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1.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738373

RESUMO

Youth with severe conduct problems impose a significant cost on society by engaging in high levels of antisocial and aggressive behavior. Within this group, adolescents with high levels of callous- unemotional traits have been found to exhibit more severe and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior than youth with severe conduct problems but normative levels of callous-unemotional traits. Existing neuroimaging studies, along with theoretical accounts of psychopathology, suggest that dysfunction within the paralimbic cortex and limbic system may underlie elevated levels of callous-unemotional traits. The present study examines this hypothesis by investigating gray matter correlates associated with callous-unemotional traits. A sample of incarcerated male adolescents (N = 269), were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Callous-unemotional traits were assessed using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (Frick 2004). Total callous-unemotional traits were negatively correlated with anterior temporal lobe gray matter volume (GMV). Callous traits in particular exhibited a reliable negative correlation with gray matter volume in nearly every paralimbic brain region examined. Uncaring traits were positively correlated with GMV in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. These findings demonstrate specific neural features within the paralimbic cortex and limbic system that accompany elevated callous-unemotional traits and serves to expand our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms that may give rise to severe conduct problems in youth.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Adolescente , Agressão , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Prisioneiros
2.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101705, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753960

RESUMO

Increasing data indicate that prevalent forms of psychopathology can be organized into second-order dimensions based on their correlations, including a general factor of psychopathology that explains the common variance among all disorders and specific second-order externalizing and internalizing factors. Nevertheless, most existing studies on the neural correlates of psychopathology employ case-control designs that treat diagnoses as independent categories, ignoring the highly correlated nature of psychopathology. Thus, for instance, although perturbations in white matter microstructure have been identified across a range of mental disorders, nearly all such studies used case-control designs, leaving it unclear whether observed relations reflect disorder-specific characteristics or transdiagnostic associations. Using a representative sample of 410 young adult twins oversampled for psychopathology risk, we tested the hypothesis that some previously observed relations between white matter microstructure properties in major tracts and specific disorders are related to second-order factors of psychopathology. We examined fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD). White matter correlates of all second-order factors were identified after controlling for multiple statistical tests, including the general factor (FA in the body of the corpus callosum), specific internalizing (AD in the fornix), and specific externalizing (AD in the splenium of the corpus callosum, sagittal stratum, anterior corona radiata, and internal capsule). These findings suggest that some features of white matter within specific tracts may be transdiagnostically associated multiple forms of psychopathology through second-order factors of psychopathology rather with than individual mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(3): 341-350, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019148

RESUMO

Modestly prevalent in the general population (~ 4%), but highly prevalent in prison populations (> 40%), the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) involves aggression as one of several possible criteria. Using multiple informants, we aimed to determine if general aggression, as well as direct and indirect subtypes, assessed in early adolescence (ages 12, 14) predict young adulthood ASPD in a population-based sample. Using data from a Finnish population-based longitudinal twin cohort study with psychiatric interviews available at age 22 (N = 1347), we obtained DSM-IV-based ASPD diagnoses. Aggression measures from ages 12 (parental and teacher ratings) and 14 (teacher, self, and co-twin ratings) were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of ASPD from logistic regression models and the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and family structure. All informants' aggression ratings were significant (p < 0.05) predictors of ASPD (OR range 1.3-1.8; AUC range 0.65-0.72). Correlations between informants ranged from 0.13 to 0.33. Models including two or more aggression ratings, particularly age 14 teacher and self ratings, more accurately predicted ASPD (AUC: 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.87). Direct aggression rated by all informants significantly predicted ASPD (OR range 1.4-1.9), whereas only self-rated indirect aggression was significantly associated with ASPD (OR = 1.4). Across different informants, general and direct aggression at ages 12 and 14 predicted ASPD in a population-based sample. Psychiatric, social, and parenting interventions for ASPD prevention should focus on children and adolescents with high aggression levels, with an aim to gather information from multiple informants.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(1): 1-11, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589303

