient statistical evidence for an association between paternal smoking during pregnancy and CD symptoms in offspring. CONCLUSION: The associations we found for maternal but not paternal smoking may suggest a biological mechanism for intrauterine tobacco exposure on the risk of CD symptoms in offspring. Early interventions assisting pregnant mothers to quit tobacco smoking, or avoid smoking initiation, have potential to contribute health benefits to both mothers and their offspring.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco
7.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 128: 648-660, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265320

RESUMO

Despite a growing literature on the complex bidirectional relationship of ADHD and substance use, reviews specifically focusing on alcohol are scarce. ADHD and AUD show a significant genetic overlap, including genes involved in gluatamatergic and catecholaminergic neurotransmission. ADHD drives risky behavior and negative experiences throughout the lifespan that subsequently enhance a genetically increased risk for Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). Impulsive decisions and a maladaptive reward system make individuals with ADHD vulnerable for alcohol use and up to 43 % develop an AUD; in adults with AUD, ADHD occurs in about 20 %, but is vastly under-recognized and under-treated. Thus, routine screening and treatment procedures need to be implemented in AUD treatment. Long-acting stimulants or non-stimulants can be used to treat ADHD in individuals with AUD. However, it is crucial to combine medical treatment for ADHD with pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for AUD, and other comorbid disorders. Identification of individuals at risk for AUD, especially those with ADHD and conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, is a key factor to prevent negative outcomes.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo
8.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 499-513, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP program in reducing psychopathic traits among male detained youth. METHOD: In this controlled trial, a treatment group (n = 58) and a control group (n = 61) answered the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short (YPIS) and the Proposed Specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD) at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Treatment participants attended the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP; controls only received Treatment As Usual (TAU). Treatment effects were tested with latent growth curve models (LGCM). RESULTS: At baseline, no significant differences between groups were found. Results from LGCM showed that condition was a significant predictor of change over time observed in almost all outcome measures. Concerning the YPIS, treatment participants presented a significant decrease both in the total score and in the YPIS factors scores when compared with the controls (medium/large effect sizes; growth modeling analysis-GMA d ranging from .58 to 1.12). Considering the PSCD, treatment participants also showed a significant decrease both in the total score and in the PSCD factors scores (except for the grandiose-manipulative factor) when compared with controls (medium effect sizes; GMA d ranging from .53 to .72). Results also showed that treatment effects were maintained 6 months after the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP completion. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP is a promising treatment approach to reduce psychopathic traits among male detained youth, suggesting that interventions targeting these traits should be considered in their rehabilitation, as the absence of tailored interventions may increase the levels of psychopathic traits and their associated risks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Empatia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 49(10): 1289-1301, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128173

RESUMO

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are two of the most common forms of disruptive behavior disorders during childhood. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are an important factor in understanding the presentation of these externalizing forms of psychopathology. ODD, CD, and CU traits are highly related constructs, yet little work has examined how these externalizing forms of psychopathology are related at the domain level. The current study utilized network analysis to identify the distinct domains that explain the associations among ODD, CD, and CU traits. In a sample of 104 preschoolers (M age = 4.76), results demonstrated that the symptom domains of (a) angry/irritable mood and argumentative/defiant behavior, (b) aggression to people and animals, and (c) callousness were the primary bridge domains for ODD, CD, and CU traits, respectively. Findings of the current study offer a more nuanced insight into the relations amongst ODD, CD, and CU traits. Identification of bridge symptom domains can inform intervention practices by targeting specific symptom domains that are contributing to the maintenance of such aggressive and disruptive behaviors.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Comportamento Problema , Agressão , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
10.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 49(11): 1419-1430, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128174

