Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 709
Filtrar
1.
Alcohol Res ; 40(1)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886107

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders, including personality disorders, which are pervasive, persistent, and impairing. Personality disorders are associated with myriad serious outcomes, have a high degree of co-occurrence with substance use disorders, including AUD, and incur significant health care costs. This literature review focuses on co-occurring AUD and personality disorders characterized by impulsivity and affective dysregulation, specifically antisocial personality disorders and borderline personality disorders. Prevalence rates, potential explanations and causal models of co-occurrence, prognoses, and the status of existing treatment research are summarized. Several important future research considerations are relevant to these complex, co-occurring conditions. Research assessing mechanisms responsible for co-occurring AUD and antisocial personality disorder or borderline personality disorder will further delineate the underlying developmental processes and improve understanding of onset and courses. In addition, increased focus on the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments targeting underlying traits or common factors in these disorders will inform future prevention and treatment efforts, as interventions targeting these co-occurring conditions have relatively little empirical support.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
2.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 87(11): 634-637, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756742

RESUMO

Aggressive behaviour is a typical phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Aggression is one of the frequent reasons for parents to seek child and adolescent psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatment. Disorders with increased aggressive behaviour, such as conduct or oppositional defiant disorder, carry an increased risk for long-lasting negative impact on well-being, especially when comorbid with substance abuse or affective symptoms. Barriers for treatment are frequently a lack of insight into consequences and non-compliance with intervention shown by adolescents. In addition, interdisciplinary intervention needs to combine psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions as well as complex interventions supported by the youth welfare system, and in particular including families. Further research is needed for the implementation of evidence-based treatments in routine care as well in special populations, such as girls with conduct disorders or youth with substance abuse.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/complicações , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 29(3): 243-272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656233

RESUMO

The psychiatric diagnosis of psychopathic personality-or psychopathy-signifies a patient stereotype with a callous lack of empathy and strong antisocial tendencies. Throughout the research record and psychiatric practices, diagnosed psychopaths have been predominantly seen as immune to psychiatric intervention and treatment, making the diagnosis a potentially strong discriminator for treatment amenability. In this contribution, the evidence in support of this proposition is critically analyzed. It is demonstrated that the untreatability perspective rests largely on erroneous, unscientific conclusions. Instead, recent research suggests that practitioners should be more optimistic about the possibility of treating and rehabilitating diagnosed psychopaths. In light of this finding, concrete ethical challenges in the forensic practice surrounding the psychopathy diagnosis are discussed, adding to a growing body of research that expresses skepticism about the forensic utility of the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Psiquiatria/ética , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Futilidade Médica , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 56(2): 297-308, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144853

RESUMO

The aim of this single-case study was to investigate the responses to psychodynamic art psychotherapy from a man who had a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and ongoing aggressive behavior in a secure care setting. The intervention was 19 sessions of psychodynamic art psychotherapy lasting up to 1 hr per week. This study uses a single-case design with pretreatment, treatment, and posttreatment follow-up assessment of symptoms using multiple methods reported by the therapist, other staff members, and the patient. Treatment progress was assessed by (a) repeated self-report symptom measurements, (b) continuous assessment of observed aggressive behavior and risk incident reports in the hospital, (c) pre-post treatment assessment of relationship patterns and interpersonal schemas, and (d) interviews with the patient and his nurse at 9-month follow-up, retrospectively assessing the change. The patient showed a clinically significant reduction pre-post and pre-follow-up in symptoms. Behavioral observations indicated a reduction of overt aggression and risk-related incidents. Comparison of the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme pre-post treatment indicated positive changes in interpersonal schemas. This illustrative systematic single-case study highlights the potential for investigation of a novel psychotherapeutic approach that has in turn led to further developments in clinical research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Terapia pela Arte/métodos , Psicologia Forense/métodos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Behav Ther ; 50(1): 1-14, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661550

