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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Conduct disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by repetitive and persistent norm-breaking behavior. This study aimed to compare the risk of conduct disorder between first- and second-generation immigrant children and adolescents and their native controls. METHODS: In this nationwide, open-cohort study from Sweden, participants were born 1987-2010, aged 4-16 years at baseline, and were living in the country for at least one year during the follow-up period between 2001 and 2015. The sample included 1,902,526 and 805,450 children-adolescents with native and immigrant backgrounds, respectively. Data on the conduct disorder diagnoses were retrieved through the National Patient Register. We estimated the incidence of conduct disorder and calculated adjusted Hazard Ratios. RESULTS: Overall, the adjusted risk of conduct disorder was lower among first-generation immigrants and most second-generation immigrant groups compared with natives (both males and females). However, second-generation immigrants with a Swedish-born mother and a foreign-born father had a higher risk of conduct disorder than natives. Similar results were found for sub-diagnoses of conduct disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk of conduct disorder among second-generation immigrants with a Swedish-born mother and the lower risk among most of the other immigrant groups warrants special attention and an investigation of potential underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 1-8, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that offspring born to mothers who smoked tobacco during pregnancy may have elevated risk of developing conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. We examined associations between maternal and paternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy and CD symptoms in offspring at the age of 14 years. METHODS: We obtained data from the Raine Study, a multi-generational cohort study based in Western Australia. DSM-oriented scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to measure CD symptoms in offspring. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the rate ratio (risks) (RR) of CD symptoms in offspring. We also produced the E-values to investigate the extent of unmeasured confounding. Paternal smoking during pregnancy was used as a proxy for environmental tobacco smoke exposure. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 1747 mother-offspring and 1711 father-offspring pairs. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found elevated risks (rates) of CD symptoms in offspring born to mothers smoking tobacco during the first trimester [RR 1.52 (95 % CI: 1.24-1.87)], third trimester [RR 1.36 (95 % CI: 1.09-1.69)] and during both trimesters of pregnancy [RR 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.19-1.90)]. The rates of CD symptoms in offspring increased with the level of exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy. However, we noted insufficient statistical evidence for an association between paternal smoking during pregnancy and CD symptoms in offspring. CONCLUSION: The associations we found for maternal but not paternal smoking may suggest a biological mechanism for intrauterine tobacco exposure on the risk of CD symptoms in offspring. Early interventions assisting pregnant mothers to quit tobacco smoking, or avoid smoking initiation, have potential to contribute health benefits to both mothers and their offspring.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco
3.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 127: 899-916, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089765

RESUMO

BERNHARD, A., J. S. Mayer, N. Fann, and C. M. Freitag. Cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress in ADHD compared to Conduct Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder: A systematic review. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2020. - Heterogeneous alterations of the cortisol stress response in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were recently reported by a systematic literature review. To investigate the moderating effect of frequent psychiatric comorbidities, we systematically searched for studies on cortisol stress response to psychosocial stress in ADHD compared to Conduct Disorder (CD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) following PRISMA guidelines. EBSCOhost and PubMed databases were searched in July 2020, employing relevant keywords. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria. While blunted cortisol stress response was consistently reported in individuals with CD and/or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), alterations of cortisol stress response were less pronounced in ADHD. Consistently blunted cortisol stress response in ADHD was only found in children with comorbid CD/ODD. Results on cortisol stress response in children and adolescents with MDD were mixed, and no indication for influence of comorbid MDD on cortisol stress response in ADHD was found. Taken together, altered cortisol stress response in ADHD is driven by comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders. Limitations of previous research and suggestions for future studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Estresse Psicológico
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 232, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated cognitive and emotional functioning in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders (DICCD). METHODS: Thirty patients with ADHD, 26 with DICCD, 22 with ADHD+DICCD were recruited from the outpatient department of Shanghai Changning Mental Health Center, plus 20 healthy controls (HC). Differences between the groups in cognitive and emotional functioning were examined using Golden's Stroop and Emotional Stroop tests. For Emotional Stroop Mean reaction time (RT) of positive word (POS) and negative word (NEG) with color congruence (C) or incongruence (I) were recorded as POS-C, POS-I, NEG-C and NEG-I, respectively. RESULTS: For Golden's interference scores (IGs), both errors and RTs in the ADHD group were higher than in the other groups. Longer mean RTs of POS-C, POS-I, NEG-C and neural word (NEU) of the ADHD group, and NEG-I of ADHD+DICCD and DICCD groups were observed compared to HC. After 12 weeks of methylphenidate treatment, differences between ADHD subgroups and HC on Golden's Stroop RT disappeared, but differences in Golden's Stroop errors and Emotional Stroop mean RTs remained. The ADHD+DICCD group showed longer mean RTs in NEG-C, NEG-I and NEU of the Emotional Stroop test than the ADHD group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that regardless of emotional responding, deficit in cognitive control is the core symptom of ADHD. However, emotionally biased stimuli may cause response inhibitory dysfunction among DICCD with callous-unemotional traits, and the comorbidity of ADHD and DICCD tends to account for the negative emotional response characteristic of DICCD. These deficits may be eliminated by medication treatment in ADHD, but not the ADHD with comorbid DICCD. Our results support the notion that ADHD with comorbid DICCD is more closely related to DICCD than to ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217508, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909054