RESUMO

Although personality traits have been linked to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, the extent to which these traits and psychopathological phenotypes share a common neuroanatomical structure is unclear. To address this gap, we used structural neuroimaging and self-report data from 1101 participants in the Human Connectome Project to generate neuroanatomical profiles (NAPs) of FFM traits and psychopathology indices composed of the thickness, surface area, and gray matter volume of each region in the Desikan atlas, then used a profile matching approach to compare the absolute similarity of the FFM trait NAPs and psychopathology index NAPs. These analyses indicated that the NAPs derived from Neuroticism and Extraversion demonstrated medium to large positive and negative absolute similarities to the NAPs of internalizing psychopathology, respectively. Similarly, the NAPs of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness showed medium to large negative relations with the NAPs of antisocial behavior and substance use, respectively. These results suggest that similar neuroanatomical correlates underlie specific personality traits and symptoms of psychopathology, providing support for dimensional models that incorporate personality traits into the etiology and manifestation of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Neuroticismo , Personalidade , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Fenótipo
5.
Int J Psychol ; 54(3): 388-396, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152733

RESUMO

Studies have shown the existence of psychopathy construct in Western cultures. However, there is a general lack of research on this topical issue in non-Western countries, specifically sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, this study investigated the factorial and convergent validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) in 327 adolescents in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure (interpersonal, behavioural and affective) of psychopathy that was invariant across gender. These results were replicated in a cross-validation sample comprising 363 adolescents. The YPI-S factors correlated significantly and positively with reactive and proactive aggression, thus bolstering its construct validity. The YPI-S and Big-Five domains were related differently, and where significant correlations were observed, their directions generally confirmed and extended previous studies. All in all, the result generally suggested the existence of psychopathy construct among Ghanaian youth which can be described along interpersonal, affective and behavioural domains. However, the alterations made to the YPI-S, coupled with its relatively low factor loadings and internal consistency largely, indicate cultural influences on the assessment of cross-cultural traits. This study illuminated the problem of exporting Western-based measures and their findings to non-Western contexts.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Criança , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychopathic traits vary dimensionally in the population and are associated with multiple negative outcomes. The impaired integration theory (IIT) proposes that psychopathic traits are associated with abnormal neural network topology, such that disturbed integration of neural networks results in a self-perpetuating impairment in rapid integration and learning from multiple components of information. The IIT is based on findings from male offenders presenting high scores on all psychopathic traits. The present study investigated whether IIT predictions of topology abnormalities were associated with psychopathic traits, measured dimensionally, in young adult women with subsyndromal scores. METHODS: Seventy-three women, with an average age of 25 years, were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and completed resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Preprocessed time series from 90 anatomical regions were extracted to form connectivity matrices and used to calculate network topology based on graph theory. Correlations between total psychopathy and factor scores with both the raw connectivity matrix and global and local graph theory measures were computed. RESULTS: Total psychopathy scores and behavioral factor scores were related to connectivity between several pairs of regions, primarily limbic/paralimbic. Psychopathic traits were not associated with global topology measures. Topology abnormalities, robust across network formation thresholds, were found in nodes of the default mode network and in hubs connecting several resting-state networks. CONCLUSIONS: IIT predictions of abnormal topology of hubs and default mode network nodes with dimensionally measured psychopathic traits were confirmed in a sample of young women. Regional abnormalities, accompanied by preserved global topology, may underlie context-specific abnormal information processing and integration.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Vias Neurais/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Descanso , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 19: 876-882, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946511

