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1.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(5): 497-502, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the recent literature on contemporary psychological perspectives of personality disorders, including novel psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at these vulnerable individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Among the various psychological theories and models of personality disorders, still the most popular and researched are psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives. More specifically, object relations theory, cognitive schema conceptualization and interpersonal circumplex model have produced the most empirical investigations of personality disorders in recent years. Latest work has suggested that all three perspectives have contributed to and are compatible with the dimensional personality disorders framework in DSM-5-AMPD and ICD-11 (including level of personality functioning and personality traits). These models have yielded specific psychological treatments of personality disorders; although most psychotherapies have been constructed for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), there is an increasing number of treatment modalities aimed at individuals with other forms of personality disorder, such as those with narcissistic or antisocial traits/disorders. More research into their effectiveness and long-term benefits is necessary. SUMMARY: Novel research keeps updating our knowledge on the cause, manifestations and psychological treatments of personality disorders, particularly from psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4440, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290236

RESUMO

Reinforcement learning is a fundamental mechanism displayed by many species. However, adaptive behaviour depends not only on learning about actions and outcomes that affect ourselves, but also those that affect others. Using computational reinforcement learning models, we tested whether young (age 18-36) and older (age 60-80, total n = 152) adults learn to gain rewards for themselves, another person (prosocial), or neither individual (control). Detailed model comparison showed that a model with separate learning rates for each recipient best explained behaviour. Young adults learned faster when their actions benefitted themselves, compared to others. Compared to young adults, older adults showed reduced self-relevant learning rates but preserved prosocial learning. Moreover, levels of subclinical self-reported psychopathic traits (including lack of concern for others) were lower in older adults and the core affective-interpersonal component of this measure negatively correlated with prosocial learning. These findings suggest learning to benefit others is preserved across the lifespan with implications for reinforcement learning and theories of healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(2): 231-235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relational aggression stresses on the application of one's link to interfere the someone else relationships. Narcissism is manifest by heavenliness, a feeling of being advantaged, and a nonappearance of compassion while psychopathy is a personality issue that is about reduced regret, debilitated sympathy, and critical reserved behaviours. Present study was designed to assess the predictive relationship of narcissism and psychopathy with relational aggression among adolescents moderated by age. METHODS: Cross-sectional correlational research design was implied. Study was conducted at department of Psychology University of Gujrat from August 10th 2017 to 5th January 2018. 612 students from diverse academic institute of Gujrat, with age range 12-19 year were selected. Urdu version of dark triad personality scale short version was used to assess narcissism and psychopathy while diverse adolescent relational aggression scale, Urdu version was used to gauge relational aggression. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis was carried out to find out the combined effect of narcissism and psychopathy on relational aggression among adolescent students. Findings revealed significant predictive relation among the variables (p<0.01). Result further indicated that one unit in narcissism will increase the relational aggression by .333 unit (ß=.333) while on unit increase in psychopathy will increase the relational aggression by .374 unit (ß=.374). Furthermore, results support the moderating effect of age in the relation among narcissism, psychopathy and relational aggression (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Narcissism and psychopathy have predictive relationship with relational aggression moreover age play moderating role in afore said association.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Narcisismo , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Neuropsychology ; 35(4): 374-387, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antisocial behavior (aggression, rule breaking) is associated with lower intelligence and executive function deficits. Research has not clarified whether these associations differ with the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, particularly within levels of antisocial behavior observed in the community. METHOD: We examined whether antisocial behavior and CU traits were differentially associated with intelligence and executive function metrics in 474 adolescent twins (Mean age = 14.18; SD = 2.20) sampled from birth records to represent youth in the community living in neighborhoods with above average levels of poverty. Intelligence was assessed using standardized scores from the Shipley-2. Executive function was assessed using Go/No-Go and Stop Signal tasks. RESULTS: Neither antisocial behavior, nor CU traits alone, were associated with cognitive functioning when accounting for demographic factors. However, antisocial behavior and CU traits interacted to predict reaction time variability. At low levels of CU traits, antisocial behavior was associated with higher reaction time variability (traditionally thought to reflect worse sustained attention). At high levels of CU traits, antisocial behavior was associated with lower reaction time variability (thought to reflect better sustained attention). CONCLUSION: Elevated antisocial behavior and CU traits may be characterized by a distinct neurocognitive profile compared to elevated antisocial behavior in isolation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Cognição , Emoções , Adolescente , Atenção , Criança , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pobreza , Tempo de Reação
5.
Psychol Assess ; 33(9): 890-903, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939454