RESUMO

Importance: Air pollution exposure damages the brain, but its associations with the development of psychopathology are not fully characterized. Objective: To assess whether air pollution exposure in childhood and adolescence is associated with greater psychopathology at 18 years of age. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Environmental-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study is a population-based cohort study of 2232 children born from January 1, 1994, to December 4, 1995, across England and Wales and followed up to 18 years of age. Pollution data generation was completed on April 22, 2020; data were analyzed from April 27 to July 31, 2020. Exposures: High-resolution annualized estimates of outdoor nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) linked to home addresses at the ages of 10 and 18 years and then averaged. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mental health disorder symptoms assessed through structured interview at 18 years of age and transformed through confirmatory factor analysis into continuous measures of general psychopathology (primary outcome) and internalizing, externalizing, and thought disorder symptoms (secondary outcomes) standardized to a mean (SD) of 100 (15). Hypotheses were formulated after data collection, and analyses were preregistered. Results: A total of 2039 participants (1070 [52.5%] female) had full data available. After adjustment for family and individual factors, each interquartile range increment increase in NOx exposure was associated with a 1.40-point increase (95% CI, 0.41-2.38; P = .005) in general psychopathology. There was no association between continuously measured PM2.5 and general psychopathology (b = 0.45; 95% CI, -0.26 to 1.11; P = .22); however, those in the highest quartile of PM2.5 exposure scored 2.04 points higher (95% CI, 0.36-3.72; P = .02) than those in the bottom 3 quartiles. Copollutant models, including both NOx and PM2.5, implicated NOx alone in these significant findings. NOx exposure was associated with all secondary outcomes, although associations were weakest for internalizing (adjusted b = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.10-2.04; P = .03), medium for externalizing (adjusted b = 1.42; 95% CI, 0.53-2.31; P = .002), and strongest for thought disorder symptoms (adjusted b = 1.54; 95% CI, 0.50-2.57; P = .004). Despite NOx concentrations being highest in neighborhoods with worse physical, social, and economic conditions, adjusting estimates for neighborhood characteristics did not change the results. Conclusions and Relevance: Youths exposed to higher levels of outdoor NOx experienced greater psychopathology at the transition to adulthood. Air pollution may be a nonspecific risk factor for the development of psychopathology.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925165