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits moderated the effects of intensive behavior therapy in elementary school-age children with varying levels of conduct problems (CP). Both treatment response (magnitude of change between pre- and posttreatment) and treatment outcomes (likelihood of normalization from treatment) were examined. Participants were 67 children (n = 49 boys, Mage = 9.6 years) with varying levels of CP and CU who participated in an intensive 8-week summer treatment program (STP) in which behavior therapy was delivered to children in recreational and classroom settings and to parents via weekly parent training sessions. Effects of treatment were measured using parent and teacher ratings of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), callous behavior, and impairment. Results showed that CU moderated treatment effects for CD and callous behavior but not ODD or impairment. The moderating effects showed some evidence that participants with high CP and high CU before treatment had better treatment responses (larger change between pre- and posttreatment) but worse treatment outcomes (lower likelihood of normalization after treatment). These results suggest that intensive treatment, such as the STP, may be necessary but not sufficient for children with CP and CU traits.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Law Hum Behav ; 42(5): 484-495, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272468

RESUMO

Theory and accumulating data suggest systematic heterogeneity among offenders with psychopathic traits. Several empirical investigations converge on the nature of subtypes, but little is known about differences in treatment responsivity. We have used the 4-facet model of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) to provide a framework for detecting subtypes. The present study used the full range of PCL-R scores in a sample of male violent offenders (N = 190) to replicate subtypes found in a partly overlapping sample by Neumann, Vitacco, and Mokros (2016), using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), and subsequently to examine potential differences in treatment responsivity. Four subtypes emerged. Within the prototypical psychopathic group, the distinction between intent-to-treat and completers was crucial. Prototypical psychopathic offenders were significantly more likely to drop out, but completers appeared to proceed through the different phases of treatment in much the same way as the other groups. Clearly, more research is needed to elucidate treatment interfering mechanisms and their associated patient characteristics, particularly for the prototypical psychopathic group. Developing therapeutic strategies to improve treatment compliance is a necessary step in the development of specialized treatment programs for these difficult patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Prisioneiros , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Reincidência
7.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 58: 72-78, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853015

RESUMO

There is little to no evidence of effective treatment methods for patients with an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). One of the reasons could be the fact that they are often excluded from mental healthcare and thus from studies. A treatment framework based on 'state of the art' methods and best practices, offering guidelines on the treatment of ASP and possibilities for more systematical research, is urgently needed. This research involved a literature search and an international Delphi-study (N = 61 experts in research, management and clinical practice focused on ASPD). The results suggested important preconditions with regard to organization of care, healthcare workers and therapy. Conclusions are that there are many ways to coordinate effective treatment and management and work toward the increased availability of evidence based care for persons with ASPD.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Técnica Delfos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Cuad. psiquiatr. psicoter. niño adolesc ; (65): 95-103, ene.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173919

RESUMO

Se plantean reflexiones acerca del sentimiento de intimidad y su correlato, la tolerancia a la experiencia de soledad, en los y las adolescentes de hoy, que viven bajo uno de los ideales centrales de las sociedades contemporáneas, al menos en el mundo desarrollado, que es el de la exteriorización, tanto de aspectos corporales como del mundo psíquico interno. Desde el nacimiento, apoyándose en lo biológico, en las necesidades y la experiencia de dependencia, el ser humano organiza su psiquismo estableciendo límites entre su mundo interno y la realidad externa. Entre las primeras adquisiciones del bebé, la capacidad de estar solo, será precursora del espacio de intimidad que le acompañara a lo largo de la vida, y será un elemento inevitable y necesario para apoyar las trasformaciones identitarias, tanto corporales como psíquicas, del proceso adolescente. Se abordan, asimismo, aspectos relativos a la experimentación de la intimidad en situaciones de soledad y al pasar a ser compartida, incluyéndose las relaciones terapéuticas con su especificidad durante el periodo de la adolescencia