RESUMO

Because the construct of psychopathy is of chief interest across different disciplines, spanning developmental, clinical, and forensic psychology, its assessment bears far-reaching implications. One prominent contemporary conceptualization of psychopathy, the Triarchic Model, posits that a psychopathic personality encompasses three phenotypic constructs: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Recently, triarchic scales have been derived based on items from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and the psychometric characteristics of this approach (MPQ-triarchic [MPQ-Tri]) are promising. The present study examined the longitudinal measurement invariance and the construct validity of the MPQ-Tri scales in a large and diverse high-risk sample (N = 716) across four time points from age 16-25. First, we report and discuss implications of confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the MPQ-Tri scales. Next, we report evidence for longitudinal configural and partial scalar invariance. In addition, in line with previous studies, MPQ-Boldness showed relatively higher levels of rank-order and mean-level stability compared to MPQ-Meanness and Disinhibition. Finally, in terms of construct validity, the MPQ-Tri scales showed a pattern of association with external correlates across internalizing and externalizing domains that were largely in line with theoretical expectations. One partial exception concerned the limited discriminant validity of the MPQ-Meanness and Disinhibition scales. On balance, the present findings suggest that the MPQ-Tri scales fulfill their intended purpose, with some noted limitation, and provide grounds for the use of the MPQ-Tri scales in developmentally-informed studies on the etiology and consequences of psychopathy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0235946, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014933

RESUMO

Primates form strong social bonds and depend on social relationships and networks that provide shared resources and protection critical for survival. Social deficits such as those present in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other psychiatric disorders hinder the individual's functioning in communities. Given that early diagnosis and intervention can improve outcomes and trajectories of ASD, there is a great need for tools to identify early markers for screening/diagnosis, and for translational animal models to uncover biological mechanisms and develop treatments. One of the most widely used screening tools for ASD in children is the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a quantitative measure used to identify individuals with atypical social behaviors. The SRS has been adapted for use in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)-a species very close to humans in terms of social behavior, brain anatomy/connectivity and development-but has not yet been validated or adapted for a necessary downward extension to younger ages matching those for ASD diagnosis in children. The goal of the present study was to adapt and validate the adult macaque SRS (mSRS) in juvenile macaques with age equivalent to mid-childhood in humans. Expert primate coders modified the mSRS to adapt it to rate atypical social behaviors in juvenile macaques living in complex social groups at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Construct and face validity of this juvenile mSRS (jmSRS) was determined based on well-established and operationalized measures of social and non-social behaviors in this species using traditional behavioral observations. We found that the jmSRS identifies variability in social responsiveness of juvenile rhesus monkeys and shows strong construct/predictive validity, as well as sensitivity to detect atypical social behaviors in young male and female macaques across social status. Thus, the jmSRS provides a promising tool for translational research on macaque models of children social disorders.