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that youth with behavioral disorders (BD) present an increased risk for developing severe and persistent antisocial behaviors in adulthood. Retrospective research notes that not all children and adolescents follow a negative trajectory and explains this heterogeneity in particular by the severity of CU traits. Our study examines how these traits affect the functioning of children and adolescents with BD. METHOD: A systematic literature review conducted through various databases and using different keywords made it possible to analyze 52 studies published from 2015 to 2020 that measured the bidirectional effects of CU traits on the functioning of young. RESULTS: Out of the 52 studies, 47 analyzed links between CU traits and neurobiological or mental health, 20 examined family and school contexts, eight focused on social adjustment, 10 on social interactions and 19 measured links with cognitive functioning, especially executive functions. CONCLUSION: Consistent with previous recommendations in the field, our findings emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of UC traits in early childhood to prevent the emergence of comorbid disorders and to target multimodal (early) interventions to influence the life trajectories of youth with high CU traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 89, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is strong evidence for a relationship between child abuse and neglect and conduct problems, associations between child abuse experienced at different developmental stages and developmental trajectories of conduct problems have not been examined. We sought to investigate effects of timing of child abuse on conduct problem trajectories in a large UK birth cohort study. METHODS: We applied latent class growth analysis to identify conduct problem trajectories in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, using parent-rated conduct problems from ages 4-17 years (N = 10,648). Childhood-only and adolescence-only abuse, in addition to abuse in both developmental periods ('persistent' abuse), were assessed by retrospective self-report at age 22 years (N = 3172). RESULTS: We identified four developmental trajectories: early-onset persistent (4.8%), adolescence-onset (4.5%), childhood-limited (15.4%), and low (75.3%) conduct problems. Childhood-only abuse and 'persistent' abuse were associated with increased odds of being on the early-onset persistent and adolescence-onset conduct problem trajectories compared to the low conduct problems trajectory. Adolescence-only abuse was not predictive of trajectory membership. There were no associations between abuse and childhood-limited trajectory membership. CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset persistent and adolescence-onset conduct problems showed similar patterns of association with abuse exposure, challenging developmental theories that propose qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, differences in environmental risk factors between these trajectories. The results also highlight that childhood-only and 'persistent' abuse were more strongly linked to elevated conduct problem trajectories than adolescence-only abuse, and that 'persistent' abuse is particularly detrimental.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 172, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and aggression have been demonstrated to serve as risk factors of suicidal behaviours (SB). Non-suicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) and Suicidal Behaviour Disorder (SBD) are among new diagnostic categories for further studies in the DSM-5 classification. METHODS: We recruited 196 girls (aged 15.5 ± 1.2 years) diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD). All of them were assessed with respect of non-suicidal self-injury acts, suicidal attempts, psychopathology, self-esteem and general functioning. RESULTS: Age of NSSI onset was significantly lower compared to age of first suicidal attempt. SBD was present in 50.0% of patients with NSSID and the prevalence of NSSID in individuals with SBD was estimated at 52.2%. A diagnosis of NSSID, with at least 8 days of engagement in self-injuries during the preceding year, significantly predicted the risk of SBD. This effect appeared to be independent of depressive symptomatology. LIMITATIONS: Our results cannot be generalized over the whole population of individuals diagnosed with CD because of a lack of male patients, as well as individuals with the most severe and mildest forms of CD. Causal inferences cannot be established due to a cross-sectional study design. CONCLUSIONS: The NSSID with at least 8 days of engagement in self-injuries during the preceding year serves as a predictor of SBD independently of the effects of depressive symptoms. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113770, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545424

RESUMO

Accumulating data presented that tryptophan metabolic pathway (TMP) may play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, no study have investigated potential role of TMP in disruptive behavior disorders coexisting with ADHD. This study compared serum levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyantranilic acid in medication-free children with ADHD combined presentation (ADHD-C), with ADHD-C and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and with ADHD-C and conduct disorder (CD) versus healthy controls. The study also compared several ratios that are previously suggested to reflect the activities of the KP enzymes (kynurenine/tryptophan, kynurenic acid/kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine/kynurenine) or neuroprotective activity (kynurenic acid/3-hydroxykynurenine) among groups. A total of 122 patients were enrolled: 46 children with ADHD-C alone, 43 children with ADHD-C+ODD, 33 children with ADHD-C+CD and 50 healthy controls. Targeted biochemical molecules were assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Compared to control group, serum kynurenine levels were significantly higher in the ADHD-C group, serum 3-hydroxykynurenine levels were significantly lower in the ADHD-C and ADHD-C+ODD groups, the serum kynurenic acid/kynurenine ratio was significantly higher in the ADHD-C, ADHD-C+ODD and ADHD-C+CD groups, and the serum 3-hydroxykynurenine/kynurenine ratio was significantly lower in the ADHD-C group. These findings suggest that TMP may play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD-C.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Triptofano
10.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e14, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583471

