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1.
J Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 31(3): 214-223, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805836

RESUMO

Background: There is limited data on the prevalence of child and adolescent mental health disorders (CAMHD) in Ghana. Recent reports suggest a decline in academic achievement in basic education. This paper sought to determine the prevalence of CAMHD in Ghanaian primary school children and to draw correlates with academic achievement.Methods: We conducted a pilot cross-sectional survey of 303 grade 3 pupils aged 7-15 years in the city of Kumasi. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL) were used to assess for CAMHD in 2016, and data on performance in examinations over the prior academic year were analysed.Results: Overall, current prevalence of CAMHD was 7.25%, with depressive disorder = 1.31%, anxiety disorders = 1%, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) = 1.64%, conduct disorder = 1.97%, and intellectual disability = 1%. Co-morbid disorders, such as seizure disorder (1%), were also noted. There was a greater prevalence of CAMHD in public schools (11.6%) compared to private schools (0.7%), with p < 0.001. Even when adjusted for other factors, children with CAMHD had a lower average academic score by 10.5 units (p < 0.001). Thus, having a dual diagnosis was most predictive of academic underachievement.Conclusions: The results of this study document the prevalence of CAMHD in Ghana for the first time and shows correlates with academic underachievement.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Prevalência , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/etiologia
2.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 280-286, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life is the individuals' subjective evaluation of their general well-being, including physical and mental health, social relationships and everyday functionality. The aim of our study was to examine conduct disorder in terms of gender differences in prevalence, and relationship to quality of life domains in the presence or absence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS: Altogether 392 adolescents, aged 13-18 years (M=14.5; SD= 1.37), participated in this study. The members of the clinical group were selected from Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Hospital, Budapest, Hungary with externalizing symptoms in their case history. The control group was selected from public schools in Budapest, Hungary. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid was used to diagnose conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, and parent and adolescent version of the Inventory of Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (Inventar zur Erfassung der Lebensqualität bei Kindern und Jugendlichen) was used to measure the children's quality of life. RESULTS: In this sample 8.5% of adolescents were diagnosed with conduct disorder, of which 52.9% had a comorbid oppositional defiant diagnosis. Conduct disorder diagnosis was only present in the clinical group, 9 of participants with such diagnosis were male and 24 were female. Girls with conduct disorder evaluated their family life domain (p<0.01) and their global quality of life (p<0.05) lower than the boys. Compared to adolescents without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder diagnosis, adolescents with conduct disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder had significantly worse quality of life in the domain of time spent alone (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Conduct disorder is associated with decreased quality of life. The presence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder correlates with lower quality of life in several domains. These findings are considerable for the clinical management of these externalizing disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 264, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The terms affective dysregulation (AD) and irritability describe transdiagnostic dimensions and are characterized by an excessive reactivity to negative emotional stimuli with an affective (anger) and a behavioral component (aggression). Due to early onset, high prevalence and persistence, as well as developmental comorbidity, AD in childhood is one of the most psychosocially impairing and cost-intensive mental health conditions. AD is especially prevalent in children in the youth welfare service. Despite continuous research, there remains a substantial need for diagnostic approaches and optimization of individualized treatment strategies in order to improve outcomes and reduce the subjective and economic burden. METHODS: The ADOPT (Affective Dysregulation - Optimizing Prevention and Treatment) Consortium integrates internationally established, highly experienced and interdisciplinary research groups. The work program encompasses (a) epidemiology, including prevalence of symptoms and disorders, (b) development and evaluation of screening and assessment tools, (c) stepped care approaches for clinically useful personalized medicine, (d) evaluation of an easily accessible and cost-effective online intervention as indicated prevention (treatment effects, moderation/mediation analysis), and (e) evaluation of an intensive personalized modular outpatient treatment in a cohort of children with AD who live with their parents and in a cohort of children with AD who live in out-of-home care (treatment effects, moderation/mediation analysis). DISCUSSION: The results will lead to significant recommendations for improving treatment within routine clinical care in two cohorts of children with AD and coexisting conditions, especially oppositional-defiant disorder, conduct disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration ADOPT Online: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00014963 . Registered 27 June 2018. Trial registration ADOPT Treatment: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00013317 . Registered 27 September 2018. Trial registration ADOPT Institution: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00014581 . Registered 04 July 2018.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos do Humor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/economia , Criança , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1967-1979, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482516