Assuntos
Escala de Avaliação Comportamental/normas , Comportamento Animal , Macaca mulatta/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 623-631, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851414

RESUMO

The effects of framing on risky decision-making have been studied extensively in research using Kahneman and Tversky's (1981) hypothetical scenario about a contagious Asian disease. The COVID-19 pandemic offers a unique opportunity to test how message framing affects risky decision-making when millions of real lives are at stake worldwide. In a sample of US adults (N = 294), we investigated the effects of message framing and personality (Dark Triad traits) in relation to risky decision-making during the COVID-19 crisis. We found that both gain- and loss-framing influenced risk choice in response to COVID-19. People were more risk-averse in the loss condition of the current study compared to the benchmark established by Tversky and Kahneman (1981). Among the Dark Triad traits, psychopathy emerged as the significant predictor of risk taking, suggesting that people who score high in psychopathy are more likely to gamble with other people's lives during the COVID-19 crisis. We suggest that both voters and pandemic-related public awareness campaigns should consider the possibility that decision-makers with psychopathic tendencies may take greater risks with other people's lives during a pandemic. In addition, the framing of public-health messages should be tailored to increase the chances of compliance with government restrictions.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(5): 406-420, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder reputed for resistance to correctional and forensic mental health treatment and synonymous with being high risk for different recidivism outcomes; it is not readily associated with an abundance of positive qualities or protective factors. Research has yet to examine the presence of protective factors as a function of psychopathy in correctional samples and the risk-relevance of protective factors for high-psychopathy men. METHOD: The present study examined the association of psychopathy and protective factors to recidivism in a Canadian sample of 461 men who attended sexual-offense-specific treatment and followed up nearly 10-year postrelease. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, The Hare psychopathy-checklist-revised, 1991; Hare, Manual for the revised psychopathy checklist, 2003) and the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF; de Vogel et al., The International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 2011, 10, 171) were rated from institutional files and recidivism data were obtained from official criminal records. RESULTS: PCL-R scores were inversely related to SAPROF scores; however, even men scoring high on the PCL-R made significant pre-post changes on protective factors. PCL-R and SAPROF scores predicted sexual, violent, and general recidivism; treatment-related changes in protective factors, controlling for PCL-R score, were significantly associated with decreased violent recidivism. CONCLUSIONS: Protective factors can and do change with purposive change agents (e.g., correctional treatment), even among individuals with substantial psychopathic traits. The role and risk relevance of protective factors in sexual violence risk assessment and management with high psychopathy clientele are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Canadá , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Reincidência , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249815, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857197

RESUMO

Truth-Default Theory (TDT) predicts that across countries and cultures, a few people tell most of the lies, while a majority of people lie less frequently than average. This prediction, referred to as "a few prolific liars," is tested in Japan. The study further investigated the extent to which the Dark Triad personality traits predict the frequency of lying. University students (N = 305) reported how many times they lied in the past 24 hours and answered personality questions. Results indicate that the few prolific liars pattern is evident in Japan thereby advancing TDT. Results also show that Japanese frequent liars tend to have Dark Triad personality traits, but the nature of the findings may be unique to Japan. Results of the generalized linear model suggest that the Dark Triad components of Machiavellianism and psychopathy exacerbate lying behavior by reducing the guilt associated with lying. However, narcissism encourages guilt and therefore inhibits lying behavior with both direct and indirect effects. These narcissism findings appear to contradict prior studies but stem from use of a more appropriate statistical analysis or the Japanese context.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Maquiavelismo , Modelos Psicológicos , Narcisismo , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(4): 237-239, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764950

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Self-mutilation is a behavior often associated with various psychiatric diseases, and it has various risk factors. Self-cannibalism, an extremely rare form of self-mutilation, can also be observed in the absence of psychosis and substance abuse. This study reports a case of self-cannibalism with multiple risk factors including history of substance use, previous self-mutilation actions, suicidal attempts, antisocial personality disorder, imprisonment, and active symptoms associated with untreated schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Canibalismo/psicologia , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Prisioneiros , Esquizofrenia , Automutilação/psicologia , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
11.
J Psychol ; 155(3): 309-333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656964

