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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898346

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the impact of reminder-focused positive psychiatry (RFPP) on attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, vascular-function, inflammation and well-being of adolescents with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Methods: After obtaining informed-consent, 11 adolescents were randomized to RFPP (n = 5) or trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) (n = 6). Eight participants (RFPP: n = 4, TF-CBT: n = 4) completed the twice-weekly intervention for a 6-week trial. The RFPP intervention was inclusive of positive psychiatry interventions on (1) traumatic reminders and (2) avoidance and negative cognition. Vascular function measured as temperature rebound, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, ADHD Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP) Questionnaire, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5-Child/Adolescent Version (CAPS-CA), and neuropsychiatric-measures were measured at baseline and 6 weeks. Subjects were followed for 12 months. The study was conducted from September 2016 to June 2018. Results: A significant improvement in CAPS-CA, SNAP scores, and vascular function of both RFPP and TF-CBT groups was noted at follow-up, but was more-robust in the RFPP group (P < .05). At the sixth week, a significant increase in PERMA, gratitude, resilience, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scores and a significant decrease in homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in the RFPP group, but not the TF-CBT group, were noted (P < .05). At 12-month follow-up, there was no psychiatry hospitalization or suicide ideation reported in either group. A continuation of significant improvement in CAPS-CA and SNAP scores in both groups was noted but was more robust in the RFPP group (P < .05). Similarly, a continuation of significant increase in PERMA, gratitude, resilience and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scores was noted in the RFPP group but not in the TF-CBT group (P < .05). Conclusions: RFPP is associated with improvement in core PTSD and ADHD symptoms, decrease in inflammation, and increase in well-being, vascular function, and posttraumatic growth, as well as a favorable long-term clinical outcome. This finding highlights the importance of the dual role of RFPP in addressing vulnerability symptoms as well as enhancing well-being in youth with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04336072.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Psicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003137, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying causal risk factors for self-harm is essential to inform preventive interventions. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors associated with self-harm, but these associations can be subject to confounding. By implementing genetically informed methods to better account for confounding, this study aimed to better identify plausible causal risk factors for self-harm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using summary statistics from 24 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) comprising 16,067 to 322,154 individuals, polygenic scores (PSs) were generated to index 24 possible individual risk factors for self-harm (i.e., mental health vulnerabilities, substance use, cognitive traits, personality traits, and physical traits) among a subset of UK Biobank participants (N = 125,925, 56.2% female) who completed an online mental health questionnaire in the period from 13 July 2016 to 27 July 2017. In total, 5,520 (4.4%) of these participants reported having self-harmed in their lifetime. In binomial regression models, PSs indexing 6 risk factors (major depressive disorder [MDD], attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcohol dependence disorder, and lifetime cannabis use) predicted self-harm, with effect sizes ranging from odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, q = 0.008) for lifetime cannabis use to OR = 1.20 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, q = 1.33 × 10-35) for MDD. No systematic differences emerged between suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm. To further probe causal relationships, two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses were conducted, with MDD, ADHD, and schizophrenia emerging as the most plausible causal risk factors for self-harm. The genetic liabilities for MDD and schizophrenia were associated with self-harm independently of diagnosis and medication. Main limitations include the lack of representativeness of the UK Biobank sample, that self-harm was self-reported, and the limited power of some of the included GWASs, potentially leading to possible type II error. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to confirming the role of MDD, we demonstrate that ADHD and schizophrenia likely play a role in the aetiology of self-harm using multivariate genetic designs for causal inference. Among the many individual risk factors we simultaneously considered, our findings suggest that systematic detection and treatment of core psychiatric symptoms, including psychotic and impulsivity symptoms, may be beneficial among people at risk for self-harm.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544176

RESUMO

The major symptoms of Tourette syndrome are motor and vocal tics, but Tourette syndrome is occasionally associated with cognitive alterations as well. Although Tourette syndrome does not affect the majority of cognitive functions, some of them improve. There is scarce evidence on the impairment of learning functions in patients with Tourette syndrome. The core symptoms of Tourette syndrome are related to dysfunction of the basal ganglia and the frontostriatal loops. Acquired equivalence learning is a kind of associative learning that is related to the basal ganglia and the hippocampi. The modified Rutgers Acquired Equivalence Test was used in the present study to observe the associative learning function of patients with Tourette syndrome. The cognitive learning task can be divided into two main phases: the acquisition and test phases. The latter is further divided into two parts: retrieval and generalization. The acquisition phase of the associative learning test, which mainly depends on the function of the basal ganglia, was affected in the entire patient group, which included patients with Tourette syndrome with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, or no comorbidities. Patients with Tourette syndrome performed worse in building associations. However, the retrieval and generalization parts of the test phase, which primarily depend on the function of the hippocampus, were not worsened by Tourette syndrome.


