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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 160, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social networking sites (SNSs) allow people to socially connect with each other, collaborate, and share information. However, problematic SNS use (PSNSU) may be associated with negative personality traits. The present study investigated the associations between PSNSU, dark triad personality traits, and emotion dysregulation. METHOD: In the present study, 555 SNS users (Mage = 33.32 years, SD = 10.88) completed an online survey comprising measures of PSNSU, dark triad personality traits, and emotion dysregulation. RESULTS: Bivariate correlations showed that PSNSU was significantly associated with dark triad traits as well as emotion dysregulation. Structural equation modelling (where the effect of the dark triad traits on PSNSU was mediated by emotion dysregulation) showed that 33.5% of the variance of PSNSU was explained by Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. CONCLUSION: The findings provide suggestive evidence of why PSNSU may occur as a function of the presence of dark triad traits and emotion dysregulation. The study also highlighted the important role that emotion regulation plays in the association between dark triad traits and PSNSU.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Emoções , Humanos , Rede Social
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444412

RESUMO

In addition to social and environmental factors, individual personality traits have intricately linked with maladaptive behaviour. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review the link between individual personality traits and criminality. A systematic review was conducted to obtain information regarding the link between individual personality traits with criminal behaviour in the Sage, Web of Science, APA PsycNet, Wiley Online Library, and PubMed databases. The results indicate that individual personality traits that contribute towards criminality are (i) psychopathy; (ii) low self-control; and (iii) difficult temperament. As an overall impact, the review is expected to provide in-depth understanding of the link between individual personality traits and criminality; hence, greater consideration will be given to the dimension of personality as a notable risk factor of criminal behaviour.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtornos da Personalidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
3.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(9): 12-15, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459674

RESUMO

Substance use disorders are considered chronic but treatable. The first step in recovery is going through withdrawal or detox from the substance used, which typically involves unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms. Some individuals are able and willing to enter inpatient facilities for withdrawal and detox. In some cases, outpatient withdrawal and detox programs are not available. Several barriers to treatment exist, including inability to pay, unavailability of programs, stigma, and co-occurring mental health disorders. During inpatient withdrawal and detox, patients are supported with medications. There is an underutilization of initiating medication that helps reduce substance use, such as naltrexone and suboxone, during inpatient withdrawal and detox. Many individuals opt or have no other choice but to go through withdrawal and detox on their own. Strategies include illicitly obtaining prescription medications for the symptoms and other measures, such as floating in the bathtub and exercise. Recovery from substance use can be facilitated by health care providers through use of harm reduction strategies, referrals to treatment, and prescribing medications when applicable. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 59(9), 12-15.].


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico
4.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 117, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DSM-5 provided a dimensional model of personality disorders which may be more clinically informative for the assessment and management of prisoners than a categorical one, as diagnoses of personality disorders alone cannot explain the type of violence. The role of DSM-5 personality facets is however understudied in child molesters, and no study compared these clinical features between individuals who have committed sex crime against children and those who have committed other types of crime. The present study compared DSM-5 personality trait facets between prisoners who had committed sex crime against children, prisoners who had committed property crime (i.e., robbery, fraud) and those who had committed crime against the person (i.e., homicide, assault or violence not implying a sexual element). A further aim was to explore which facets were associated with sex crime against children as compared with the other types of crime, controlling for socio-demographics (age, gender), psychiatric comorbidity (presence of any psychiatric diagnoses) and general psychopathy traits. METHODS: One hundred sixty-seven prisoners participated (91 had committed sex crime against children, 25 property crime, and 51 committed a crime against the person) and completed the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. RESULTS: Prisoners who had committed sex crime against children reported higher Restricted Affectivity traits than those who had committed property crime and crime against the person and higher Irresponsibility traits than those who had committed property crime. The results of a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that on the one hand being a man, having a higher age, and the presence of a psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to be related to sex crime than property crime, on the other hand higher Irresponsibility personality traits, being a man, and the presence of a psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to be related to sex crime against children than crime against the person. CONCLUSIONS: The Irresponsibility facet might be specific to child molesters and can differentiate this group from offenders who have committed other crime types. This facet might be considered a key target of a tailored assessment and treatment planning during clinical practice with child molesters.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460165