RESUMO

Despite increasing knowledge of social and biological risk factors for callous-unemotional (CU) traits, relatively less is known about how these two sets of risk factors combine to affect these traits. The current longitudinal study investigated pathways from parenting style to CU traits via resting heart rate in a three-year project. Parents of 382 children completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire at Time 1 (children Mean age = 9.06, SD = 0.94, range = 7-11 years), with the heart rate data collected at Time 2 (M = 10.16, SD = 0.93, range = 8-13 years) and CU traits assessed at Time 3 (M = 11.06, SD = 0.94, range = 9-13 years). We found that parenting style and CU traits were associated with resting heart rate, and that structural equation modeling showed resting heart rate to partially mediate the effect of parenting style on CU traits. Specifically, higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with lower resting heart rate, which in turn was linked to higher level of CU traits. On the contrary, children in the context of authoritative parenting showed relatively higher resting heart rate, which was predictive of lower CU traits. Overall, findings have implications for understanding the etiology of CU traits in children and developing effective prevention programs for children with affective deficits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Poder Familiar , Criança , China , Emoções , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
11.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(5): 386-402, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187334

RESUMO

Psychotherapeutic treatment for adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) is considered difficult for various reasons. On the one hand, patients frequently lack psychological strain, and striving for autonomy is part of typical adolescent development. On the other hand, therapists can react aversively to delinquent and violent behavior, and insufficient psychological models explaining aetiology and maintenance of symptoms can impede treatment of adolescents with CD. Mentalization-Based Therapy for adolescents with CD (MBT-CD) was developed with the aim of addressing these difficulties and improving psychotherapeutic treatment for this patient group. MBT-CD focuses on the promotion of the adolescents' autonomy by increasing their scope of action via an improvement of mentalizing ability. The aim of this qualitative study is to investigate the acceptance of MBT-CD by the adolescents in terms of their experience with MBT-CD and thus obtain information about aspects which enhance therapy motivation for this group of patients. For this purpose, we conducted semi-structured interviews with twelve adolescents after completion of therapy assessing their subjective therapy evaluation. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. The results show both helpful and hindering aspects of the mentalization-based interventions. In addition, the monthly family sessions included in the therapy were regarded as important. Adolescents also regarded emotion regulation strategies as helpful. Implications for the treatment of adolescents with CD are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Transtorno da Conduta , Mentalização , Adolescente , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 49(11): 1431-1445, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152500

RESUMO

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., callousness, low empathy, shallow affect) have been conceptualized as a downward extension of the interpersonal and affective components of adult psychopathy and are associated with stable and severe antisocial behavior. Research suggests that CU traits are moderately heritable, but also influenced by environmental factors, particularly parenting. We examined associations among mother and father psychopathic traits, parenting practices, and offspring CU traits in a community sample of 550 adolescent twins (Mean age = 13.99 years; SD 2.37; 56.4% male), incorporating multiple informants (mothers, fathers, child). Parental interpersonal-affective psychopathic traits were associated with adolescent CU traits and negative parenting (increased harshness, reduced warmth). Moreover, increased parental harshness and reduced warmth partially explained associations between parental interpersonal-affective traits and adolescent CU traits. There was also a significant direct effect specifically between mother interpersonal-affective traits and adolescent CU traits. Finally, using a twin difference design, we confirmed that adolescent CU traits were significantly impacted by non-shared environmental parenting influences (increased harshness, reduced warmth). These results suggest that mother and father interpersonal-affective traits appear to impact parenting practices and serve as risk factors for adolescent CU traits. However, many of the findings did not replicate when using cross-informant reports and were only present within single informant models, highlighting a role for shared informant variance as well. The results suggest the importance of accounting for parent personality in the development of effective parenting interventions for CU traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais
13.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 77: 101717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146941

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to examine the possible role of psychopathic traits as a moderator of the aggression-antisociality/delinquency link. Our sample was composed of 567 youth (M = 15.91 years, SD = 0.99 years, age range = 14-18 years) from Portugal. Results indicated that psychopathic features significantly moderate four different forms and functions of aggression - proactive overt, proactive relational, reactive overt, and reactive relational - when predicting delinquency. However, psychopathic traits only significantly moderate proactive relational aggression when predicting Conduct Disorder. Psychopathic traits and aggression constitute an antisocial alchemy for antisocial behavior but more research is needed about moderation effects therein particularly among clinical and justice system involved samples of youth to inform behavioral interventions.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Humanos , Portugal
14.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 127: 899-916, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089765