Assuntos
Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome de Tourette/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Gânglios da Base/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Síndrome de Tourette/complicações
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469991

RESUMO

Gaming disorder, which is characterized by multiple cognitive and behavioral symptoms, often has comorbid psychiatric conditions such as depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurobiological effects of the comorbid disorders so far reported are not converging, exhibiting positive and negative alterations of the connectivity in brain networks. In this study, we conducted resting-state functional magnetic-resonance imaging and whole brain functional connectivity analyses for young participants consisting of 40 patients diagnosed with the gaming disorder, with and without comorbid conditions, and 29 healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, the gaming disorder-alone patients had partially diminished connectivities in the reward system and executive control network, within which there existed central nodes that served as a hub of diminished connections. In the gaming disorder patients who had comorbidity of autism spectrum disorder, the diminished connections were enlarged, with alteration of the hub nodes, to the entire brain areas involved in the reward system including cortical, subcortical and limbic areas that are crucial for reward processing, and to the whole cortical areas composing the executive control network. These observations suggest that the neurodevelopmental condition coexisting with the gaming disorder induced substantial impairment of the neural organizations associated with executive/cognitive and emotional functions, which are plausibly causal to the behavioral addiction, by rearranging and diminishing functional connectivities in the network.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Jogo de Azar , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Cognição , Emoções , Função Executiva , Jogo de Azar/complicações , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
5.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101101, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience a variety of challenges in daily life and equine-assisted therapies (EATs) have grown in popularity for children with ADHD. This review aims to examine the effectiveness of EATs on behavioural, psychological and physical symptoms in the treatment of children with ADHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of databases (Cochrane Library, Embase, Emcare, ERIC, MEDLINE, OTseeker, ProQuest, PsycINFO and Scopus) was conducted in February 2019. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a modified McMaster critical appraisal tool. RESULTS: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria and overall, positive trends were identified in behavioural, psychological and physical outcome measures following the participation in an EAT. However, due to methodological constraints, caution is required when interpreting these findings. CONCLUSION: While EAT may offer some positive benefits for children with ADHD, further methodologically robust research is required before definitive recommendations can be made.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Assistida por Cavalos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349379

RESUMO

The association between hyperacusis and developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders has been extensively reported in the literature; however, the specific prevalence of hyperacusis in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has never been investigated. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the presence of hyperacusis in a small sample of children affected by ADHD compared to a control group of healthy children. Thirty normal hearing children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 30 children matched for sex and age were enrolled in the study. All children underwent audiological and multidisciplinary neuropsychiatric evaluation. Hearing was assessed using pure tone audiometry and immittance test; ADHD was diagnosed following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder criteria. Hyperacusis was assessed through the administration of a questionnaire to parents and an interview with children. Hyperacusis was diagnosed in 11 children (36.7%) in the study group and in four children (13.3%) in the control group; this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.03). The preliminary results of this study suggest a higher presence of hyperacusis in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared to control children. More studies on larger samples are necessary to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Hiperacusia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Hiperacusia/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a large amount of medical literature has explored the association between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUDs), less attention has been dedicated to the typologies of SUD and their relationships with ADHD-specific symptomatology and general psychopathology in dual disorder patients. METHODS: We selected 72 patients (aged 18-65) with a concomitant SUD out of 120 adults with ADHD (A-ADHD). Assessment instruments included the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in adults (DIVA 2.0), Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Observer (CAARS-O:S): Short Version, the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Brief Psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the Reactivity Intensity Polarity Stability Questionnaire (RIPoSt-40), the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). A factorial analysis was performed to group our patients by clusters in different typologies of substance use and correlations between SUDs, as made evident by their typological and diagnostic features; in addition, specific ADHD symptoms, severity of general psychopathology and patients' functionality were assessed. RESULTS: Two patterns of substance use were identified: the first (type 1) characterized by stimulants/alcohol and the second (type 2) by the use of cannabinoids (THC). Type 1 users were significantly younger and had more legal problems. The two patterns were similar in terms of ADHD-specific symptomatology and its severity at treatment entry. No differences were found regarding the other scales assessed, except for lower scores at MEQ in type 1 users. CONCLUSIONS: At treatment entry, the presence of different comorbid SUD clusters do not affect ADHD-specific symptomatology or severity.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323954