RESUMO

A substantial body of evidence has examined developmental pathways into and out of conduct problems. However, there is a dearth of research examining whether the same conduct problem pathways are evident in minority ethnic, as in white, populations. Drawing on the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a nationally representative longitudinal study of children born between 2000 and 2002, this study examines differences in group-based trajectories of conduct problems according to broad categories of ethnicity. Using pathways identified in a prior study (n = 17,206, 49% female, 18% ethnic minority), including persistently high (8%), childhood-limited (23%), adolescent-onset (13%), and low (56%), significant ethnic differences were found. As a result, trajectories of conduct problems were identified separately for Asian, black, mixed ethnicity, and white children. For Asian, black, and mixed ethnicity children, three trajectories were identified: persistently high, childhood-limited, and low, but not adolescent-onset. Although these pathways have similar labels, their patterns and shapes seem to differ among the three ethnic groups. For white children, the same four trajectory groups were identified as in the prior study. Risk factors also differed among the groups according to ethnicity, although a worse child-parent relationship was a significant predictor of the higher problem trajectories for all ethnic groups. Overall, the findings suggest that black and minority ethnic children may follow different developmental pathways of conduct problems than white children, particularly during adolescence, having implications for service use and early intervention.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
5.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (237): 9-21, jul.-sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188436

RESUMO

Las personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) que presentan alteraciones de la conducta, suelen tener una tasa alta de conductas auto y heteroagresivas. Además suelen tomar fármacos psicotropos durante mucho tiempo. Objetivo: Conocer las características de los problemas de conducta en esta población, así como los tratamientos farmacológicos que se utilizan. Descripción del estudio: Epidemiológico, naturalístico, observacional, prospectivo de 3 meses de duración en un grupo de pacientes con DI. Población: 80 pacientes adultos ingresados en una unidad residencial, que presentan Discapacidad Intelectual con alteración de la conducta. Material: Datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de tratamientos. Escalas: Escala de Evaluación de la Actividad Global (EEAG), Escala de Impresión Clínica Global (CGI) y Escala de Agresividad Manifiesta (OAS). Método: Estadísticas con el SPSS v. 15.0. Estadística descriptiva y análisis de correlación. Resultados: 53 mujeres y 27 hombres. La edad media es de 50 años. El 38,8% presentan una DI moderada, el 33,8% leve, el 25% severa y el 2,5% no especificada. Tienen una puntuación media de 4,68 en la escala CGI, de 35,78 en la EEAG y de 7,10 en la escala OAS. El 32.1% de los residentes presentan agresividad verbal, el 13,8% autoagresividad, el 20% heteroagresividad hacia objetos y el 23,9% heteroagresividad hacia personas, con un grado de intensidad importante. Presentan mayor agresividad las personas más jóvenes. El 78,8% toma antipsicóticos, el 63,8% benzodiazepinas y el 58,8% antiepilépticos. Conclusiones: La población estudiada se caracteriza por la gravedad de las alteraciones de la conducta, con un funcionamiento psicosocial bajo. El grado de DI se relaciona con la gravedad clínica y la funcionalidad. La prevalencia de alteraciones de conducta es elevada, se relaciona con la gravedad clínica y es mayor en los más jóvenes. El uso de psicofármacos es elevado y está en relación con las alteraciones de la conducta


People with intellectual disability (ID) institutionalized usually have a high rate of behavior disorders. In addition they usually take psychotropics for a long time. Objective: Know the characteristics of behaviour disorders in this population. As well as the pharmacological treatments that are used. Description of the study: Epidemiological, naturalistic, observational, prospective study over 3 months in a group of patients with ID. Population: 80 adult residents institutionalized in a residential centre, diagnosed of Intellectual Disability with behaviour disorders. Material: Sociodemographic, clinical and treatment data. Scales: Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI) and Overt Agression Scale (OAS). Method: Statistics with the SPSS v. 15.0. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were performed. Results: 53 women and 27 men. The average age is 50 years. 38.8% have moderate ID, 33.8% mild, 25% severe and 2.5% unspecified. They have an average of 4.68 in the CGI scale, of 35.78 in the EEAG and of 7.10 in the OAS scale. 32.1% of the residents presented verbal aggressiveness, 13.8% self-aggression, 20% aggressiveness towards objects and 23.9% aggressiveness towards people, with an important degree of intensity. Young residents present more aggressive behaviour. 78.8% take antipsychotics, 63.8% benzodiazepines and 58.8% antiepileptic drugs. Conclusions: The population is characterized by serious behaviour disorders with a low psychosocial functioning. The degree of ID is related to severity and functionality. The prevalence of behaviour disorders is high, is related to the clinical severity and is higher in the youngest. The use of psychotropic drugs is high and is related to behaviour disorders


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial
6.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 292-296, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043529

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives To assess the sociodemographic, psychiatric and criminal profile of adolescent offenders complying with temporary custody for homicide/homicide attempt and to compare it to that of the population of adolescents in custody for other crimes. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on the review of the medical records of 74 juvenile offenders in temporary custody at socioeducational agency Fundação de Atendimento Sócio-Educativo do Rio Grande do Sul. For the analysis, variables that presented p < 0.2 were included in multivariate adjustment through logistic regression. Results The sample comprised males only, mostly with white skin color (55.6 vs. 57.9% for homicidal and non-homicidal, respectively) and with a high prevalence of school failure (77.8 vs. 91.2%). There was a high prevalence of family history of delinquency (88 vs. 81%). Only years of study and belonging or not to a criminal organization remained statistically significant in the multivariate model. Conclusion The results show that having fewer years of study and denying belonging to a criminal organization are predictive factors of homicidal behavior in adolescent offenders (both with statistical relevance). The other variables were not statistically significant for this outcome. The present study may serve as a basis for further research, which may improve our understanding of risk factors for juvenile homicide.


Resumo Objetivos Avaliar o perfil sociodemográfico, psiquiátrico e criminal de adolescentes infratores que cumprem internação provisória por homicídio ou tentativa de homicídio e compará-los aos adolescentes privados de liberdade por outros atos infracionais. Métodos Este estudo transversal baseou-se na revisão dos prontuários médicos de 74 adolescentes infratores em internação provisória na Fundação de Atendimento Sócio-Educativo do Rio Grande do Sul. Para a análise, variáveis que apresentaram p <0,2 foram incluídas no ajuste multivariado por meio de regressão logística. Resultados A amostra foi composta apenas por homens, a maioria de pele branca (55,6 versus 57,9% para homicidas e não-homicidas, respectivamente) e com alta prevalência de reprovações escolares (77,8 vs. 91,2%). Houve alta prevalência de antecedentes familiares de delinquência (88 versus 81%). Apenas anos de estudo e pertencimento ou não a uma organização criminosa permaneceram estatisticamente significantes no modelo multivariado. Conclusão Os resultados mostram que ter menos anos de estudo e negar pertencer a uma organização criminosa foram fatores preditivos de comportamento homicida em adolescentes infratores (ambos com relevância estatística). As demais variáveis não foram estatisticamente significativas para esse desfecho. O presente estudo pode servir como base para futuras pesquisas, o que pode melhorar nossa compreensão dos fatores de risco para o homicídio juvenil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Controle Social Formal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Idade de Início , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Delinquência Juvenil/legislação & jurisprudência , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(7): 569-574, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260415

RESUMO

Among psychiatric inpatients aged 13 to 17, various familial and clinical characteristics were compared between those with and without a previous history of specialized child psychiatric care (CPSY versus non-CPSY). CPSY adolescents were younger (boys: odds ratio [OR], 0.7; girls: OR, 0.4) at admission to adolescent psychiatric inpatient care, and they more likely had mothers with psychiatric problems (boys: OR, 4.0; girls: OR, 4.8) and child welfare placement background (boys: OR, 2.8; girls: OR, 6.7) compared with non-CPSY adolescents. CPSY girls were also characterized as having unemployed mothers (OR, 3.1) and engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (OR, 3.1), whereas CPSY boys were diagnosed with anxiety (OR, 2.7) or conduct disorder (OR, 2.8). Based on our study, family-focused care and intervention services are required to prevent continuity of psychiatric disorders from childhood into adolescence.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(3): 292-296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the sociodemographic, psychiatric and criminal profile of adolescent offenders complying with temporary custody for homicide/homicide attempt and to compare it to that of the population of adolescents in custody for other crimes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on the review of the medical records of 74 juvenile offenders in temporary custody at socioeducational agency Fundação de Atendimento Sócio-Educativo do Rio Grande do Sul. For the analysis, variables that presented p < 0.2 were included in multivariate adjustment through logistic regression. RESULTS: The sample comprised males only, mostly with white skin color (55.6 vs. 57.9% for homicidal and non-homicidal, respectively) and with a high prevalence of school failure (77.8 vs. 91.2%). There was a high prevalence of family history of delinquency (88 vs. 81%). Only years of study and belonging or not to a criminal organization remained statistically significant in the multivariate model. CONCLUSION: The results show that having fewer years of study and denying belonging to a criminal organization are predictive factors of homicidal behavior in adolescent offenders (both with statistical relevance). The other variables were not statistically significant for this outcome. The present study may serve as a basis for further research, which may improve our understanding of risk factors for juvenile homicide.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Brasil , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/legislação & jurisprudência , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Controle Social Formal
9.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(4): 514-523, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To Identify possible changes in the frequency of psychopathological syndromes in Mexican children population over a 15-year period using the Brief Screening and Diagnostic Questionnaire (CBTD in Spanish). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information gathered from different studies on the general population, schools and medical general practice are analyzed. Results from the Mexico City study were used as base rates for comparisons. RESULTS: Higher prevalence of externalizing syndromes such as attention deficit and hyperactivity, oppositional and explosive conduct were very evident. Also, anxiety and depressive syndromes showed a notable increase. Prevalence of abnormal language and probable epilepsy were also increased on different age-groups. CONCLUSIONS: Findings are discussed in light of longitudinal reports in the literature as well as on reports in adolescent population in Mexico.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Prioridades em Saúde , Saúde Mental , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 279: 323-330, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164249

RESUMO

The inclusion of the Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), under the category of depressive disorders, provides a diagnosis for those children and adolescents with severe persistent irritability and temper outbursts, once misdiagnosed as Bipolar Disorders. The main and constantly present features of DMDD are chronic, non-episodic and persistent irritability, and temper tantrums disproportionate with the trigger. DMDD is characterized by high rates of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Its main clinical manifestations overlap with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. For this diagnostic overlap and the increasing use of pharmacological treatments in children and adolescents, the inclusion of DMDD diagnosis has been subjected to many criticisms. Since it is a new diagnostic entity, literature on DMDD prevalence, epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment guidelines, is still sparse and unclear. The aim of this review is to collect and analyze the literature on DMDD diagnostic criteria and main hallmarks, with particular attention to comorbidities and treatment options.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Erros de Diagnóstico/psicologia , Humanos , Humor Irritável/fisiologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
12.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(6): 1037-1048, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190205