RESUMO

Background: Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal and emotional abnormalities (e.g., lack of empathy and guilt) and antisocial behavior. Psychopathy has been associated with a number of structural brain abnormalities, most notably in orbital frontal and anterior/medial temporal regions, that may underlie psychopathic individuals' problematic behaviors. Past research evaluating cortical structure in psychopathy has considered thickness and volume, but to date no study has investigated differences in cortical gyrification, a measure of cortical complexity thought to reflect early neurodevelopmental cortical connectivity. Methods: We measured the local gyrification index (LGI) in a sample of 716 adult male inmates and performed a whole brain analysis assessing the relationship between LGI and total and factor scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results: PCL-R scores were negatively associated with LGI measures within the right hemisphere in the midcingulate cortex (MCC) and adjacent regions of the superior frontal gyrus as well as lateral superior parietal cortex. Additionally, PCL-R Factor 1 scores (interpersonal/affective traits) predicted less LGI within the right MCC and adjacent dorsomedial frontal cortex and greater LGI in bilateral occipital cortex. Scores on PCL-R Factor 2, indicating impulsivity and antisocial behaviors, did not predict LGI in any regions. Conclusions: These findings suggest that psychopathy, particularly the interpersonal and affective traits, are associated with specific structural abnormalities that form during neurodevelopment and these abnormalities may underlie aberrant brain functioning in regions important in emotional processing and cognitive control.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Criminosos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Prisioneiros , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy is robustly associated with reduced neural activation to others' emotions and, in particular, distress. However, it has been proposed that the secondary presentation has different neurocognitive correlates. METHODS: Primary (n = 50), secondary (n = 100), and comparison (n = 82) groups were drawn from a large volunteer sample (N = 1444) using a quartile-split approach across psychopathic trait (affective-interpersonal) and anxiety measures. Participants performed a widely utilized emotional face processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The primary group showed reduced amygdala and insula activity in response to fear. The secondary group did not differ from the comparison group in these regions. Instead, the secondary group showed reduced activity compared with the comparison group in other areas, including the superior temporal sulcus/inferior parietal lobe, thalamus, pallidum, and substantia nigra. Both psychopathy groups also showed reduced activity in response to fear in the anterior cingulate cortex. During anger processing, the secondary group exhibited reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex compared with the primary group. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct neural correlates of fear processing characterize individuals with primary and secondary psychopathy. The reduced neural response to fear that characterizes individuals with the primary variant of psychopathic traits is not observed in individuals with the secondary presentation. The neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning secondary psychopathy warrant further systematic investigation.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Medo/fisiologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Neuropsychology ; 32(6): 735-745, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic traits in 15 male offenders with impulse control problems and 10 without impulse control problems. METHOD: Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-revised (PCL-R). Diffusion-weighted MRI was used to examine white-matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white-matter integrity, was calculated for each voxel. Clusters of voxels showing a significant relationship with psychopathy severity were submitted to probabilistic tractography. RESULTS: No significant correlations between psychopathy severity and FA were present in the whole group of impulsive and nonimpulsive offenders. In impulsive offenders, interpersonal-affective traits (PCL-R Factor 1) were negatively correlated with FA in the anterior and posterior temporal lobe and orbitofrontal area. Further analyses indicated that elevated affective traits (PCL-R Facet 2) were specifically related to reduced FA in the right temporal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that white-matter abnormalities in temporal and frontotemporal tracts may be linked to the interpersonal-affective deficits of psychopathy in offenders with relatively severe impulse control problems. Our study offers novel insights into the relationships between the four facets of psychopathy and disrupted structural connectivity, and may provide new leads for further characterization of different subtypes of antisocial populations. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Criminosos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neuroimage Clin ; 17: 856-864, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527490

RESUMO

Callous-unemotional traits are characterized by a lack of empathy, a disregard for others' feelings and shallow or deficient affect, such as a lack of remorse or guilt. Neuroanatomical correlates of callous-unemotional traits have been demonstrated in clinical samples (i.e., adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders). However, it is unknown whether callous-unemotional traits are associated with neuroanatomical correlates within normative populations without clinical levels of aggression or antisocial behavior. Here we investigated the relationship between callous-unemotional traits and gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry in a large sample of typically-developing boys and girls (N = 189). Whole-brain multiple regression analyses controlling for site, total intracranial volume, and age were conducted in the whole sample and in boys and girls individually. Results revealed that sex and callous-unemotional traits interacted to predict gray matter volume when considering the whole sample. This interaction was driven by a significant positive correlation between callous-unemotional traits and bilateral anterior insula volume in boys, but not girls. Insula gray matter volume explained 19% of the variance in callous-unemotional traits for boys. Our results demonstrate that callous-unemotional traits are related to variations in brain structure beyond psychiatric samples. This association was observed for boys only, underlining the importance of considering sex as a factor in future research designs. Future longitudinal studies should determine whether these findings hold over childhood and adolescence, and whether the neuroanatomical correlates of callous-unemotional traits are predictive of future psychiatric vulnerability. General scientific summary: This study suggests that callous-unemotional traits have a neuroanatomical correlate within typically developing boys, but not girls. Bilateral anterior insula volume explains up to 19% of the variance in callous-unemotional traits in boys.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Emoções , Empatia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Análise de Regressão
11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(6): 2624-2634, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498761