Reflections are made about the feeling of intimacy and its correlate, the tolerance to the experience of loneliness, in the adolescents of today, who live under one of the central ideals of contemporary societies, at least in the developed world, which is the one of the exteriorization, as much of corporal aspects as of the internal psychic countries. From birth, relying on the biological, in the needs and experience of dependence, the human being organizes his psyche establishing limits between his inner world and external reality. Among the baby's first acquisitions, the ability to be alone will be the precursor of the space of intimacy that will accompany him throughout his life, and will be an inevitable and necessary element to support the identity transformations, both corporal and psychic, of the adolescent process. Aspects related to the experience of intimacy in situations of loneliness and the experience of sharing it are also addressed, including the therapeutic relationships with their specificity during adolescence


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Privacidade/psicologia , Permissividade , Carência Psicossocial , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Espaço Pessoal , Relações Interpessoais , Codependência Psicológica , Individualidade , Psicoterapia/métodos
10.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 20(5): 32, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623453

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although there is an increasing body of literature on the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and aggressive/antisocial behavior, evidence to date suggests that there are mixed findings on the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation as a dietary intervention to reduce such behaviors. This article describes the current state of the research regarding omega-3 supplementation and aggressive/antisocial behavior from intervention studies, with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials. RECENT FINDINGS: The current evidence base indicates a small effect size (approximately d = .20) for the efficacy of increased omega-3 intake in reducing aggressive and antisocial behavior in children and adults. How precisely omega-3 supplementation results in such behavioral improvement is an open question, although upregulation of dysfunctional prefrontal regions is one candidate mediator. Directions for further research include understanding the more basic mechanisms that may underlie any intervention effects, delineating dose-response relationships, ascertaining optimal treatment duration and composition, conducting follow-ups post-treatment, and testing the provisional hypothesis that more impulsive, reactive forms of aggression may be particularly amenable to omega-3 supplementation.


Assuntos
Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Dietoterapia/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Compr Psychiatry ; 84: 15-21, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is highly prevalent among incarcerated populations; however, research has yet to examine whether prisoners diagnosed with BPD experience greater interpersonal dysfunction and institutional misconduct while incarcerated. PROCEDURE: This study drew from a sample of 184 male and female prisoners diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a randomized trial of depression treatment. The presence of a BPD diagnosis (n = 69) was analyzed as a predictor of disciplinary incidents/infractions (i.e., fights, arguments with staff, disciplinary infractions, isolation), time spent in isolation, and types of aggression and victimization experiences during incarceration. RESULTS: There was a trend suggesting prisoners with BPD were about twice as likely as those without BPD to report disciplinary incidents/infractions (OR = 1.76 [0.93, 3.32], p = 0.075). Having a BPD diagnosis was unrelated to time in isolation and overall aggression and victimization. However, prisoners with BPD were more likely than those without BPD to perpetrate and be victimized by psychological aggression. Due to high rates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in the sample as a whole (72%), additional analyses compared outcomes across prisoners with no BPD or ASPD diagnosis, BPD diagnosis only, ASPD diagnosis only, and comorbid BPD and ASPD. Prisoners with comorbid BPD and ASPD were no more likely than prisoners with ASPD only to report disciplinary incidents/infractions, but were significantly more likely than those with ASPD only to report perpetrating and being victimized by psychological aggression. CONCLUSIONS: Among prisoners with MDD, those with a BPD diagnosis have increased risk of psychological aggression and disciplinary infractions during incarceration.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Bullying/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia/tendências , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. psicopatol. salud ment. niño adolesc ; (31): 53-66, abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180732

RESUMO

El objeto del estudio es evaluar la intervención en un Centro de Justicia Juvenil mediante el contraste del estado clínico en 18 episodios de ingreso realizados por 16 adolescentes. La intervención se basa en la Psicoterapia de Vinculación Emocional Validante. Es un enfoque integrador de tiempo limitado centrado en generar conciencia de problema, adherencia al tratamiento, remisión de la sintomatología aguda y experiencias emocionales correctoras con el objetivo, en última instancia, de poder beneficiarse de un tratamiento en la comunidad. Los resultados muestran un perfil diferencial del grupo de menores infractores. Asimismo se constata un cambio estadísticamente significativo en este grupo tras la intervención. Finalmente, se discuten aspectos relevantes de la evaluación y medidas terapéuticas a aplicar en esta población