RESUMO

Existing trait-based and cognitive models of psychopathy and narcissism fail to provide a comprehensive framework that explains the continuum between sub-clinical and clinical presentations of those personalities and to predict associated maladaptive behavior in different social and cultural contexts. In this article, a socio-cognitive information-processing framework for narcissism and psychopathy (SCIPNP) is proposed to explain how psychopathic and narcissistic schemata influence the activation of psychological processes that interact with social and cultural contexts to display those personalities at a sub-clinical level. The proposed framework enables us to predict maladaptive behavior and to explain how sub-clinical narcissists and psychopaths develop personality disorders. The SCIPNP emphasizes the role of culture in shaping motives, appraisals, behavior and affect. Recommendations for future research are provided.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Cognição , Narcisismo , Comportamento Social , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos
12.
Aval. psicol ; 20(1): 111-121, jan.-mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1249050

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar diferenças no perfil criminal de autores de violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes (AVS) considerados psicopatas e não psicopatas. Participaram 30 reeducandos cumprindo pena em regime fechado, que foram divididos em dois grupos: G1, composto pelos AVS considerados psicopatas (PCL-R ≥ 30); e G2, composto pelos AVS considerados não psicopatas (PCL-R < 30). Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizado o Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R), e as análises foram feitas por meio de estatísticas descritiva e comparativa. Os resultados apontaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao tempo de pena, à quantidade de fuga e rebelião, assim como o número de processos e de vítimas, mostrando que os AVS psicopatas são mais indisciplinados e têm mais chances de reincidir criminalmente do que os não psicopatas, e que, comumente, costumam vitimizar mais pessoas e cometer uma maior variedade de crimes do que os não psicopatas. (AU)


The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in the profiles of sex offenders considered psychopaths and non-psychopaths that committed crimes against children and adolescents. The subjects of this study were 30 re-educated criminals serving a prison sentence, organized into two groups: G1, consisting of sex offenders considered psychopaths (PCL-R ≥ 30); and G2, consisting of non-psychopaths (PCL-R <30). The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) was used to collect data, and the analyses were performed using descriptive and comparative statistics. The results presented significant differences between the two groups in terms of the amount of time spent in incarceration, the quantity of prison breaks and rebellions, and the number of cases and victims. This shows that psychopathic sex offenders are more undisciplined and more recidivists than non-psychopaths, and that they often victimize more people and commit a greater variety of crimes than non-psychopaths. (AU)


El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar diferencias en el perfil criminal de los autores de violencia sexual contra niños y adolescentes (AVS) considerados psicópatas y no psicópatas. Participaron 30 reclusos con sentencia de régimen cerrado, organizados en dos equipos. G1, compuesto por los AVS considerados psicópatas (PCL-R ≥ 30); y G2, formado por los AVS, considerados no psicópatas (PCL-R < 30). Para la recopilación de datos, se utilizó el Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), y los análisis se realizaron utilizando estadísticas descriptivas y comparativas. Los resultados señalaron distinciones significativas entre los grupos con relación al tiempo de condena, la cantidad de fugas y rebeliones; así como el número de demandas y de víctimas; demostrando que los AVS psicópatas son más indisciplinados y tienen más probabilidades de reincidir al crimen, además de victimizar a más personas y cometer a una mayor variedad de delitos que los no psicópatas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Estatística , Reincidência/psicologia
13.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617586

RESUMO

The present research built on the Self-Reported Delinquency interview and the Antisocial Behavior Scale to develop an updated brief instrument to measure antisocial behavior. College students (n = 3188, 67.75% women) from the USA, Argentina, the Netherlands and Spain completed an online survey. Analyses that combined approaches from the Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory were conducted to select the items for the brief version. Findings suggested that a 13-item Brief Antisocial Behavior Scale (B-ABS) fulfilled the high-quality criteria: salient factor loadings, adequate discrimination, variability in response endorsement, adequate fit based on infit/outfit values, nondifferent item functioning across the four participating countries, and Cronbach's alpha and ordinal omega coefficients higher than .70. The B-ABS scores generally significantly correlated with personality scores, mental health and marijuana outcomes, showing criterion-related validity evidence. Our overall findings suggest that B-ABS adequately assesses antisocial behavior in young adults from different countries/cultures.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Saúde Mental , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Argentina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(2): 330-337, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417106