RESUMO

AIMS: Although the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and transport accidents has been shown, there is limited information on the relationship between medication and dose-response effects and transport accident risk. This study aims to determine whether young people with ADHD, including adolescents, are more prone to transport accidents than those without, and the extent to which methylphenidate (MPH) prescription in these patients reduces the risk. METHODS: We identified 114 486 patients diagnosed with ADHD from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2013. Using a Cox regression model, we compared the risk of transport accidents between ADHD and non-ADHD groups and estimated the effect of MPH on accidents. Furthermore, we applied a self-control case-series analysis to compare the risk of accidents during the medication periods with the same patients' non-medication periods. RESULTS: Male ADHD patients had a higher risk of transport accidents than non-ADHD individuals (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.24, [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.39]), especially for those comorbid with epilepsy, oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), and intellectual disabilities (ID). Female ADHD patients showed no relationship, except for comorbid with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or ID. We found a reduced risk of transport accidents in patients with ADHD with MPH medication than those without MPH, with a plausible dose-response relationship (aHR of 0.23 to 0.07). A similar pattern was found in self-controlled case-series analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Male patients with ADHD, especially those comorbid with epilepsy, ODD/CD, or ID, were at high risk of transport accidents. Female patients, when comorbid with ASD or ID, also exhibited a higher risk of accidents. MPH treatment lowered the accident risk with a dose-response relationship.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 232: 113686, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic related air pollution (TRAP) and its component polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be neurotoxic in children. There is limited research on postnatal exposure to TRAP and PAHs and child neurodevelopment. METHODS: We linked data from the U.S. NHANES 2001-2004 with the National Highway Planning Network 2005 to examine the proximity to major roads (highway or urban/rural principal arterials), urinary PAH metabolites, and diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) based on Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC) in 1253 children aged 8-15 years. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for ADHD and CD by traffic proximity and PAH exposures using logistic regression adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Higher ADHD prevalence was observed among children living <500 m (9.86%) compared to those ≥500 m (3.84%) from a major road. Prevalence of children with CD was comparable (<500 m: 2.51% and ≥500 m: 2.43%). We found little difference in urinary PAH metabolite levels between children living near major roads and those who did not. Children living <500 m from a major road had a non-significant OR of 2.06 (95% CI 0.85-5.03) for ADHD diagnosis. Children living on ≥2 major roads within 500 m of a highway had a non-significant OR of 2.27 (95% CI 0.71-7.26) for ADHD diagnosis. There was no association between proximity to major roads and CD diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We found living close to a major road was not associated with increased PAH levels. We did not find statistically significant relation between proximity to a major road or urinary PAH metabolite levels and ADHD or CD diagnosis in this cross-sectional analysis. Prospective studies are needed for the investigation of postnatal TRAP exposure and ADHD and CD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
12.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 52(6): 1012-1023, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405026

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically altered family life, but whether family exposures to and worries about the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted child conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits is unknown. Thus, we evaluated 303 parents (Mage = 38.04; SD = 5.21; 92.4% biological mothers) and children (Mage = 6.43; SD = 2.13; 51.8% female) during a four-month period early in the pandemic. We examined associations between parental exposures to COVID-19, parental worries about the pandemic, harsh and warm parenting practices, and child CP and CU traits. Although more parental worries were not directly related to parenting practices, more worry about COVID-19 was specifically related to higher levels of child CP, particularly parental worries about themselves or family members contracting the virus. Our findings add to a growing literature demonstrating the burden that the pandemic has placed on families and its implications for children's mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno da Conduta , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Emoções , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Poder Familiar , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 56: 102554, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450699

RESUMO

Lockdown, isolation, quarantine and social distancing are proved to be only effective measures to prevent and tackle COVID-19 till date. Unfortunately, these measures have caused physical, economical and mental health problems. Children and adolescents are not immune to the adverse mental health effect due to the new changes. Research around the globe shows children and adolescents are suffering from an increased number of depressive symptoms, clinginess, inattention, irritability and worry. This cross-sectional online-based survey type study was aimed to get a snapshot of the prevalence of predictive psychiatric disorders in the child and adolescent population in Bangladesh before and during lockdown. Validated Bangla parent version of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess the psychopathology among subjects. Total sample was 552 aged from 4-17 years. Boy-girl ratio was 1.3:1. Prevalence of any predictive psychiatric disorder before lockdown was 20.5 % and within lockdown was 39.7 % and the difference was highly significant (P < 0.001). Prevalence of emotional, conduct disorder and hyperactivity were also increased significantly during the lockdown period than before. Conduct disorder and hyperactivity were more prevalent among boys both before and within lockdown. In contrast, prevalence of emotional disorder was higher among girls before lockdown but within the lockdown period, the boy-girl prevalence was almost the same. This study shows the new extreme measures to tackle COVID-19 has a disaster impact on mental health of children and adolescents. Subsequent studies and support should be developed to prevent conditions getting worse.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Política Pública , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445427

RESUMO

Trauma exposure and low self-control are robustly associated with youth antisocial/criminal problems, but the interrelation of these constructs is unclear when taking into account both traumatic events and reactions. The objective of the present study is to examine self-control mediation effects related to trauma and juvenile delinquency, conduct disorder, crime seriousness, and aggression outcomes. The sample consisted of N = 388 male youth from Portugal (age, M = 16.01 years, SD = 1.03, age range = 13-18 years). Path analysis procedures revealed that self-control partially mediates the relation between trauma events and the examined outcomes and fully mediates the relation between trauma reactions and the examined outcomes. Research on youth trauma should examine both trauma events and trauma reactions because they have differential effects on low self-control and antisocial/criminal outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Delinquência Juvenil , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108490, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is found to be a risk factor for substance use in adolescence, but literature has suggested that the observed influence of ADHD may be driven by the comorbid conduct disorder (CD) or oppositional defiance disorder (ODD). We examine whether childhood ADHD and CD influence lifetime use of substances, independent of other comorbid mental problems and familial risk factors. METHODS: A total of 712 sibling pairs from a nationally representative US longitudinal survey were followed from 1997 to 2015. The Behavior Problems Index (BPI) was used to measure mental disorders in children. The hyperactive, antisocial, headstrong, anxious/depressed subscales of the BPI for ADHD, CD, ODD, anxiety/depression of children were assessed by their biological mothers who were the primary caregiver. Lifetime substance use by age 18 was measured by self-reports. A within-family design was used to minimize confounding. RESULTS: After controlling for mother fixed effects and comorbid mental disorders, symptoms of ADHD were not associated with lifetime substance use in adolescence except for regular smoking, while those of CD were positively and significantly associated with heightened risk for lifetime use of cannabis, regular smoking, cocaine, barbiturates, tranquilizers, hallucinogens, and inhalants in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the association observed between childhood ADHD and substance use in adolescence may be driven by comorbid CD whose influences are robust to other mental disorders or unobserved familial factors.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Sintomas Comportamentais , Criança , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicotrópicos , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Fumar , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 120: 236-248, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271164

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is closely linked to the development of conduct problems during socialization in early life and to an increased risk for antisocial activities and delinquency over the lifespan. The interaction between ADHD and common comorbid disorders like substance use disorders as well as changing environmental conditions could mediate the course of antisocial and delinquent behavior with increasing age. However, this complex interaction is only partially understood so far. This review presents current knowledge about the association of ADHD with antisociality and the development of delinquent behavior. Thereby, the relationships between ADHD, conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder in offenders are discussed, as well as the impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychosocial conditions on offending behavior. Also, treatment studies in offender populations with ADHD are presented. Although our understanding of the role of ADHD in the development of criminal behavior has substantially improved during the last two decades, more research is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms generating unfavorable outcomes and to engender adequate treatment strategies for this population at risk. Moreover, more attention is needed on children with conduct problems in order to avoid antisocial or delinquent behaviors over the lifespan.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Humanos , Longevidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
17.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 60(8): 1020-1029, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A limited prosocial emotions (LPE) subtype of conduct disorder (CD) has been added to the DSM-5. Empirical studies on this categorically defined subtype are scarce, and existing work is predominantly cross-sectional. Hypotheses surrounding the LPE subtype that relate to comorbidity, prognosis, and developmental antecedents, and overlap with psychopathic personality, have received no or little scrutiny. METHOD: These knowledge gaps were addressed in a community sample of 1,839 children 8 to 10 years of age who were enrolled in the study in early childhood (age 3-5 years) and were followed up in early adolescence (age 11-13 years). Parents and teachers completed questionnaires that tap theoretically and clinically relevant features. RESULTS: Children with the LPE subtype exhibited more CD symptoms and comorbid problems, including fearlessness, and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. These children were also at higher risk for future CD symptoms at the 3-year follow-up. Additionally, fearlessness, callous-unemotional traits, interpersonal traits, and harsh parenting assessed in early childhood were identified as developmental antecedents of the LPE subtype. Findings tentatively suggest that the LPE subtype is a heterogeneous group differentiated on other psychopathic personality traits. CONCLUSION: The LPE subtype appears to identify a troubled, etiologically distinct group of children with conduct problems who are at heightened risk for future maladjustment. Findings can inform the underlying mechanisms related to the LPE subtype, and can lead to the development and improvement of prevention and intervention programs for children with conduct problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções , Humanos , Prognóstico
18.
J Atten Disord ; 25(8): 1058-1067, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833803