RESUMO

BERNHARD, A., J. S. Mayer, N. Fann, and C. M. Freitag. Cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress in ADHD compared to Conduct Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder: A systematic review. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2020. - Heterogeneous alterations of the cortisol stress response in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were recently reported by a systematic literature review. To investigate the moderating effect of frequent psychiatric comorbidities, we systematically searched for studies on cortisol stress response to psychosocial stress in ADHD compared to Conduct Disorder (CD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) following PRISMA guidelines. EBSCOhost and PubMed databases were searched in July 2020, employing relevant keywords. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria. While blunted cortisol stress response was consistently reported in individuals with CD and/or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), alterations of cortisol stress response were less pronounced in ADHD. Consistently blunted cortisol stress response in ADHD was only found in children with comorbid CD/ODD. Results on cortisol stress response in children and adolescents with MDD were mixed, and no indication for influence of comorbid MDD on cortisol stress response in ADHD was found. Taken together, altered cortisol stress response in ADHD is driven by comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders. Limitations of previous research and suggestions for future studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Estresse Psicológico
15.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 30(3): 637-647, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053691

RESUMO

Oppositional defiant disorder includes distinct but inseparable dimensions of chronic irritability and oppositional behavior. The dimensions have been identified in early childhood to adulthood, and show discriminant associations with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The introduction of disruptive mood dysregulation disorders and the requirements that it take precedence over oppositional defiant disorder diagnostically are not supported by evidence and introduce confusion about the structure and linkages of irritability and oppositional behavior, and obscure the importance of the behavioral dimension in explaining and predicting poor outcomes. A dimensional framework with irritability, oppositionality, callous-unemotional traits, and aggression may more fully describe antisocial outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Humor Irritável , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Child Abuse Negl ; 117: 105085, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents in China suffer a high prevalence of childhood maltreatment, which has been shown to facilitate juvenile violent delinquency. Studies have implicated a relationship between callous-unemotional traits and both juvenile violent delinquency and childhood maltreatment. However, the complex relationships among these three variables have not yet been examined. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of callous-unemotional traits in the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment and juvenile violent delinquency. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Childhood maltreatment and callous-unemotional traits were assessed in a sample of 441 juvenile violent offenders and a control group of 543 non-offenders, using questionnaires. METHODS: After controlling for socio-economic status, a mediation analysis determined the direct, indirect, and total effect of the mediation of callous-unemotional traits in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile violent delinquency. RESULTS: The results showed no mediation of callous-unemotional traits in the relationship between physical abuse and juvenile violent delinquency. However, callous-unemotional traits mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and juvenile violent delinquency as well as between emotional neglect and juvenile violent delinquency. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that sexual abuse has both a direct and indirect effect on juvenile violent delinquency via callous-unemotional traits, whereas childhood emotional neglect had only an indirect effect on juvenile violent delinquency.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtorno da Conduta , Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 560-568, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991994