RESUMO

The review presents current data on the nature of cognitive deficit in children with hyperkinetic disorder, and possible pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. Considering possible neurobiological components of hyperkinetic disorder, attention is given to pathological functional connections underlying specific clinical manifestations of the disease.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Atenção , Criança , Cognição , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Analyze a large sample with detailed clinical data of misophonia subjects in order to determine the psychiatric, somatic and psychological nature of the condition. METHODS: This observational study of 779 subjects with suspected misophonia was conducted from January 2013 to May 2017 at the outpatient-clinic of the Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location AMC, the Netherlands. We examined DSM-IV diagnoses, results of somatic examination (general screening and hearing tests), and 17 psychological questionnaires (e.g., SCL-90-R, WHOQoL). RESULTS: The diagnosis of misophonia was confirmed in 575 of 779 referred subjects (74%). In the sample of misophonia subjects (mean age, 34.17 [SD = 12.22] years; 399 women [69%]), 148 (26%) subjects had comorbid traits of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, 58 (10%) mood disorders, 31 (5%) attention-deficit (hyperactivity) disorder, and 14 (3%) autism spectrum conditions. Two percent reported tinnitus and 1% hyperacusis. In a random subgroup of 109 subjects we performed audiometry, and found unilateral hearing loss in 3 of them (3%). Clinical neurological examination and additional blood test showed no abnormalities. Psychological tests revealed perfectionism (97% CPQ>25) and neuroticism (stanine 7 NEO-PI-R). Quality of life was heavily impaired and associated with misophonia severity (rs (184) = -.34 p = < .001, p = < .001). LIMITATIONS: This was a single site study, leading to possible selection-and confirmation bias, since AMC-criteria were used. CONCLUSIONS: This study with 575 subjects is the largest misophonia sample ever described. Based on these results we propose a set of revised criteria useful to diagnose misophonia as a psychiatric disorder.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/patologia , Países Baixos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80 Suppl 2: 76-79, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150719

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental alteration of biological basis that started in childhood may persist during adolescence-youth and, despite what was believed until not many years ago, also in adulthood up to 50-60% of those affected, producing a significant clinical and psychosocial deterioration. In spite of being a syndrome easily identifiable by the triad: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that characterizes it, in clinical practice there are different circumstances that hinder and complicate its diagnosis and treatment. One of the most significant is the presence, both in childhood and adulthood, of other comorbid mental disorders. It is from adolescence-youth when together with ADHD we can detect the presence of personality, mood and anxiety disorders and especially the use of several substances. The evidences existing until now show how the comorbidity of ADHD and substance use disorder influence the evolutionary course of both, complicating the approach, the treatment and, therefore, aggravating the final prognosis. The difficulties in their approach and the scarcity of treatment options make us underline the importance of preventive treatment in the infantile stage, starting from psychoeducation programs focused on the vulnerability of these patients to substances and the consequences associated with consumption.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(2)2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research supports the importance of emotional symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which are not reflected in the DSM-5 or ICD-10 criteria. The Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) assesses these symptoms, plus inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This scale allowed us to divide adult ADHD into 2 subtypes in a 2015 publication: ADHD inattentive presentation and ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation. The present study refines this observation using a larger, more diverse sample. METHODS: Eight double-blind adult ADHD clinical trials (encompassing 1,490 subjects) were selected because they included assessment with the WRAADDS; a second, alternative ADHD measure; and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S). These data were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses, and ADHD presentations were compared, including treatment response. RESULTS: The original factor structure fit poorly with these new data. However, an alternative 2-factor solution fit both the original and the new subjects. ADHD inattentive presentation (n = 774) was defined by the inattention factor, and ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation (n = 620) was defined by additional elevation of the emotional dysregulation factor. The proportion of ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation ranged from 25% to 73% across the 8 studies. The emotional dysregulation presentation was associated with both a greater severity as measured by the CGI-S (P < .001) and more manifestations of childhood ADHD as measured by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Factor analytic results supported the validity of 2 adult ADHD presentations based on levels of emotional dysregulation. This system offers a more clinically relevant approach to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults than does the DSM system.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/classificação , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos
12.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 59(4-5): 401-410, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009447

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the risk of short stature in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the effect of ADHD and its treatment on height-for-age z score (HAZ) and body mass index-for-age z score (BMIZ) in early childhood. We evaluated 7603 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011 and found that children with ADHD had lower HAZ at second and fourth grades and lower BMIZ at K to fourth grade. Children with ADHD at fourth grade had almost 4 times higher odds of short stature. Children with ADHD at K grew at a slower rate from K to fourth grade (difference in ΔHAZ = 0.23, 95% confidence interval = 0.04-0.42) and had less gain in BMI (difference in ΔBMIZ = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.29). Longer duration of ADHD medication use was associated with lower HAZ at fourth grade and slower growth from K to fourth grade. These data may assist pediatricians in considering risk of poor growth in children with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Risco
13.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 74(1): 23-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556784

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the relevance of asking young psychiatric patients about childhood symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Method: A total of 180 young adults (18-25 years of age) from a general psychiatric out-patient clinic in Uppsala filled in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Screening Inventory-Retrospect (CAPSI-R) as part of the diagnostic procedure. The study population was divided into groups based on number and subtype of reported ADHD symptoms, inattention (IN) or hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI). The clinical characteristics associated with different symptoms of ADHD were explored.Results: The groups with five or more self-reported ADHD childhood symptoms, of either IN or HI, had more psychiatric comorbid conditions, a significantly higher co-occurrence of substance use disorders and personality disorders, and experienced more psychosocial and environmental problems.Conclusion: High level of self-reported ADHD childhood symptoms in young psychiatric patients identified a group more burdened with psychiatric comorbid conditions and more psychosocial problems. This group should be offered a thorough diagnostic assessment of ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Assess ; 32(4): 374-382, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886686

RESUMO

The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used to assess affect expression. Shortened and adolescent versions of the measure have been created, such as the 10-item PANAS for Children (PANAS-C). However, affect expression often involves substantial intraindividual variability, and no research has examined within-person differences using the 10-item PANAS-C. Moreover, intraindividual variability is a key characteristic of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and emotion dysregulation is a key feature of ADHD. The present study examined the factor structure of the 10-item PANAS-C in a sample of adolescents (Mage = 13.17 years) with (n = 156) and without (n = 139) ADHD. A 3-factor (Positive Affect, Fear, Distress) within and a 2-factor (Positive Affect, Negative Affect) between model was found to be best fitting using both parent and adolescent reports. The model demonstrated configural invariance for the adolescent report and scalar invariance for the parent report. These results support the multidimensionality of negative affect in youth with ADHD, even when assessed via the short-version PANAS-C. In future work, it will be important to consider the implications of more discrete types of negative affect expression (fear and distress) found across time at the individual level for assessment and intervention practice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851172

RESUMO

AIM: To study the therapeutic efficacy of peptidergic nootropic medication Cortexin during two-month follow-up in children with developmental dysphasia aged 3-4 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-four children with developmental dysphasia were randomized into two equal groups. The cortexin group received the drug once daily intramuscularly during 10 days. After this course, children did not receive any pharmacotherapy and were examined two months after the beginning of treatment. The control group did not receive pharmacotherapy and was examined twice in two months interval. All the parents were provided with recommendations for the stimulation of speech development in dysphasic children. Before treatment and two months later, speech development was assessed by special scales and questionnaires for parents. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After treatment with Cortexin, a significant improvement was achieved not only on the 'expressive language' scale but also on the 'attention to speech' and 'impressive language' scales. The volume of active vocabulary was increased by 2.3 times, the number of articulated phrases by 3.6 times. The evaluation of parents' questionnaires demonstrated the decrease of cerebrasthenic, psychosomatic problems, motor clumsiness, hyperactivity, attention deficit and problems with emotional control in children. The therapy contributed to the reduction of difficulties in communication and social adaptation. The positive effect of Cortexin was observed after the completion of treatment (the protracted effect).


Assuntos
Afasia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Nootrópicos , Afasia/complicações , Afasia/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/tratamento farmacológico , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Pais , Fala
16.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(8): 554-565, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760762