The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in a Juvenile Justice Center contrasting the clinical status of 18 hospitalizations in 16 teenagers. The intervention is based on the Validative Emotional Bonding Psychotherapy. It is a limited time integrative-approach to make patients become aware of the problem, of the treatment adherence, of the remission of severe symptoms and the corrective emotional experiences in order to take advantage from the treatment in the community. The results show a differential profile of the group of juvenile offenders and a statistically significant change after the treatment. Finally, we discuss about the important aspects of the assessment and the therapeutic measures applied in this population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Sistema de Justiça , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida
14.
Health Soc Care Community ; 26(3): e431-e441, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349844

RESUMO

Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus is on behaviours that could be interpreted as anti-social. This study explores perceptions about joint working between mental health, social care and police services with regard to anti-social behaviour. We conducted a multi-method sequential qualitative study in the UK collecting data between April 2014 and August 2016. Data were collected from two study sites: 60 narrative police logs of routinely gathered information, and semi-structured interviews and focus groups with professionals from a range of statutory and third sector organisations (N = 55). Data sets were analysed individually, using thematic iterative coding before integrating the findings. We also looked at sequencing and turning points in the police logs. Findings mapped on a continuum of joint working practices, with examples more likely to be away from the policy ideal of partnership working as being central to mainstream activities. Joint working was driven by legal obligations and concerns about risk rather than a focus on the needs of a person with mental health problems. This was complicated by different perceptions of the police role in mental health. Adding anti-social behaviour to this mix intensified challenges as conceptualisation of the nature of the problem and agreeing on best practice and care is open to interpretations and judgements. Of concern is an evident lack of awareness of these issues. There is a need to reflect on joint working practices, including processes and goals, keeping in mind the health and welfare needs of people with mental health problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Direito Penal/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Polícia/organização & administração , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 91: 259-277, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27760372

RESUMO

Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous construct that can be divided into subtypes, such as antisocial personality and psychopathy. The adverse consequences of antisocial behavior produce great burden for the perpetrators, victims, family members, and for society at-large. The pervasiveness of antisocial behavior highlights the importance of precisely characterizing subtypes of antisocial individuals and identifying specific factors that are etiologically related to such behaviors to inform the development of targeted treatments. The goals of the current review are (1) to briefly summarize research on the operationalization and assessment of antisocial personality and psychopathy; (2) to provide an overview of several existing treatments with the potential to influence antisocial personality and psychopathy; and (3) to present an approach that integrates and uses biological and cognitive measures as starting points to more precisely characterize and treat these individuals. A focus on integrating factors at multiple levels of analysis can uncover person-specific characteristics and highlight potential targets for treatment to alleviate the burden caused by antisocial behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Psicoterapia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Cognição , Humanos , Individualidade
17.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 19(12): 105, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119325