RESUMO

The concept of psychopathic personalities presented in the 8-th last lifetime edition of E. Kraepelin's textbook is analyzed. The special interest was guided by the fact that many types of psychopathic personalities were described by E. Kraepelin in other rubrics: «primary morbid states¼, manic-depressive illness, paranoia, hysteria, Dementia praecox. E. Kraepelin gave also a prognosis of further development of psychopathic personality and by this way analyzed its dynamics. So, for example, he found that the prognosis of unstable personalities is less favorable compared to those with excitable type. E. Kraepelin subdivided the types of «liars and swindlers¼, "antisocial" and also hysterics according to the prognosis in stationary and regredient courses. The regredient course of psychopathy E. Kraepelin explained by behindhand maturing of psychopathic traits caused by partial infantilism. Constitutionally depressed, constitutionally excited, irritable and cyclothymic psychopathic types distinguished by their disposition to phasic manifesting affective disorders (MDP), but were capable also to remain stationary during the lifetime as the corresponding three types of psychopathic personalities delineated by E. Kraepelin in schizophrenia. The type of «nervous¼ (from the rubric of «primary morbid states¼) was the ground for obsessive-compulsive neurosis, sexual perversions and also was able to combine with more or less prominent traits of other psychopathic types. According to clinical features, the «nervous¼ type was the expression of the conceptually preceding notion of general «degenerative constitution¼. It is important to note that E. Kraepelin considered the possibilities of combinations of different psychopathic types (connections of psychopathic traits) but never considered the possibility of development from one innate psychopathic type in the other.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor , Transtornos Paranoides , Personalidade
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444212

RESUMO

The present study examined whether the relationship between the Dark Triad (DT) of personality and problematic smartphone use (PSU) can be explained by the mediating role of fear of missing out (FoMO). The role of FoMO in this relationship has yet to be examined. A total of 457 participants completed an online survey. Results indicated that males scored high on measures assessing DT of personality, while females scored high on PSU. Structural equation modelling showed that narcissism was directly associated with PSU. FoMO partially mediated the association between narcissism and PSU. Machiavellianism and narcissism were directly associated with FoMO. In the fully mediated model, narcissism (but not Machiavellianism) was still associated with FoMO, and in turn, FoMO was related to PSU. Although preliminary, the results of the present study indicated that Machiavellianism and narcissism might represent antecedents of FoMO, in addition to the Big Five personality traits, and both could be involved in the development of PSU.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Smartphone , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narcisismo , Personalidade
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 226: 108850, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent research has identified higher prevalence of offending behavior in patients with comorbid schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) compared to patients with SSD only and to the general population. However, findings on the subgroup of patients with SUD, SSD and offending behavior in forensic psychiatric care are scarce and inconsistent. The present study used machine learning to uncover more detailed characteristics of offender patients in forensic psychiatric care with comorbid SSD and SUD. METHODS: Using machine learning algorithms, 370 offender patients (91.6 % male, mean age of M = 34.1, SD = 10.2) and 558 variables were explored in order to build three models to differentiate between no substance use disorder, cannabis use disorder and any other substance use disorder. To counteract the risk of overfitting, the dataset was split, employing variable filtering, machine learning model building and selection embedded in a nested resampling approach on one subset. The best model was then selected and validated on the second data subset. RESULTS: Distinguishing between SUD vs. no drug use disorder yielded models with an AUC of 70 and 78. Variables assignable to demographics, social disintegration, antisocial behavior and illness were identified as most influential for the distinction. The model comparing cannabis use disorder with other substance use disorders provided no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: From a clinical perspective, offender patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum and comorbid substance use disorder seem particularly challenging to treat, but initial differences in psychopathology will dissipate over inpatient treatment. Our data suggest that offender patients may benefit from appropriate treatment that focuses on illicit drug abuse to reduce criminal behavior and improve social integration.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(10): 2937-2946, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196741