RESUMO

The high levels of comorbidity between oppositional/conduct problems and hyperactivity/attention problems underscore the need for assessing how vulnerability for peer victimization is shaped by overlap among these behavior problems. Children (mean age 8.39, SD = 0.93) participating in a longitudinal study of the development of conduct problems (N = 744; 348 girls) in Quebec, Canada, were evaluated by their teachers regarding experiences of peer verbal and physical victimization every year for 6 years. Parent and teacher ratings of clinically significant oppositional/conduct problems, and hyperactivity/attention problems, as well as cormorbid opposition defiant/conduct problems and hyperactivity/attention problems were regressed onto trajectories of verbal and physical victimization. While behavior problems (both alone and together) were associated with higher levels of verbal and physical victimization, some variation was observed across rater and type of victimization. Ultimately, these findings suggest the importance of adapting programming for reducing victimization to children with oppositional and conduct problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo Associado , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Quebeque/epidemiologia
13.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(3): 272-282, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183749

RESUMO

Objetivo: Examinar y mapear las consecuencias del dolor crónico en la infancia y la adolescencia. Método: Se realizó una revisión sistemática exploratoria (scoping review) de bases de datos internacionales (PubMed, SCOPUS, WOS y CINAHL, Cochrane Library) y de literatura gris. Se incluyeron documentos que abordaban aspectos psicosociales que influyen en el dolor crónico, publicados en inglés entre los años 2010 y 2016. Se excluyeron los documentos que abordaban tratamientos farmacológicos o dolor crónico derivado de intervenciones quirúrgicas, y aquellos sin acceso al texto completo. Se incluyeron 34 documentos de los 716 revisados. Resultados: Los estudios muestran que el dolor se relaciona con altas tasas de discapacidad funcional y de trastornos del sueño y del espectro ansiedad-depresión. Los/las jóvenes experimentan mayores tasas de victimización y estigmatización, lo que contribuye al aislamiento social, mayor dificultad para atender las exigencias académicas y menor oportunidad de consumo de sustancias ilegales. Con respecto a la familia, el dolor crónico se ha asociado con un peor funcionamiento familiar y una inversión considerable de recursos económicos. Conclusiones: Esta revisión pone de manifiesto que la capacidad funcional, el sueño, el desarrollo personal, el apoyo de iguales y el funcionamiento familiar son líneas de interés en los trabajos publicados. Sin embargo, se detectan lagunas de conocimiento en áreas como las conductas de riesgo, las consecuencias que puede ocasionar el dolor en la edad adulta y las desigualdades de género


Objective: Our aim was to examine and map the consequences of chronic pain in children and adolescents. Method: A scoping review was carried out in the international databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, WOS and CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and gray literature. We included documents that addressed psychosocial aspects that influence chronic pain, published in English between 2010 and 2016. We excluded the documents that dealt with pharmacological treatments, chronic pain derived from surgical interventions or where there was no access to full text. 34 of the 716 documents reviewed were included. Results: Studies show that pain is associated with high rates of functional disability, sleep disorders and spectrum depression-anxiety. Young people experience higher rates of victimization and stigmatization, contributing to social isolation, difficulty in meeting academic demands and less opportunity to consume illegal substances. With respect to the family, chronic pain has been associated with poorer family functioning and considerable investment of economic resources. Conclusions: This Scoping Review shows that functional capacity, sleep, personal development, peer support and family functioning are interesting lines in published works. However, gaps in knowledge are detected in areas such as risk behaviours, the consequences that pain can cause in adulthood and gender inequalities