RESUMO

Callous unemotional (CU) traits differentiate subtypes of conduct disorder (CD). It has been suggested that CU traits may be related to topographical irregularities that hinder information integration. To date, there is limited evidence of whether CU traits may be associated with abnormal brain topology. In this study, 43 CD boys with high and low CU trait (CD-HCU, CD-LCU), and 46 healthy controls (HCs) were subjected to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how CU trait level and conduct problems may be reflected in topological organization. Brain functional networks were constructed and network/nodal properties, including small-world properties and network/nodal efficiency, were calculated. Topological analysis revealed that, compared with HCs, CD-HCU group were characterized by decreased small-worldness (σ), decreased global efficiency, and increased path length (λ). These variables were similar between the CD-LCU and HC groups. Self-reported CU traits in CD patients correlated negatively with global efficiency and positively with λ. Regional analysis revealed diminished nodal efficiency in the right amygdala in the CD-HCU group compared with HCs. The present results suggest that disrupted global efficiency, together with a regional abnormality affecting the amygdala, may contribute to abnormal information processing and integration in adolescents with CD and high CU traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 232, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated cognitive and emotional functioning in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders (DICCD). METHODS: Thirty patients with ADHD, 26 with DICCD, 22 with ADHD+DICCD were recruited from the outpatient department of Shanghai Changning Mental Health Center, plus 20 healthy controls (HC). Differences between the groups in cognitive and emotional functioning were examined using Golden's Stroop and Emotional Stroop tests. For Emotional Stroop Mean reaction time (RT) of positive word (POS) and negative word (NEG) with color congruence (C) or incongruence (I) were recorded as POS-C, POS-I, NEG-C and NEG-I, respectively. RESULTS: For Golden's interference scores (IGs), both errors and RTs in the ADHD group were higher than in the other groups. Longer mean RTs of POS-C, POS-I, NEG-C and neural word (NEU) of the ADHD group, and NEG-I of ADHD+DICCD and DICCD groups were observed compared to HC. After 12 weeks of methylphenidate treatment, differences between ADHD subgroups and HC on Golden's Stroop RT disappeared, but differences in Golden's Stroop errors and Emotional Stroop mean RTs remained. The ADHD+DICCD group showed longer mean RTs in NEG-C, NEG-I and NEU of the Emotional Stroop test than the ADHD group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that regardless of emotional responding, deficit in cognitive control is the core symptom of ADHD. However, emotionally biased stimuli may cause response inhibitory dysfunction among DICCD with callous-unemotional traits, and the comorbidity of ADHD and DICCD tends to account for the negative emotional response characteristic of DICCD. These deficits may be eliminated by medication treatment in ADHD, but not the ADHD with comorbid DICCD. Our results support the notion that ADHD with comorbid DICCD is more closely related to DICCD than to ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8065, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850187

RESUMO

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with severe and stable antisocial behaviour in childhood and adolescence. In order to understand the earliest origins of CU traits we need first to know whether measurement is reliable and valid in young children. This study evaluated the psychometric properties and validity of a CU traits measure generated from existing child problem behaviour scales at age 2.5 years. The participants were members of an epidemiological longitudinal study starting in pregnancy. Items from the Antisocial Process Screening Device and other problem behaviour scales were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modelling was used to test whether age 2.5 CU traits showed incremental validity in predicting aggression at age 5. The CU measure showed acceptable psychometric properties, factorial invariance by sex and good stability. Incremental prediction to later aggression was evident in girls, whereas boys showed strong continuity in aggression not found for girls.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Psicometria , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
20.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 49(9): 1179-1196, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825099

RESUMO

Network analytic techniques examine how items used to measure underlying constructs are related to one another and identify core characteristics. While many studies have examined the covariance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits or features and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, the inter-item relations of these constructs and the core characteristics of the CU construct are unclear. The present study aimed to examine the network connectivity of, and between, CU features and CD symptoms. We also examined both parent-reports and youth self-reports and gender differences. CU features and CD symptoms were rated by parents (n = 814; 74% mothers; age 23-73, M age = 43.86, SD = 8.13) and their child (n = 608; 57% female; age 7-19, M age = 13.98, SD = 2.36). Network plots depicted greater connectivity (i.e., density and weights) for CU features relative to CD symptoms across both informants. However, youth-reported CU features and CD symptoms were less densely connected than parent-reports. Items commonly comprising the callousness subscale were more central and linked the two constructs together, relative to uncaring items, across informant and gender. Gender related effects indicated lower centrality for male versus female youth, and this finding was particularly evident in youth-reports. Our findings highlight relations between CU features and CD symptoms, and point to the importance of callousness items in conceptualizations of CU features among high-risk youth from both the perspective of the parent and child. We also inform understanding of gender differences in CU features for which the literature is currently limited.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sintomas Comportamentais , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...