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Prior studies have demonstrated statistically significant but subtle differences in brain function between patients with a history of substance dependence (SD) and control groups. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to show that variability in brain activation over the trials of a cognitive task is more useful for revealing the putative impact of SD than analyses focusing on the amplitude of activation averaged over trials. The study also tested the additional contribution of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)-a prevalent comorbidity that promotes both an early onset and more severe course of SD. METHODS: Two hundred eleven adults performed two selective attention tasks while P300 event-related electroencephalographic potentials were recorded. They were assigned to one of 3 mutually exclusive groups: no lifetime history of SD or ASPD (n = 67), a SD history but no ASPD (n = 68), or both SD and ASPD (n = 76). RESULTS: The major finding was a statistically significant elevation of P300 amplitude inter-trial variability (ITV) in the SD plus ASPD group in comparison to the group with neither attribute. The elevation was detected during both selective attention tasks and most prominent at electrodes sites located over the frontal brain. There were no group differences in P300 amplitude averaged over trials. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude from these findings that the ITV of P300 amplitude is an efficient and sensitive biomarker of the maintenance of attention. It is valuable for revealing group differences associated with substance dependence and ASPD. It may ultimately be valuable for detecting improvements resulting from psychostimulant treatment or other interventions, including cognitive remediation.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Atenção , Encéfalo , Potencial Evocado P300 , Humanos
11.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(5): 497-502, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the recent literature on contemporary psychological perspectives of personality disorders, including novel psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at these vulnerable individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Among the various psychological theories and models of personality disorders, still the most popular and researched are psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives. More specifically, object relations theory, cognitive schema conceptualization and interpersonal circumplex model have produced the most empirical investigations of personality disorders in recent years. Latest work has suggested that all three perspectives have contributed to and are compatible with the dimensional personality disorders framework in DSM-5-AMPD and ICD-11 (including level of personality functioning and personality traits). These models have yielded specific psychological treatments of personality disorders; although most psychotherapies have been constructed for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), there is an increasing number of treatment modalities aimed at individuals with other forms of personality disorder, such as those with narcissistic or antisocial traits/disorders. More research into their effectiveness and long-term benefits is necessary. SUMMARY: Novel research keeps updating our knowledge on the cause, manifestations and psychological treatments of personality disorders, particularly from psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
12.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 499-513, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP program in reducing psychopathic traits among male detained youth. METHOD: In this controlled trial, a treatment group (n = 58) and a control group (n = 61) answered the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short (YPIS) and the Proposed Specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD) at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Treatment participants attended the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP; controls only received Treatment As Usual (TAU). Treatment effects were tested with latent growth curve models (LGCM). RESULTS: At baseline, no significant differences between groups were found. Results from LGCM showed that condition was a significant predictor of change over time observed in almost all outcome measures. Concerning the YPIS, treatment participants presented a significant decrease both in the total score and in the YPIS factors scores when compared with the controls (medium/large effect sizes; growth modeling analysis-GMA d ranging from .58 to 1.12). Considering the PSCD, treatment participants also showed a significant decrease both in the total score and in the PSCD factors scores (except for the grandiose-manipulative factor) when compared with controls (medium effect sizes; GMA d ranging from .53 to .72). Results also showed that treatment effects were maintained 6 months after the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP completion. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP is a promising treatment approach to reduce psychopathic traits among male detained youth, suggesting that interventions targeting these traits should be considered in their rehabilitation, as the absence of tailored interventions may increase the levels of psychopathic traits and their associated risks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Empatia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199592