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Smoking during pregnancy may be linked to other problematic prenatal health behaviors in women. We examined interrelationships among prenatal smoking, prenatal health behaviors and mental health. The objective of this study was to examine factors that may contribute to variations in prenatal health practices among women who smoke during pregnancy. METHODS: Birth mothers from an adoption study (N = 912) were interviewed about prenatal smoking, health behaviors, and mental health symptoms at 5 months postpartum. RESULTS: One-quarter of participants (N = 222) reported smoking 6 or more cigarettes daily for at least 1 trimester. For mothers who smoked more than 6 cigarettes daily, higher levels of antisocial behaviors (ß = - .14, p = .03) and depressive symptoms (ß = - .17, p = .03) were associated with less frequent prenatal folate use; antisocial behaviors and depressive symptoms were not associated for prenatal folate use among women who did not smoke more than 6 cigarettes daily. For mothers who did not smoke more than 6 cigarettes daily, more depressive symptoms were associated with fewer prenatal care visits (ß = .12, p = .01). Antisocial behaviors and anxiety symptoms were not associated with prenatal care visits in either group of mothers. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Maternal antisocial behaviors and depressive symptoms during pregnancy may be markers for poorer adherence to recommendations for folate supplementation among women who smoke 6 or more cigarettes daily during pregnancy, independent of adequacy of prenatal care.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Adesão à Medicação , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0242830, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411746

RESUMO

Although investigation of the brains of criminals began quite early in the history of psychophysiological research, little is known about brain plasticity of offenders with psychopathy. Building on our preliminary study reporting successful brain self-regulation using slow cortical potential (SCP) neurofeedback in offenders with psychopathy, we investigated the central nervous and autonomic peripheral changes occurring after brain self-regulation in a group of severe male offenders with psychopathy. Regarding the central nervous system, an overall suppression of the psychopathic overrepresentation of slow frequency bands was found, such as delta and theta band activity, after EEG neurofeedback. In addition, an increase in alpha band activity could be observed after the SCP self-regulation training. Electrodermal activity adaptively changed according to the regulation task, and this flexibility improved over training time. The results of this study point towards a constructive learning process and plasticity in neural and peripheral measures of offenders with psychopathy.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criminosos/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Autocontrole , Potenciais de Ação , Adulto , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neurorretroalimentação , Projetos Piloto , Descanso , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
16.
J Pers Assess ; 103(3): 289-299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633556

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to provide further validation of the short form of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA-SF), which was developed on the basis of a general personality model, the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality. This study evaluated the internal structure of the EPA-SF trait scales, and examined the EPA-SF scales against two other psychopathy measures, the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) and the Expanded Leveson Self-Report Psychopathy Scales (E-LSRP), as well as a general FFM measure, in a sample of 924 university students. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling generally supported internal structure for EPA-SF scales, in that the 18 EPA-SF traits generally loaded onto their four respective domain scales: Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Inhibition and Narcissism. Tucker's congruence coefficients (.95-.99) indicated excellent replicability of the original structure. The EPA-SF total and domain scale scores also showed moderate to large correlations with TriPM, E-LSRP and FFM domain scales in a manner mostly consistent with conceptual expectations. Finally, EPA-SF trait scales were also mostly associated with their corresponding FFM trait scale counterparts. Overall, the EPA-SF scale scores showed evidence for good convergent and discriminant validity.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Narcisismo , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pers Assess ; 103(4): 509-522, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633560