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is evidence showing an increasing prevalence of mental illness in those in conflict with the law. However, there are many factors affecting the detection, treatment, and management of criminals who are mentally ill. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex offenders with major mental illness present many challenges to those providing treatment and management services. For example, it is important to consider whether sexually offensive behavior is the cause of criminal behavior or whether it is reflective of an antisocial orientation. Recent evidence suggests it may help better understand and inform risk assessment and management. This paper will review the literature on mental illness among sexual offenders, present a typology to aid in the assessment, treatment, and management of sexual offender with mental illness, and highlight important considerations when providing treatment to sexual offenders with mental illness.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual
18.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 63(3): 251-266, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This partly waitlist-controlled prospective field study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for children and adolescents with severe externalising symptoms. Externalising symptoms are associated with diagnoses of conduct disorders, hyperkinetic disorders, and disorders of social functioning. METHODS: Participants were 93 children and adolescents in psychoanalytic therapy with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder with externalising symptomatology (intervention group: n = 65; minimal supportive treatment/waitlist control group: n = 28). Data was collected from parents and patients (≥ 11 years) at beginning/end of treatment, 6- and 12-month follow-up. The effects of long-term psychoanalytical treatment were analysed using a longitudinal design. RESULTS: At the end of therapy, externalising symptoms were significantly reduced rated by both parents and patients (parent-rated: d = .69, patient-rated: d = .63). This effect was stable at the 1-year follow-up (parent-rated: d = .77, patient-rated: d = .68). About 70% of the patients may be considered as recovered or improved by the end of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Psychoanalytic therapy may be successful in alleviating psychiatric disorders with externalising symptoms with effects stable at the 1-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Ajustamento Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
An. psicol ; 33(3): 578-588, oct. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165632

RESUMO

This meta-analysis has the aim of measuring the effect of treatment on sex offenders. After a systematic review of the recent literature, seventeen studies were selected, containing a total sample of 6,681 sex offenders. The rates of sexual recidivism (13.12% vs. 17.94%), violent - including sexual- (25.5% vs. 29.1%) and general -any type of recidivism- (46.53% vs. 52.41%) of treated offenders were less than those of the control groups. The effectiveness of the treatment was clear in reducing the rates of sexual (OR= .69; p < .05) and general (OR = .66; p < .05) recidivism of the subjects treated, but not the rates of violent recidivism. This results demonstrated the ability of psychological treatments for reducing the risk of sexual and general recidivism of sex offenders. However, the interpretation of such results requires caution, given that an independent analysis of the studies of a good methodological quality did not show significant effects of treatment. The need for new and better comparison studies to assess treatment effect is clear, especially in Europe (AU)


Este meta-análisis tiene por objetivo medir el efecto del tratamiento en delincuentes sexuales. Tras una revisión sistemática de la literatura reciente, fueron seleccionados diecisiete estudios, contando con una muestra total de 6,681 delincuentes sexuales. Las tasas de reincidencia sexual (13.12% vs. 17.94%), violenta -incluyendo la sexual- (25.5% vs. 29.1%) y general -cualquier tipo de reincidencia- (46.53% vs. 52.41%) de los delincuentes tratados fueron inferiores a las de los grupos control. Se evidenció la eficacia del tratamiento en la reducción de las tasas de reincidencia sexual (OR = .69; p< .05) y general (OR = .66; p < .05) de los sujetos tratados, pero no en las tasas de reincidencia violenta. Estos resultados confirman la capacidad de los tratamientos psicológicos para reducir el riesgo de reincidencia sexual y general de los delincuentes sexuales. No obstante, la interpretación de tales resultados requiere cautela, pues el análisis independiente de los estudios con buena calidad metodológica no mostró efectos significativos del tratamiento. La necesidad de nuevos y mejores estudios resulta evidente, especialmente en Europa (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Criminosos/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Recidiva , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia
20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 43(1): 84, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931400

RESUMO

Conduct Disorder (CD) is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate social norms or rules are violated. Callous Unemotional (CU) traits are a meaningful specifier in subtyping CD for more severe antisocial and aggressive behaviours in adult psychopathology; they represent the affective dimension of adult psychopathy, but they can be also detected in childhood and adolescence. The CU traits include lack of empathy, sense of guilt and shallow emotion, and their characterization in youth can improve our diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic abilities. A strong genetic liability, in interaction with parenting and relevant environmental factors, can lead to elevated levels of CU traits in children. We pointed out that CU traits can be detected in early childhood, may remain stable along the adolescence, but a decrease following intensive and specialized treatment is possible. We here provide a narrative review of the available evidences on CU traits in three main domains: aetiology (encompassing genetic liability and environmental risk factors), presentation (early signs and longitudinal trajectories) and treatments.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narração , Relações Pais-Filho , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA