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1.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(2): 181-198, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706288

RESUMO

Pathways into and out of conduct problems differ by circumstances experienced since infancy. There is a research gap in understanding how these developmental patterns vary according to the timing and persistence of risk and whether there are differences across ecological domains. This study examines variations in trajectories of conduct problems between ages 3 to 14 years and associated child, family and socio-economic risk factors from ages 9 months to 14 years, drawing on the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,206, 49% female), a nationally representative longitudinal study of children born between 2000/02. Group-based modeling was used to identify four distinct trajectories of conduct problems: low (56%), persistent high (8%), childhood-limited (23%) and adolescent-onset (13%). All three problem pathways were associated with high levels of exposure to risk, particularly early socio-economic and persisting child and family risks. However, while for the persistent and adolescent-onset pathways, exposure to higher levels of family and child risks continued through adolescence, it receded for the childhood-limited trajectory. The effects of early socio-economic disadvantage persisted for those on the adolescent-onset trajectory, highlighting the importance of early markers for this later onset group. Maternal smoking in pregnancy continued to be a significant predictor for all three conduct problem groups, even up to age 14 years. The findings indicate that different influences and processes may explain diverse pathways of conduct problems. This offers insights into who and what might be targeted and when might be the most effective developmental window for intervention.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
2.
AIDS Care ; 31(1): 95-104, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241443

RESUMO

Although declining in all other age groups, AIDS-related deaths among adolescents are increasing. In the context of HIV, mental health problems are associated with negative health outcomes, including non-adherence to life-saving ART. For effective programming it is essential to identify factors associated with psychological outcomes in this population. Adopting a socioecological perspective, we aimed to identify correlates of internalising and externalising symptoms in a large, representative sample of South African adolescents living with HIV. HIV-positive adolescents (n = 1060), who received care in public health facilities in South Africa's Eastern Cape, completed measures of internalising and externalising symptoms. Hypothesised correlates included HIV and health-related factors (physical health, mode of infection, medication side-effects, disclosure, stigma), health-service related factors (negative interactions with clinic staff, clinic support group), interpersonal factors (abuse, bullying victimisation, social support), parenting-related factors (orphanhood, positive parenting, parental monitoring, parent communication), as well as individual and demographic-related factors (self-efficacy, age, gender, urban/rural location, poverty). Correlates operating across a variety of contexts were identified. Bullying victimisation, self-efficacy, and positive parenting may be particularly salient intervention targets as they were associated with better outcomes on most or all mental health measures, can be addressed without directly targeting adolescents living with HIV (reducing the chances of accidental exposure and stigma), and are associated with better adolescent mental health in South Africa more generally.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Child Dev ; 90(1): 279-297, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737836