RESUMO

Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and impaired decision making. The disproportionate amount of crime committed by psychopaths has severe emotional and economic impacts on society. Here we examine the neural correlates associated with psychopathy to improve early assessment and perhaps inform treatments for this condition. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychopathy have primarily focused on regions of interest. This study examines whole-brain functional connectivity and its association to psychopathic traits. Psychopathy was hypothesized to be characterized by aberrant functional network connectivity (FNC) in several limbic/paralimbic networks. Group-independent component and regression analyses were applied to a data set of resting-state fMRI from 985 incarcerated adult males. We identified resting-state networks (RSNs), estimated FNC between RSNs, and tested their association to psychopathy factors and total summary scores (Factor 1, interpersonal/affective; Factor 2, lifestyle/antisocial). Factor 1 scores showed both increased and reduced functional connectivity between RSNs from seven brain domains (sensorimotor, cerebellar, visual, salience, default mode, executive control, and attentional). Consistent with hypotheses, RSNs from the paralimbic system-insula, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, orbital frontal cortex, and superior temporal gyrus-were related to Factor 1 scores. No significant FNC associations were found with Factor 2 and total PCL-R scores. In summary, results suggest that the affective and interpersonal symptoms of psychopathy (Factor 1) are associated with aberrant connectivity in multiple brain networks, including paralimbic regions.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/patologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Análise de Componente Principal , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
12.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 14: 259-289, 2018 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401045

RESUMO

Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors. Prevention and intervention strategies for APD are then outlined, focusing on addressing early biological and health systems, followed by forensic and clinical implications. It is argued both that APD meets criteria for consideration as a neurodevelopmental disorder and that consideration should be given both to the possibility that early onset conduct disorder is neurodevelopmental in nature, and also to the inclusion of psychopathy as a specifier in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual revisions of APD.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Sistema Límbico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sistema Límbico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Límbico/patologia , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia
13.
Laterality ; 23(6): 738-760, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447065

RESUMO

Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour. Although the body of research is presently small, it appears consistent with Lombroso's proposal: criminal psychopaths' brains show atypical structural asymmetries, with reduced right hemisphere grey and white matter volumes, and abnormal interhemispheric connectivity. Functional asymmetries are also atypical, with criminal psychopaths showing a less lateralized cortical response than noncriminals across verbal, visuo-spatial, and emotional tasks. Finally, the incidence of non-right-handedness is higher in criminal than non-criminal populations, consistent with reduced cortical lateralization. Thus despite Lombroso's comparatively primitive and inferential research methods, his conclusion that criminals' lateralization differs from that of noncriminals is borne out by the neuroscientific research. How atypical cortical asymmetries predispose criminal behaviour remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criminosos , Lateralidade Funcional , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/história , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Criminoso/história , Comportamento Criminoso/fisiologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos
14.
CNS Spectr ; 23(1): 29-38, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been no systematic reviews that investigated the heritability of the two-factor model of psychopathy: interpersonal-affective and behavioral. Our review aimed, first, to examine the heritability of general psychopathic traits and, second, if genetic influences were suggested, to determine the heritability of various traits related to the interpersonal-affective and behavioral factors of psychopathy. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from the PsycINFO, Embase, Global Health, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (January of 1980 to December of 2015) in order to identify eligible literature that reported on the heritability of psychopathy-related traits. Papers were also found via manual examination and reference tracking. Papers were subjected to exclusion criteria and quality appraisal. We identified a total of 24 studies. RESULTS: Our results were grouped into three categories: general, interpersonal-affective, and behavioral. All these areas demonstrated modest to high heritability. The highest heritability values were found in studies investigating callous-unemotional behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Heritability was found for all the psychopathic traits. Future research should include endophenotypic approaches that explore gene-environment correlations, which could aid in identification of the behavioral phenotype that is most amenable to early intervention by way of moderation of genetic risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Padrões de Herança , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fenótipo
15.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 27(9): 1123-1132, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638947