RESUMO

We examined prospective memory (PM) function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A group of 28 children with ADHD and 28 typically developing children completed event-, time- and activity-based PM tasks and attention tests. ADHD children had impaired attention but intact PM performance. Both groups performed best in activity-based PM tasks, followed by event-based PM tasks, and performed worst in time-based PM tasks. ADHD children had lower ongoing task performance in the event-based PM task. The findings indicate that children with ADHD may have an intact PM, but this may be at the cost of ongoing task performance.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Memória Episódica , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 258, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as childhood neurobehavioural disorder. Due to short attention span, oral hygiene and dental treatment of such individuals can be challenging. Aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health of children and adolescents with and without ADHD living in residential care in rural Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. METHODS: Included in the study were 79 participants (male/female:58/21, age 9-15 years) living in residential care: 34 participants with ADHD and 45 participants without ADHD (control). Oral examination included the following parameters decayed, missing, filled teeth in the primary dentition (dmft), decayed, missing, filled surfaces/teeth in the secondary dentition (DMFS/DMFT), approximal plaque index (API), bruxism and orthodontic treatment. Additionally, oral hygiene, last dental visit and treatment performed, and dietary habits were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dmft, API, bruxism and oral hygiene habits between groups. However, participants with ADHD tended to have higher DMFS/DMFT values than the control group. Ongoing orthodontic treatment was found more often in the control group. The ADHD group tended to consume acidic/sugary beverages and sweet snacks more often than the controls. Different treatments (control visit/prophylaxis, dental therapy, orthodontic treatment) were performed at the last dental visit in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, oral health was similar in children and adolescents with or without ADHD from the same residential care setting. Parents/guardians need instructions for better supervision of oral hygiene and dietary habits to improve the poor oral health of children with or without ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Residenciais , População Rural , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17980, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, is considered as the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. Physical exercise has shown to have several benefits in the improvement of children with ADHD. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to systematically show, with evidence, the impact of physical exercise on children with ADHD. METHODS: Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central and http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov were the searched sources for studies which were based on the impact of physical exercise on children with ADHD. Relevant endpoints were assessed. This evidence based meta-analysis was carried out by the most relevant RevMan 5.3 software. Due to the involvement of continuous data (mean and standard deviation), weight mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to represent the final analysis. A significant level of P ≤ .05 was set and a fixed statistical effect model was used throughout the analysis. RESULTS: Fourteen studies with a total number of 574 participants with ADHD were included in this evidenced based meta-analysis. Two hundred and seventy six (276) participants were assigned to the physical activity group whereas 298 participants were assigned to the control group. Results of this analysis showed that anxiety and depression were significantly improved with physical activity in these children with ADHD (WMD: -1.84; 95% CI: [-2.65 - (-1.03)], P = .00001). Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (WMD: -0.01; 95% CI: [-0.32 - 0.29], P = .93) and inattention symptoms (WMD: -0.22; 95% CI: [-0.51 - 0.08], P = .15) were also improved with physical exercise but the results were not statistically significant. This evidence based analysis showed thought problems (WMD: -3.49; 95% CI: [-5.51 - (-1.47)], P = .0007), social problems (WMD: -5.08; 95% CI: [-7.34 - (-2.82)], P = .0001), and aggressive behaviors (WMD: -3.90; 95% CI: [-7.10 - (-0.70)], P = .02) to have significantly been improved in participants with ADHD who were assigned to physical activity group. CONCLUSIONS: This current meta-analysis showed with evidence, that physical exercise has a major contribution owing to significant improvement in anxiety and depression, aggressive behaviors, thought and social problems among children suffering from ADHD. Therefore, physical exercise should be incorporated in the daily life of children with ADHD. Further future research should be able to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental
19.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 1961-1965, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768057

RESUMO

The exome sequences of approximately 8,000 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 5,000 controls were analyzed, finding that individuals with ASD and individuals with ADHD had a similar burden of rare protein-truncating variants in evolutionarily constrained genes, both significantly higher than controls. This motivated a combined analysis across ASD and ADHD, identifying microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) as a new exome-wide significant gene conferring risk for childhood psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627342

RESUMO

This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) and ED symptomatology in children with obesity, and at investigating whether EDs occur more often among individuals with a comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventy-six children (37 girls, 39 boys, age 5-16 years) were recruited at an outpatient obesity clinic. The adolescents completed ED instruments including The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and The Eating Disorder Inventory for children (EDI-C). The parents of all participants were interviewed regarding the child's psychiatric morbidity. Diagnoses of ADHD and ASD were collected from medical records. Anthropometric data were compiled. Eight participants (11%) fulfilled the criteria for a probable ED and 16 participants (21%) had ADHD and/or ASD. Two adolescent girls had a probable ED and coexistent ADHD and ASD. No other overlaps between EDs and ADHD/ASD were observed. Loss of control (LOC) eating was present in 26 out of 40 (65%) adolescents, seven of whom had ADHD, ASD or both. LOC eating was not overrepresented among teenagers with ADHD and/or ASD. Weight and shape concerns were on a par with age-matched adolescents with EDs. EDs and ED behavior are more common among children/adolescents with obesity than in the general population. There is no substantial overlap between EDs and ADHD/ASD in adolescents with obesity.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia
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