RESUMO

This study examines observed maternal sensitivity, harsh-intrusion, and mental-state talk in infancy as predictors of conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors in middle childhood, as well as the extent to which infants' resting cortisol and cortisol reactivity moderate these associations. Using data from the Family Life Project (n = 1,292), results indicate that maternal sensitivity at 6 months predicts fewer CP at first grade, but only for infants who demonstrate high levels of cortisol reactivity. Maternal harsh intrusion predicts fewer empathic-prosocial behaviors, a component of CU behaviors, but only for infants who demonstrate high resting cortisol. Findings are discussed in the context of diathesis-stress and differential susceptibility models.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Comportamento Materno , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/metabolismo , Transtorno da Conduta/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia
4.
Lancet ; 392(10164): 2567-2582, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, a growing number of children and adolescents are left behind when parents migrate. We investigated the effect of parental migration on the health of left behind-children and adolescents in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PsychINFO, Global Index Medicus, Scopus, and Popline from inception to April 27, 2017, without language restrictions, for observational studies investigating the effects of parental migration on nutrition, mental health, unintentional injuries, infectious disease, substance use, unprotected sex, early pregnancy, and abuse in left-behind children (aged 0-19 years) in LMICs. We excluded studies in which less than 50% of participants were aged 0-19 years, the mean or median age of participants was more than 19 years, fewer than 50% of parents had migrated for more than 6 months, or the mean or median duration of migration was less than 6 months. We screened studies using systematic review software and extracted summary estimates from published reports independently. The main outcomes were risk and prevalence of health outcomes, including nutrition (stunting, wasting, underweight, overweight and obesity, low birthweight, and anaemia), mental health (depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, conduct disorders, self-harm, and suicide), unintentional injuries, substance use, abuse, and infectious disease. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs) using random-effects models. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017064871. FINDINGS: Our search identified 10 284 records, of which 111 studies were included for analysis, including a total of 264 967 children (n=106 167 left-behind children and adolescents; n=158 800 children and adolescents of non-migrant parents). 91 studies were done in China and focused on effects of internal labour migration. Compared with children of non-migrants, left-behind children had increased risk of depression and higher depression scores (RR 1·52 [95% CI 1·27-1·82]; SMD 0·16 [0·10-0·21]), anxiety (RR 1·85 [1·36-2·53]; SMD 0·18 [0·11-0·26]), suicidal ideation (RR 1·70 [1·28-2·26]), conduct disorder (SMD 0·16 [0·04-0·28]), substance use (RR 1·24 [1·00-1·52]), wasting (RR 1·13 [1·02-1·24]) and stunting (RR 1·12 [1·00-1·26]). No differences were identified between left-behind children and children of non-migrants for other nutrition outcomes, unintentional injury, abuse, or diarrhoea. No studies reported outcomes for other infectious diseases, self-harm, unprotected sex, or early pregnancy. Study quality varied across the included studies, with 43% of studies at high or unclear risk of bias across five or more domains. INTERPRETATION: Parental migration is detrimental to the health of left-behind children and adolescents, with no evidence of any benefit. Policy makers and health-care professionals need to take action to improve the health of these young people. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde da Criança , Criança Abandonada/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/etiologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Humanos , Renda , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Ideação Suicida
6.
J Adolesc ; 68: 136-145, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077085

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prior research has shown that classmates' behavior serves as a descriptive norm for adolescents' individual behavior. While earlier studies primarily focused on negative peer influence, classmates' prosocial behavior might be associated with positive individual development. We hypothesized more classroom-level prosocial behavior predicts a lower likelihood of future antisocial behavior of individual students over and above the effect of classmates' antisocial behavior. We further assumed this effect is mediated by adolescents' attitudes toward antisocial behavior. METHODS: To test our hypotheses, we used three data collection points from a longitudinal study among lower secondary school students in Switzerland (N = 864; mean age at T1: 13.81 years; male gender: 52%). Participants completed self-reported assessments on prosocial behavior, antisocial behavior, and antisocial attitudes. Data were analyzed using multilevel models. RESULTS: Results indicated higher levels of prosocial behavior among classmates predict lower levels of individual students' future antisocial behavior. However, the effect of classmates' prosocial behavior was not mediated by individual attitudes toward antisocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS: While in the context of antisocial behavior the peer group is often assumed a risk, our results indicate that school peers can also exert positive influence. Hereby our finding of an effect of prosocial peer norms over and above antisocial peer norms suggests that building up prosocial behaviors in the classroom may be a promising approach for the prevention of antisocial behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/classificação , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autorrelato , Suíça
7.
J Adolesc ; 68: 146-151, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor family management and antisocial peer associations are related risk factors for negative outcomes such as adolescent substance misuse and conduct disorders. The relationship between family management and antisocial peer associations is complex. The purpose of this study was to test the reciprocal relationships between youth-reports of poor family management and antisocial peer associations over multiple time-points. METHODS: We used four data points (5th-11th grade) from the Australian arm of the longitudinal International Youth Development Study (IYDS) to test a random-intercepts cross-lagged path model (N = 922). RESULTS: The model fit the data well with path estimates showing that poor family management predicted greater antisocial peer associations at the next wave but not the reverse. A second model included a third autoregressive path to control for youth's own antisocial behavior; the direction of the relationships between poor family management and antisocial peer associations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that across adolescence poor family management predicts greater antisocial peer association, which provides evidence that family-focused interventions are an important prevention strategy even in adolescence.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
8.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 25(2): 79-83, mayo-ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175110

RESUMO

Objetivo: Detectar desde la clínica psicótica un síndrome multiorgánico, que había pasado desapercibido. Caso clínico: Varón de 19 años con alteraciones conductuales, actividad alucinatoria delirante y agitación psicomotriz de 20 días de evolución. Antecedentes: prematuro, bajo peso al nacer; asfixia neonatal, crisis comiciales generalizadas, otitis e infecciones urinarias de repetición, pólipos nasales, voz hipernasal, rendimiento académico insatisfactorio y dificultades sociales. Consultas en Psiquiatría infantil por trastorno generalizado del desarrollo. En la exploración destacan voz hipernasal, facies dismórfica. Escoliosis. Hipotonía. Contacto evitativo. Estereotipias. Ideas delirantes, alucinaciones auditivas. Síntomas negativos. Pruebas complementarias: Proteinograma, cuantificación de inmunoglobulinas, ecocardiograma, electroencefalograma, tomografía computarizada y resonancia magnética cerebral, pruebas genéticas. Resultados: Diagnóstico: síndrome velo-cardio-facial (deleción 22q11.2). Tratamiento: antipsicóticos y anticonvulsivantes. Abordaje multidisciplinar para completar estudio. Discusión: Las comorbilidades psiquiátricas son altamente prevalentes en 22q11.2 DS, afectando a 3 cuartas partes de todos los individuos diagnosticados. Entre estos destacan los trastornos del espectro de la esquizofrenia; alrededor de un tercio de las personas con 22q11.2 DS desarrollan un trastorno psicótico, la mayoría de ellas al principio de la vida adulta. El 22q11.2 DS puede ser una oportunidad para estudiar la etiopatogenia de esquizofrenia. Es muy importante llevar a cabo un abordaje integral para realizar un diagnóstico precoz en estos casos y minimizar el cuadro clínico


Objective: To detect a multiorgan syndrome from psychotic symptoms that had been previously unnoticed. Clinical case: A 19 year-old male patient, with behavioural alterations, delusions, hallucinations, and psychomotor agitation, of 20 days progression. Personal history: Preterm, low birth weight; neonatal asphyxia, generalised seizures, otitis, recurrent urinary tract infections, nasal polyps, as well as an unsatisfactory academic performance, social difficulties. Consultations in Child Psychiatry for Generalised Development Disorder. Examination: Hyper-nasal voice, dysmorphic facies. Scoliosis. Hypotonia Contact avoided. Stereotypes. Delusions, auditory hallucinations. Negative symptoms. Complementary tests: Proteinogram, quantification of immunoglobulins, echocardiogram, EEG, CT and brain MRI, genetic tests. Results: Diagnosis: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion). Treatment: Antipsychotics and anticonvulsants. Multidisciplinary approach to complete study. Discussion: Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS), affecting three quarters of all diagnosed individuals. These include schizophrenia spectrum disorders. About one third of individuals with 22q11.2DS developed a psychotic disorder, most of them early in adult life. The 22q11.2 DS may be an opportunity to study the aetiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. It is essential to carry out a comprehensive approach to perform an early diagnosis in these cases, and minimise the clinical impact


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia
10.
Child Abuse Negl ; 81: 225-234, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758396

RESUMO

Research into parenting influences on child conduct problems in Asian countries has been limited compared to that conducted in Western countries, especially with regard to interplay between parenting and callous unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt and empathy). This study examined associations between dimensions of aggressive parenting practices (psychological aggression, mild and severe physical aggression), dimensions of child aggression (proactive, reactive), and child CU traits, in Singapore. Participants were children and adolescents with clinic-referred externalizing problems (N = 282; 87.6% boys), aged 7-16 years. Mild and severe parental physical aggression was found to be uniquely associated with children's proactive aggression, whereas parental psychological aggression was uniquely associated with both proactive and reactive aggression. Consistent with previous evidence regarding CU traits as moderators of the relationship between negative parenting and child conduct problems, physically aggressive parenting was found to be more strongly associated with children's proactive aggression among children with low levels of CU traits, than those with high CU traits. These findings support the need for ongoing research into CU traits in Asian cultures, focused on heterogeneous risk pathways to antisocial behavior and individual differences in response to family-based interventions.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Emoções , Família/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Ásia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 101: 63-71, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children. METHODS: Outcomes were ODD and CD symptom scores at age 7;9 years using the Development and Well-Being Assessment interview. We analyzed maternal (N ≈ 6300) and teacher ratings (N ≈ 4400) of ODD and CD scores separately using negative binomial regression in multivariable models. Control variables included comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, ODD or CD symptoms as appropriate, and genetic risk scores based on an independent CD genome-wide association study. RESULTS: Higher ODD symptom scores were linked to paracetamol use (IRR = 1.24 [98.3% confidence interval 1.05-1.47], P = 0.002, teacher ratings) and life events stress (IRR = 1.22 [1.07-1.39], P = 0.002, maternal ratings) during pregnancy. Higher CD symptom scores were linked to maternal smoking (IRR = 1.33 [1.18-1.51], P < 0.001, maternal ratings), life events stress (IRR = 1.24 [1.11-1.38], P < 0.001, maternal ratings) and depressive symptoms (IRR = 1.14 [1.01-1.30], P = 0.006, maternal ratings) during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Common and potentially preventable pregnancy risk factors were independently related to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in children from the general population. Future studies should further address genetic confounds and confounding by environmental factors later in life.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Depressão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fumar , Estresse Psicológico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(9): 1003-1011, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that diet contributes substantially to lifelong physical and mental health. Although dietary exposure during gestation and early postnatal life is critical, human epidemiological data are limited regarding its link with children's subsequent externalizing issues. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal diet during pregnancy in offspring's symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention and conduct problems from ages 3 to 8 years. METHODS: We used data of 1,242 mother-child pairs from a French cohort followed up from pregnancy until the children were 8 years of age. Dietary patterns (DP) of the mother during pregnancy were assessed with food frequency questionnaires. Children's externalizing behavior was assessed with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 3, 5, and 8 years, from which trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and conduct problems were derived. We conducted multivariable logistic models to study associations adjusted for a range of potential confounders. RESULTS: Results showed significant relationships between maternal 'low Healthy diet' (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.61; IC 95%: 1.09-2.37) and 'high Western diet' (aOR = 1.67; IC 95%: 1.13-2.47) during pregnancy and children's trajectories of high symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention. The associations took into account relevant confounders such as DP of the children at age 2 years, maternal stress and depression, gestational diabetes, and socioeconomic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal diet during pregnancy was independently associated with children's hyperactivity-inattention symptoms but not with conduct problems. Early prevention addressing lifestyle should specifically target diet in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
13.
Child Abuse Negl ; 79: 173-182, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475174

RESUMO

Previous research indicates a link between childhood maltreatment and elevated conduct problems. Yet the literature is less clear on associations between maltreatment and callousness (e.g., lack of empathy or guilt). This is a critical gap given that callousness is a robust predictor of serious aggressive and violent behavior. We examine the association between substantiated maltreatment events in childhood and adolescence (up to age 13) and conduct problems and lack of guilt at age 14. We analyze self- and parent-report data along with official maltreatment records on 557 youth (50% female; 69% non-white) from a larger dataset (Longitudinal Studies on Childhood Abuse and Neglect; N = 1354). Results of multinomial logistic regression models indicate that youth with histories of substantiated maltreatment events are more likely to have elevated conduct problems and decreased guilt at age 14, particularly if they experienced maltreatment before the age of four years old. Youth who exhibit conduct problems and also appear to lack guilt are more likely to have a personal history of substantiated maltreatment. We discuss our results in terms of their implications for theory and practice.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Culpa , Adolescente , Agressão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Pediatr ; 195: 199-205.e2, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between iron supplementation and iron deficiency in infancy and internalizing, externalizing, and social problems in adolescence. STUDY DESIGN: The study is a follow-up of infants as adolescents from working-class communities around Santiago, Chile who participated in a preventive trial of iron supplementation at 6 months of age. Inclusionary criteria included birth weight ≥3.0 kg, healthy singleton term birth, vaginal delivery, and a stable caregiver. Iron status was assessed at 12 and 18 months of age. At 11-17 years of age, internalizing, externalizing, and social problems were reported by 1018 adolescents with the Youth Self Report and by parents with the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: Adolescents who received iron supplementation in infancy had greater self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but lower parent-reported conduct disorder symptoms than those who did not (Ps < .05). Iron deficiency with or without anemia at 12 or 18 months of age predicted greater adolescent behavior problems compared with iron sufficiency: more adolescent-reported anxiety and social problems, and parent-reported social, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant, conduct, aggression, and rule breaking problems (Ps < .05). The threshold was iron deficiency with or without anemia for each of these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Iron deficiency with or without anemia in infancy was associated with increased internalizing, externalizing, and social problems in adolescence.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Anemia Ferropriva/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/prevenção & controle , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 14: 317-341, 2018 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350996

RESUMO

There has been a considerable amount of scholarly attention to the relationship between neighborhood effects and conduct disorder, particularly in recent years. Having said this, it has been nearly two decades since a comprehensive synthesis of this literature has been conducted. Relying on a detailed and comprehensive search strategy and inclusion criteria, this article offers a systematic and interdisciplinary review of 47 empirical studies that have examined neighborhood effects and conduct disorder. Described results suggest that there are generally robust linkages between adverse neighborhood factors and conduct disorder and externalizing behavior problems, as 67 of the 93 (72.04%) effect sizes derived from these studies yielded statistically significant neighborhood effects. The review also identifies salient mediating and moderating influences. It discusses study limitations and directions for future research as well.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Humanos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 46(6): 1217-1228, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110116

RESUMO

Research demonstrates that callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Problems (ODD) are related, but little is known about the sources of covariation among the three externalizing behaviors. The present study looked at genetic and environmental links between all three behavioral domains in twins at ages 2 and 3 years (MZ = 145, DZ = 169), a time when CU behaviors are beginning to emerge. CU, ADHD, and ODD behaviors as assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (Achenbach and Rescorla 2000) were strongly interrelated at both ages. Genetic factors primarily explained the covariation among the three behavioral domains via a common externalizing factor; however, there were also genetic factors unique to each behavior. Furthermore, the majority of nonshared environmental influences on each externalizing behavior were behavior-specific. The heritable externalizing factor was highly stable across age, largely due to genetic factors shared across ages 2 and 3 years. Despite their extensive phenotypic and genetic overlap, CU, ADHD, and ODD behaviors have unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences as early as toddlerhood. This supports phenotypic research showing that the three are related but distinct constructs in very young children.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Comportamento Infantil , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/genética , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 49(3): 480-491, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119362