RESUMO

Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors on variation in conduct problems measured at childhood and adolescence and antisocial personality problems measured at adulthood and on the covariation across ages. We also tested whether these estimates differed by sex. Longitudinal data were collected in the Netherlands Twin Register over a period of 27 years. Age appropriate and comparable measures of conduct and antisocial personality problems, assessed with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, were available for 9783 9-10-year-old, 6839 13-18-year-old, and 7909 19-65-year-old twin pairs, respectively; 5114 twins have two or more assessments. At all ages, men scored higher than women. There were no sex differences in the estimates of the genetic and environmental influences. During childhood, genetic and environmental factors shared by children in families explained 43 and 44% of the variance of conduct problems, with the remaining variance due to unique environment. During adolescence and adulthood, genetic and unique environmental factors equally explained the variation. Longitudinal correlations across age varied between 0.20 and 0.38 and were mainly due to stable genetic factors. We conclude that shared environment is mainly of importance during childhood, while genetic factors contribute to variation in conduct and antisocial personality problems at all ages, and also underlie its stability over age.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/patologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9607, 2017 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851912

RESUMO

Violent offending is elevated among individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and high psychopathic traits (PP). Morphological abnormalities of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are present in violent offenders, which may relate to the violence enacted by ASPD + PP. Among healthy males, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) genetic variants linked to low in vitro transcription (MAOA-L) are associated with structural abnormalities of the amygdala and OFC. However, it is currently unknown whether amygdala and OFC morphology in ASPD relate to MAO-A genetic polymorphisms. We studied 18 ASPD males with a history of violent offending and 20 healthy male controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes to determine MAO-A genetic polymorphisms. Subjects underwent a T1-weighted MRI anatomical brain scan that provided vertex-wise measures of amygdala shape and surface area and OFC cortical thickness. We found that ASPD + PP subjects with MAOA-L exhibited decreased surface area in the right basolateral amygdala nucleus and increased surface area in the right anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus versus healthy MAOA-L carriers. This study is the first to describe genotype-related morphological differences of the amygdala in a population marked by high aggression. Deficits in emotional regulation that contribute to the violence of ASPD + PP may relate to morphological changes of the amygdala under genetic control.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Criminosos , Variação Genética , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Adulto Jovem
18.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 12(7): 1169-1178, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402565

RESUMO

Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N = 124). We conducted volumetric analyses in prefrontal subregions, and subsequently assessed resting-state functional connectivity in areas where volume was related to psychopathy severity. We found that overall psychopathy severity and Factor 2 scores (which index the impulsive/antisocial traits of psychopathy) were associated with larger prefrontal subregion volumes, particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Factor 2 scores were also positively correlated with functional connectivity between several areas of the prefrontal cortex. The results were not attributable to age, race, IQ, substance use history, or brain volume. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for co-localized increases in prefrontal cortex volume and intra-prefrontal functional connectivity in relation to impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criminosos , Empatia/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(4): 275-282, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26971049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. METHODS: Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). RESULTS: Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/patologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(41): 11633-11638, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27671627

RESUMO

Although popular discussion of testosterone's influence on males often centers on aggression and antisocial behavior, contemporary theorists have proposed that it instead enhances behaviors involved in obtaining and maintaining a high social status. Two central distinguishing but untested predictions of this theory are that testosterone selectively increases status-relevant aggressive behaviors, such as responses to provocation, but that it also promotes nonaggressive behaviors, such as generosity toward others, when they are appropriate for increasing status. Here, we tested these hypotheses in healthy young males by injecting testosterone enanthate or a placebo in a double-blind, between-subjects, randomized design (n = 40). Participants played a version of the Ultimatum Game that was modified so that, having accepted or rejected an offer from the proposer, participants then had the opportunity to punish or reward the proposer at a proportionate cost to themselves. We found that participants treated with testosterone were more likely to punish the proposer and that higher testosterone levels were specifically associated with increased punishment of proposers who made unfair offers, indicating that testosterone indeed potentiates aggressive responses to provocation. Furthermore, when participants administered testosterone received large offers, they were more likely to reward the proposer and also chose rewards of greater magnitude. This increased generosity in the absence of provocation indicates that testosterone can also cause prosocial behaviors that are appropriate for increasing status. These findings are inconsistent with a simple relationship between testosterone and aggression and provide causal evidence for a more complex role for testosterone in driving status-enhancing behaviors in males.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Comportamento Social , Testosterona/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/sangue , Comportamento de Escolha , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Masculino , Punição , Tempo de Reação , Análise de Regressão , Recompensa , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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