RESUMO

Firefighting is considered a dangerous profession that imposes unique safety hazards. In this research, we investigated the relationship between the Dark Triad traits of firefighters (N = 1434, Mage = 39.03, SD = 6.9) and their risk-taking at work, considering the mediation role of altruism, honesty, and courage. We showed that firefighters high on Machiavellianism and psychopathy reported high risk-taking. Altruism, honesty, and courage mediated the relationship between Machiavellianism and risk-taking in firefighters. Honesty and courage mediated the association between psychopathy and risk-taking. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Coragem , Bombeiros , Altruísmo , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Humanos , Narcisismo , Assunção de Riscos
14.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While psychosis is a risk factor for violence, the majority of individuals who perpetrate aggression do not present psychotic symptoms. Pathological aggressive behavior is associated with brain gray matter differences, which, in turn, has shown a relationship with increased psychopathic traits. However, no study, to our knowledge, has ever investigated gray matter differences in forensic psychiatric patients with psychosis compared with incarcerated individuals without psychosis matched on levels of psychopathic traits. Here, we employed source-based morphometry (SBM) to investigate gray matter differences in these two populations. METHODS: We scanned 137 participants comprising two offender subgroups: 69, non-psychotic incarcerated offenders and 68, psychotic, forensic psychiatric patients. Groups showed no difference in age, race, ethnicity, handedness, and Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores. Source-based morphometry was utilized to identify spatially distinct sets of brain regions where gray matter volumes covaried between groups. SBM is a data-driven, multivariate technique that uses independent components analysis to categorize groups of voxels that display similar variance patterns (e.g., components) that are compared across groups. RESULTS: SBM identified four components that differed between groups. These findings indicated greater loading weights in the superior, transverse, and middle temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate in the non-psychotic versus psychotic group; greater loading weights in the basal ganglia in the psychotic versus non-psychotic group; greater loading weights in the frontal pole, precuneus, and visual cortex among psychotic versus non-psychotic offenders; and greater loading weights in the thalamus and parahippocampal gyrus in psychotic versus non-psychotic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Two different offender groups that perpetrate violence and show comparable levels of psychopathic traits evidenced different gray matter volumes. We suggest that future studies of violent offenders with psychosis take psychopathic traits into account to refine neural phenotypes.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 63: 102773, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298431

RESUMO

In recent years, there appears to be a rise in the diagnosis and treatment of child mental health disorders in many countries, including Singapore. While this increase may be alarming, it could possibly be attributed to factors such as changes in diagnostic criteria, improved screening in schools and primary health settings, changes in clinical practices, and an increase in help-seeking behaviour. Hence, an examination of community-level trends in mental health symptoms can elucidate how child psychopathology has changed over the years. This study aimed to investigate differences in symptoms of mental health between two cohorts of young Asian children aged six to eight living in Singapore. Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) scores from a sample in 2003 (Cohort 1; n = 524) were compared to another sample taken in 2017 (Cohort 2; n = 655). Cohort 2 had lower externalizing scale scores as compared to Cohort 1, but there were no significant differences in total problem scores or internalizing scale scores. Among the CBCL subscales, Cohort 2 had comparatively lower levels of aggressive behaviour and withdrawn/depressed symptoms, but higher levels of thought problems and somatic complaints as compared to Cohort 1. Our findings suggest that children in Singapore are progressing as well as, or even better than, children 14 years ago on most aspects of mental well-being.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Transtornos Mentais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This research examines how, when a romantic partner commits a perceived transgression that leads to couple break up, vengeful reactions are predicted by the type of transgression and the Dark Triad of personality. METHODS: An incidental sample of 2142 participants, half male and half female aged 18 to 70, completed a questionnaire developed by the authors to assess how they had reacted after being the perceived victims of a transgression committed by their partner and a measure of the Dark Triad. RESULTS: Results show half of the people who feel as though they are victims of a partner transgression show revenge reactions. These reactions are more emotional than rational and do not usually anticipate their consequences or success. Moreover, revenge is related primarily to psychopathy and to a lesser extent to Machiavellianism. Psychopathy is the best predictor for revenge thoughts and actions, whereas narcissism does not predict revenge when controlling for other dark traits. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the explanation of revenge reactions in couple relationships in relation to the type of transgression perceived and the Dark Triad. Conflicts that arise out of revenge may have long-lasting consequences for both the perceived aggressor and victim, and our results may be useful for assessing risks, monitoring, and preventing negative consequences for partners or ex-partners.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4440, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290236