RESUMO

Numerous scholars have criticized the traditional assessment of Machiavellianism due to insufficient construct coverage, some going so far as to question its distinctness from psychopathy. Tackling these issues, Collison, Vize, Miller, and Lynam developed the Five Factor Machiavellianism Inventory (FFMI), comprising antagonism, agency, and planfulness. We aimed to replicate the MACH-IV psychopathy relations, demonstrate the validity of the FFMI by assessing its relations with the NEO-PI-R and the HEXACO facets, and link the FFMI to a broad range of work-related criteria. We replicated the MACH-IV psychopathy relations and found a very high (rICCS = .91) absolute profile similarity between the FFMI's correlations with the NEO-PI-R in our sample (N = 572) and the correlation profile for the same variables reported by Collison and colleagues. Both the NEO-PI-R and HEXACO-PI-R profiles for the FFMI found in the current study supported its distinctiveness from traditional measures of Machiavellianism, which converged greatly with the correlation profiles for the FFMI-antagonism dimension. A cluster analysis also showed a substantial proportion of Five Factor Machiavellian individuals. In addition, the FFMI displayed positive relations with a broad range of criteria for vocational and work-related success and was clearly distinct from psychopathy.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Desejabilidade Social
18.
J Pers Assess ; 103(2): 258-266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130029

RESUMO

Research suggests that men and women differ on mean levels of Dark Triad personality constructs such as Machiavellianism, but few studies have investigated whether or not these differences are due to actual latent trait differences or bias in measurement. Further, recent research suggests important challenges associated with existing measures of MACH in terms of overlap with psychopathy and matching expert descriptions. The present study took a recently developed measure of Machiavellianism (the Five Factor Machiavellianism Inventory; FFMI), based on the five-factor model, and examined its invariance across gender. Strong (or scalar) factorial invariance was established, indicating that latent factor means can be compared between men and women using this measure. Mean-level differences showed that men had higher levels of latent factors related to antagonism and social dominance. In terms of total score, men reported significantly higher mean levels of Machiavellianism. The findings of the present study lend support to the notion that mean level differences in Machiavellianism across gender are not artifacts of measurement bias.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Maquiavelismo , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Personalidade , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Distribuição por Sexo
19.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 30(2): 303-312, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222821

RESUMO

While some RCTs have observed efficacy for omega-3 supplementation in reducing antisocial behavior, the role of psychopathic personality and gender in moderating treatment outcome has not been examined. This study examines whether omega-3 supplementation reduces antisocial behavior, and whether any treatment effects are a function of gender and psychopathy. Three hundred and twenty-four schoolchildren with a mean age of 11.9 years were randomized into 3 groups: omega-3 (N = 108), placebo (N = 110), and no-treatment controls (N = 106). Parent and child reports of child antisocial and aggressive behavior and psychopathic-like personality were collected at 0 months (baseline), 6 months (end of treatment), and 12 months (6 months post-treatment). A group × time × gender interaction (p = .016) indicated that only females in the omega-3 group showed a significant reduction in antisocial behavior 6 months post-treatment compared to baseline (d = .35), whereas the females in the two control groups showed no change over time. A group x time x psychopathy interaction (p < .006) was also observed, with psychopathic personality levels moderating treatment outcome. Children in the omega-3 group with high (but not low) psychopathic-like personality showed significant improvements in child-reported antisocial behavior at the end of treatment (d = .19) Results suggest that omega-3 supplementation may be helpful in reducing childhood antisocial and aggressive behavior in females, and those with psychopathic-like personalities.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Pers Assess ; 103(3): 312-323, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496826

RESUMO

The factorial structure of the Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) is currently under dispute. The present study aims to test the factorial structure of a Greek adaptation of the ICU by considering item keying variance and examining alternative theoretical and empirically derived models. Additionally, it aims to investigate the nomological network of the ICU subscales, after controlling for item keying variance. The sample consisted of 1536 Greek-Cypriot adolescents, who completed a battery of questionnaires, including the ICU. Results showed that the consideration of item keying variance improved the overall fit of all the examined models and led to significant changes in the predictive validity of the subscales, while method factors presented distinct patterns of associations with external variables. Overall, results suggest that ICU is contaminated by item keying variance, which can be filtered out to provide clinically useful insight into the factorial structure of the ICU.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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