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Dor Crônica/complicações , Carência Psicossocial , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social
14.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(3)2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate incidences, cumulative incidence rates, and risk factors of diagnosed mental disorders in a complete nationwide birth cohort across the entire period of childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Based on nationwide Danish registries, the entire cohort of all children born in 1995 was followed up to December 31, 2013. Data for children who migrated during the period were censored in the time analyses, and death before age 18 years was considered a competing risk. Incidence rates and cumulative incidence rates for any first-time-diagnosed mental disorder and 10 major categories of mental disorders according to ICD-10 criteria were calculated for 68,982 individuals. In addition, the effects of age, sex, and further child- and family-related risk factors on mental disorders were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidences of any mental disorder, substance use disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders showed an increase in adolescence, whereas those for autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and tic disorder increased during childhood and decreased thereafter. Males had higher incidence rates of any mental disorders, substance use disorders, autism spectrum disorders, ADHD, conduct disorder, and tic disorder. Females had higher risks for depressive, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and eating disorders. Several other risk and protective factors for any mental disorder were identified. The cumulative incidence rate at age 18 years amounted to 11.02% for any mental disorder. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the most comprehensive estimates of the development, incidence rates, and contributing risk factors of registered mental disorders for the entire period of childhood and adolescence that have been calculated so far.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Transtornos de Tique/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Tique/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Tique/psicologia , Transtornos de Tique/terapia
15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 43: 45-49, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the frequency of psychiatric disorders and the sociodemographic and clinical features in adolescent prisoners. METHOD: The psychiatric diagnoses and sociodemographic characteristics of treatment of 76 adolescent male prisoners and 76 age-matched patients were compared (age range: 15-17). RESULTS: Conduct disorder (85.5%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (61.8%), depression (50%), substance abuse (40.8%), post-traumatic stress disorder (19.7%), and psychotic disorder (3.9%) were more frequent among adolescent prisoners than the control group. The educational levels of parents of adolescent prisoners and their socioeconomic statuses were significantly lower, and the nonsuicidal self-injury (73.7%) and tattooing frequency (65.8%) were significantly higher among adolescent prisoners than the control group. Only 51.3% had both parents living together. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders, low socioeconomic status, family disorganization, nonsuicidal self-injury, tattoos, and interruption of education were frequent in adolescent prisoners in this study. Our findings emphasize the importance of early psychiatric treatment and family-based interventions to help prevent adolescents from committing crimes. In addition, nonsuicidal self-injury and tattoos may be associated with criminal behavior in adolescents.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Tatuagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia
16.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(8): 997-1006, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790027

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of enduring mental health (EMH) and examine important correlates of EMH 23 years later in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-Up study. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of EMH among 964 adults with diagnostic data at all four study waves (1981-2004). Those with EMH were compared to those with any mental or behavioral disorder by demographic, psychosocial, and health characteristics. We used forward selection models to identify the most important predictors of EMH. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of participants met criteria for enduring mental health across the four waves. Neuroticism, GHQ-20 score, childhood conduct problems, female sex, maternal depression, and poor self-rated health were negatively associated with EMH. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several malleable factors associated with a decreased likelihood of enduring mental health. Interventions that target high neuroticism, childhood conduct problems, or maternal depression may increase the likelihood that children achieve EMH later in life. Identifying and treating other factors such as poor self-reported health and greater psychological distress may also keep sub-clinical symptoms from developing into a full mental or behavioral disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Área Programática de Saúde , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 139(4): 361-368, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between pediatric bipolar I (BP-I) disorder and conduct disorder (CD) using familial risk analysis. METHOD: We compared diagnoses in relatives of youth in four proband groups defined by the presence or absence of BP-I and CD: (1) probands with neither CD nor BP-I (probands: N = 550; relatives: N = 1656), (2) probands with CD and without BP-I (probands: N = 40; relatives: N = 127), (3) probands with BP-I and without CD (probands: N = 197; relatives: N = 579), and (4) probands with both CD and BP-I (probands: N = 176; relatives: N = 488). All subjects were evaluated with structured diagnostic interviews, and diagnoses of relatives were made blind to the diagnoses of probands. RESULTS: Relatives of probands with BP-I disorder had high rates of BP-I, and relatives of probands with CD had high rates of CD irrespective of the comorbidity with the other disorder. Relatives of probands with the combined condition of CD and BP-I had high rates of the combined condition. CONCLUSION: The finding of cosegregation between BP-I disorder and CD is consistent with the hypothesis that the combined condition represents a distinct subtype of either disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Família , Adolescente , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
18.
Personal Disord ; 10(4): 354-364, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628800