RESUMO

This study investigated the stability of callous and unemotional (CU) traits across generations by assessing self-report assessments of psychopathy factors in parents and their relationship to children's CU traits in a clinical sample: 223 boys (M age = 7.65) and 83 girls (M = 7.35) referred for treatment of disruptive behavior disorders. First, we expanded previous findings showing a positive relationship between maternal psychopathy scores and CU traits in boys. Second, we tested whether parental psychopathy scores predicted CU traits in children over and above general indicators of mental health risk: parental psychopathology, parental warmth, and harsh parenting. Fathers' psychopathy factor 1 was uniquely related to CU traits. In contrast, the relationship between mothers' psychopathy factor 2 and children's CU traits disappeared when maternal warmth was included. Gender differences suggested these results are most applicable to boys. These findings support the intergenerational stability of psychopathy factor 1 between children and their fathers.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Emoções , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Empatia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Dev Sci ; 21(4): e12608, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are characterized by a lack of guilt and empathy, and low responsiveness to distress and fear in others. Children with CU traits are at-risk for engaging in early and persistent conduct problems. Individuals showing CU traits have been shown to have reduced neural responses to others' distress (e.g., fear). However, the neural components of distress responses in children with CU traits have not been investigated in early childhood. In the current study, we examined neural responses that underlie the processing of emotionally valenced vocal stimuli using the event-related potential technique in a group of preschoolers. METHOD: Participants between 2 and 5 years old took part in an auditory oddball task containing English-based pseudowords spoken with either a fearful, happy, or a neutral prosody while electroencephalography data were collected. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component, an index of the automatic detection of deviant stimuli within a series of stimuli, was examined in association with two dimensions of CU traits (i.e., callousness-uncaring and unemotional dimensions) reported by primary caregivers. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the callousness-uncaring dimension of CU traits in early childhood is associated with reduced responses to fearful vocal stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced neural responses to vocal fear could be a biomarker for callous-uncaring traits in early childhood. These findings are relevant for clinicians and researchers attempting to identify risk factors for early callous-uncaring traits.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 46(1): 73-82, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28361337

RESUMO

The existing literature does not provide consistent evidence that carriers of the Dopamine D4 Receptor 7-repeat allele are more sensitive to adverse environmental influences, resulting in enhanced externalizing problems, compared to noncarriers. One explanation is that the adverse influences examined in prior studies were not severe, chronic, or distressing enough to reveal individual differences in sensitivity reflected by DRD4-7R. This study examined whether the 7-repeat allele moderated the association between chronic stressors capturing multiple stressful aspects of individuals' lives and externalizing problems in adolescence. We expected that chronic stressor levels would be associated with externalizing levels only in 7-repeat carriers. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1621 Dutch adolescents (52.2% boys), obtained in three measurement waves (mean age approximately 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) population-based birth cohort and the parallel clinic-referred cohort. Across informants, we found that higher levels of chronic stressors were related to higher externalizing levels in 7-repeat carriers but not in noncarriers, as hypothesized. Although previous studies on the 7-repeat allele as a moderator of environmental influences on adolescents' externalizing problems have not convincingly demonstrated individual differences in sensitivity to adverse environmental influences, our findings suggest that adolescent carriers of the Dopamine D4 Receptor 7-repeat allele are more sensitive to chronic, multi-context stressors than noncarriers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/genética , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 83(2): 100-108, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that prenatal maternal stress may increase the risk of childhood externalizing disorders, yet no large cohort study has investigated this association across a large range of acute stressors. Our objective was to estimate the association between prenatal stressful events and risk of offspring conduct disorder and hyperactivity. METHODS: We used data from 10,184 mother-offspring pairs from the United Kingdom-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers self-reported 42 prenatal stressful life events at 18 weeks' gestation. Symptoms of conduct disorder and hyperactivity in their offspring were measured at 6, 9, 11, 13, and 16 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The primary outcome was membership in high-symptom trajectories of 1) conduct disorder and 2) hyperactivity throughout childhood, identified using latent class growth modeling. Multinomial logistic regression models estimated the association between prenatal stress and both conduct disorder and hyperactivity, after adjusting for sex, parental education, low birth weight, preterm birth, parental social class, maternal smoking and drinking, maternal mental health, offspring stressful life events, and offspring depressive and anxious symptoms. RESULTS: Those exposed to the highest quartile of prenatal stress were more likely to belong to the high symptom trajectory for hyperactivity (B = 0.46, p < .05) and conduct disorder (B = 0.88, p < .01), respectively. Prenatal stress further demonstrated a positive, dose-response relationship with symptoms of externalizing disorders at independent time points. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that prenatal stressful events may be an independent risk factor for offspring externalizing symptoms, regardless of maternal mental health and offspring internalizing.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Hipercinese/etiologia , Mães/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercinese/psicologia , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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