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of ADHD and its comorbidities and some associated demographic factors in a large sample population-based study. Method: As part of a population-based survey among 30,532 children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years, we used K-SADS-PL to screen and detect ADHD and its comorbidities. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 4%, with more prevalence among boys (5.2% vs. 2.7%), younger participants, urban residents, and offspring of mothers who had a history of psychiatric hospitalization. Anxiety disorders (37.9%) and behavioral disorders (31%) are the most prevalent group of comorbidities, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most prevalent comorbid disorder (26.1%). Mood disorders and anxiety disorders are more common among girls, but conduct disorder has a higher rate among boys. Conclusion: ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder which is accompanied by several comorbid conditions. The high rate of comorbidities makes it complicated and difficult to manage.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
19.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 60(1): 46-60, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities and examine sources of heterogeneity between studies. METHOD: Electronic databases and relevant reference lists were searched to identify surveys published from January 1966 to October 2019 that reported on the prevalence of mental disorders in unselected populations of detained adolescents. Data on the prevalence of a range of mental disorders (psychotic illnesses, major depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) along with predetermined study characteristics were extracted from the eligible studies. Analyses were reported separately for male and female adolescents, and findings were synthesized using random-effects models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined by meta-regression and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Forty-seven studies from 19 countries comprising 28,033 male and 4,754 female adolescents were identified. The mean age of adolescents assessed was 16 years (range, 10-19 years). In male adolescents, 2.7% (95% CI 2.0%-3.4%) had a diagnosis of psychotic illness; 10.1% (95% CI 8.1%-12.2%) major depression; 17.3% (95% CI 13.9%-20.7%) ADHD; 61.7% (95% CI 55.4%-67.9%) conduct disorder; and 8.6% (95% CI 6.4%-10.7%) PTSD. In female adolescents, 2.9% (95% CI 2.4%-3.5%) had a psychotic illness; 25.8% (95% CI 20.3%-31.3%) major depression; 17.5% (95% CI 12.1%-22.9%) ADHD; 59.0% (95% CI 44.9%-73.1%) conduct disorder; and 18.2% (95% CI 13.1%-23.2%) PTSD. Meta-regression found higher prevalences of ADHD and conduct disorder in investigations published after 2006. Female adolescents had higher prevalences of major depression and PTSD than male adolescents. CONCLUSION: Consideration should be given to reviewing whether health care services in juvenile detention can address these levels of psychiatric morbidity.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 52(2): 343-354, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578003

RESUMO

The current study investigated the measurement invariance of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in school-attending youth in the UK (N = 437) and China (N = 364). The original 24-item ICU and five shortened versions proposed in previous studies were tested and compared using confirmatory factor analysis in the UK sample. Results indicated that the original ICU was a poor fit in the UK sample. A shortened, 11-item version (ICU-11) featuring two factors (Callousness and Uncaring) provided the best fit and was invariant across gender in both the UK and Chinese samples. Comparisons of the ICU-11 in UK and Chinese school children revealed a similar item-factor combination and factor loadings, but different item thresholds. Findings indicate that the ICU-11 may be a preferable alternative to the original version, but that average ICU-11 scores may have a different meaning in the UK and China.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , China , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Reino Unido
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