RESUMO

The individual and societal burden of psychopathy warrants an investigation into identifying its early precursors and developmental course. Accordingly, we examined the longitudinal pathways between primary and secondary psychopathic traits, anxiety, and borderline personality disorder (BPD) features across adolescence. Participants included 572 Canadian adolescents (253 girls; aged 13.96 [SD = 0.37] in Grade 8; 70.6% Caucasian) who were assessed annually on five occasions (Grades 8-12) using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (psychopathic traits), the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (symptoms of anxiety), and the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children (features of BPD). Autoregressive latent trajectory models with structured residuals provided stringent tests of within-person cross-lagged associations, while controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and parental education. Results indicated that primary psychopathic traits were preceded by and predicted anxiety such that individuals who increased in primary psychopathic traits subsequently declined in anxiety, and vice versa. Results also indicated that BPD features were associated with secondary psychopathic traits and anxiety. Specifically, increases in BPD features were linked with increases in secondary psychopathic traits and anxiety. Our results suggest that even after accounting for between-person associations and other known correlates, the development of psychopathic traits is embedded within the development of emotional characteristics and personality features. This highlights areas for intervention in adolescence, particularly around the core, shared trait of impulsivity and anger. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
19.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(1): 98-108, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489128

RESUMO

Although there is a consensus that maternal depression is strongly related to child externalizing behaviors, research on the association between paternal depression and child externalizing behaviors is mixed. Some research shows that paternal depressive symptoms are positively associated with symptoms of externalizing behaviors, including oppositional-defiant behavior, conduct problems, and overall externalizing behavior, while other studies failed to find an association, or demonstrated a weak or negative association. Given that the most recent meta-analysis on paternal depression and child externalizing behaviors is outdated, an updated meta-analysis is necessary. The present meta-analysis consisted of 52 published and unpublished articles that included a quantitative comparison between paternal depression and child externalizing behaviors. There was a small relationship between symptoms of paternal depression and symptoms of child externalizing behaviors (r = .15; 95% confident interval [.13, .18]; k = 49). Child gender was the only statistically significant moderator, with studies with a larger proportion of boys showing a larger effect (Q = 4.30, p = .038, k = 40); however, one of the articles was identified as an outlier. This moderator was no longer significant after the outlier was removed. Overall, the results suggest that clinicians working with families of fathers with depression should be cognizant of possible co-occurring child externalizing behaviors in the family. Directions for future research and other clinical implications are provided based on the findings of the current study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 47(1): 35-47, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study reports the prevalence of disruptive behaviors in a help-seeking sample of young children across a diverse range of clinical diagnoses (based on ICD-10). METHOD: The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), a parent rating scale of disruptive behaviors, was completed on 310 children (2-11 years) at three child and adolescent psychiatry clinics in three German states (Bavaria, Hesse, Lower Saxony); the majority of children were outpatients. RESULTS: Mean intensity scores of disruptive behaviors differed significantly by diagnostic group, with the lowest ratings within a community sample, and increasingly higher scores in children with a diagnosis from the internalizing spectrum, those with pervasive developmental disorders, and finally, those with externalizing disorders (e. g. hyperkinetic disorder, conduct disorders). Seventy percent of the clinical sample, compared to only 17 % of the community sample, exceeded the normative cut-off score of 111, indicating that disruptive behaviors are common in young German children seeking help for different mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the Research Domain Criteria approach by showing that disruptive behaviors cross our current diagnostic labels and may need to be assessed and conceptualized in treatment planning, even in children without a primary diagnosis from the externalizing spectrum.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência
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