RESUMO

Reinforcement learning is a fundamental mechanism displayed by many species. However, adaptive behaviour depends not only on learning about actions and outcomes that affect ourselves, but also those that affect others. Using computational reinforcement learning models, we tested whether young (age 18-36) and older (age 60-80, total n = 152) adults learn to gain rewards for themselves, another person (prosocial), or neither individual (control). Detailed model comparison showed that a model with separate learning rates for each recipient best explained behaviour. Young adults learned faster when their actions benefitted themselves, compared to others. Compared to young adults, older adults showed reduced self-relevant learning rates but preserved prosocial learning. Moreover, levels of subclinical self-reported psychopathic traits (including lack of concern for others) were lower in older adults and the core affective-interpersonal component of this measure negatively correlated with prosocial learning. These findings suggest learning to benefit others is preserved across the lifespan with implications for reinforcement learning and theories of healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biol Psychol ; 163: 108141, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174382

RESUMO

Socio-affective dysfunction is a risk-factor for sexual offense recidivism. However, it remains unknown whether men who have sexually offended with and without child victims show differences in eye scan paths and autonomic responsivity while viewing facial expressions of emotion. We examined differences in accuracy of emotion recognition, eye movements, and pupil dilation responses between sex offenders with child victims, sex offenders without child victims, and a group of non-offenders living in the community. Sex offenders without child victims looked for longer at the eyes than sex offenders with child victims and non-offenders. Men without child victims also scored higher for psychopathy linked disinhibition, and these traits were associated with looking longer at the eyes of afraid faces. We found no evidence for group differences in accuracy, visual attention to the mouth, or pupil dilation responses. Our findings have implications for understanding the nature of socio-affective dysfunction in sexual offenders.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Medo , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Biol Psychol ; 163: 108136, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129874

RESUMO

Attention to the eyes and eye contact form an important basis for the development of empathy and social competences including prosocial behavior. Thus, impairments in attention to the eyes of an interaction partner might play a role in the etiology of antisocial behavior and violence. For the first time, the present study extends investigations of eye gaze to a large sample (N = 173) including not only male but also female violent offenders and a control group. We assessed viewing patterns during the categorization of emotional faces via eye tracking. Our results indicate a reduced frequency of initial attention shifts to the eyes in female and male offenders compared to controls, while there were no general group differences in overall attention to the eye region (i.e., relative dwell time). Thus, we conclude that violent offenders might be able to compensate for deficits in spontaneous attention orienting during later stages of information processing.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Emoções , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Psychol Assess ; 33(10): 927-939, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081528

RESUMO

The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality-Self-Report (CAPP-SR) is a recent operationalization of the CAPP model, which conceptualizes psychopathy in terms of 33 symptoms that can be thematically organized according to six theoretical domains. The current study examined the higher order factor structure of the CAPP-SR symptom scales in community, university, and offender samples derived from three separate countries. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated that a three-factor model (Antagonism/Meanness, Disinhibition, and Fearless Grandiosity) was optimal in a large population-representative U.S. community sample. EFA with targeted rotation confirmed this three-factor structure in New Zealand university and Lithuanian prison samples. Furthermore, construct validity analyses against other psychopathy measures and psychopathy-relevant criteria provided initial support for the three CAPP-SR latent factors. For instance, CAPP-SR Antagonism/Meanness was associated with other psychopathy scales reflective of antagonism, meanness, callous affect; CAPP-SR Disinhibition with other psychopathy scales reflective of behavioral psychopathy traits (e.g., impulsivity, irresponsibility), antisocial behavior, substance abuse; and CAPP-SR Fearless Grandiosity with narcissism, emotional stability, and boldness. These findings suggest that a three-factor structure provides for an alternative (to the traditional thematic domains) hierarchical interpretation of CAPP-SR scores. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Criminosos/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Autorrelato
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