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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 267: 3-8, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483248

RESUMO

Differential item functioning (DIF) indicates differential response probabilities of items for different subgroups. While there is a vast amount of research and literature on DIF in the field of educational screening and career assessment, DIF analysis has hardly been applied in the field of clinical assessment. This paper aims at analyzing the presence of gender related DIF in a cross-sectional survey of children assessed by a structured questionnaire containing items on attention deficit and hyperactivity. A total of 1449 children (mean age: 1.94 ± 0.14 years; 51.2% male) were included. Almost no significant variations in parameters were found between boys and girls. Results based on a Partial Credit Model indicate an absence of DIF in eight out of nine items. Consistent with other studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) our results imply that the same level of rating for a symptom has the same meaning for boys and girls.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1241-1251, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489861

RESUMO

Background: One of the most common neurodevelopmental problems affecting behavior of children all over the world is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies on ADHD prevalence in Africa used either parents' or teachers' disruptive behavioral disorder rating scale (DBDRS) to diagnose ADHD, but this study diagnose ADHD using both parents and teachers DBDRS simultaneously among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 1,385 primary school pupils in Ile-Ife using multistage random sampling. The parents' and teachers' DBDRS were used simultaneously to screen children who had ADHD. Results: Sixty-five (4.7%) of the pupils had ADHD. Among the 65 pupils with ADHD, 28 (43%) had the inattentive subtype, 25 (38.5%) had the combined subtype, whereas 12 (18.5%) had hyperactive/impulsive subtype. The prevalence of ADHD was significantly higher in the younger age group than the older age groups (χ2 = 7.153, P = 0.007). There was no significant association found between the prevalence of ADHD and the social class (χ2 = 3.852, P = 0.146). Conclusion: ADHD prevalence of 4.7% was found among the children in Ile-Ife. Assessment of children for ADHD was done by parents at home and teachers in the school with DBDRS. The inattentive subtype was the most common and the hyperactive subtype was the least seen in the study. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder will bring better outcome in the children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social
3.
Nervenarzt ; 90(9): 926-931, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbidity in adult patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). The diagnostics and treatment of ADHD with SUD are often a challenge, also with respect to the prescription of stimulants. Recently, a group of international experts developed a consensus paper on the diagnosis and treatment of comorbid ADHD and SUD. In addition, the German S3 guidelines on ADHD have been published, which also give advice on the treatment of ADHD in comorbid SUD. The German S3 guidelines on alcohol-related disorders and methamphetamine-related disorders also address ADHD as a comorbidity. METHODS: Summary of consensus and guideline recommendations, supplemented with the most recent literature. CONCLUSION: In recent years new findings on the comorbidity of ADHD in patients with SUD have emerged. A series of screening and diagnostic instruments have meanwhile been evaluated in this patient group. The consensus paper and various guidelines therefore provide clinicians with specific help in detecting ADHD in patients with SUD and in conducting further diagnostics and treatment of both disorders. For example, the importance of stimulants in the treatment of patients with SUD and ADHD has significantly changed and first studies on psychotherapeutic interventions specific to this comorbidity are now available.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
4.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(7): 477-487, 2019.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur in adults. Together, they complicate diagnosis and can negatively influence treatment outcome.
AIM: To develop a practical guide to assist professionals with the screening, diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with SUD and ADHD.
METHOD: A literature search and a consensus procedure between several international scientific and clinical experts. This manuscript is an adapted and summarized Dutch version of the International consensus statement on screening, diagnosis and treatment of patients with SUD and comorbid ADHD.
RESULTS: The routine use of adequate screening tools enables ADHD to be detected earlier in adults with SUD. The diagnostic process for ADHD should be initiated as soon as possible in patients with SUD. Integrated treatment, involving a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, is preferred. Long-acting stimulants with up-titration to higher dosages may be considered.
CONCLUSION: Early detection of ADHD in patients with SUD is essential for adequate diagnosis and more effective treatment and follow-up for these patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Consenso , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 43, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current data about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficiency (ADHD) guideline use in the Netherlands are absent. This study analysed ADHD guideline use among different healthcare workers, and the use of key elements from these guidelines to diagnose ADHD. METHOD: A survey assessing ADHD guideline use was distributed throughout the Netherlands to various health care professionals. Only professionals involved during the diagnostic process were included. RESULTS: Response rate among GPs was low (111/1450), but high among other health care professionals (251/287). A total of 362 surveys were analysed, 186 responders (51%) were involved during the diagnostic process. Overall guideline use was 64.5%; the national multidisciplinary guideline or a guideline made by a professional's own institution were most used. Psychiatrists, psychologists and paediatricians reported compliance with key elements of the guidelines such as gathering information from a third party (> 90%) and carrying out a developmental history (> 88%). Use of a standardized interview (< 52% often use) was low. Only paediatricians performed a physical examination regularly (88%). CONCLUSION: Despite low general use of guidelines, psychiatrists, psychologists and paediatricians use similar key elements of ADHD guidelines. This study provides opportunities to improve care through increasing familiarity with ADHD guidelines and the use of standardized interviews.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 461-472, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340712

RESUMO

Objective: This study examined adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) screening and management patterns among healthcare provider (HCP) subgroups. Methods: An online survey of US-based HCPs (neurologists, n = 200; nurse practitioners [NPs], n = 100; psychiatrists, n = 201; primary care physicians [PCPs], n = 201) was conducted from May to June 2017. The survey assessed issues relating to adult ADHD screening and management and HCP perceptions of factors influencing patient choice of pharmacotherapy. Participants were required to be experienced in diagnosing and/or treating ADHD in adults (≥5 patients/month for neurologists and NPs; ≥10 patients/month for psychiatrists and PCPs). Results: Significantly greater percentages of psychiatrists than non-psychiatrists were confident in diagnosing ADHD (P < 0.001) and screened/evaluated for ADHD in patients with depression/anxiety disorders (P < 0.001). Significantly greater percentages of psychiatrists versus non-psychiatrists prescribed once-daily long-acting (LA) stimulants (71.6% vs 62.2%; P = 0.023) or short-acting (SA) stimulants more than once daily (40.3% vs 29.7%; P = 0.009) as first-line therapy. In contrast, a significantly greater percentage of non-psychiatrists than psychiatrists prescribed once-daily SA stimulants (32.9% vs 17.4%; P < 0.001). Psychiatrist and non-psychiatrist HCPs viewed insurance coverage/treatment costs (79.9%), perceived duration of effect (72.2%), and side effects (66.5%) as important factors to patients when choosing treatment. HCPs reported that the greatest mean ± SD percentages of patients changed their treatment regimen in the past 6 months because of perceptions of insufficient duration of effect (35.4% ± 22.1%) and lack of efficacy (30.3% ± 21.0%). Conclusion: Compared with psychiatrists, non-psychiatrists exhibited less confidence in diagnosing adult ADHD and experienced greater difficulty determining optimal treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Psicoterapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurologistas , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Padrões de Prática Médica , Psiquiatria
8.
Harefuah ; 158(6): 347-351, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215184

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During midlife and aging, subjective reports regarding cognitive decline increase in frequency. Age-associated cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment and dementia, increase in prevalence and are frequently diagnosed. Background medical conditions and risk factors are often regarded as contributing to the cognitive decline. The contribution of prior undiagnosed ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) is seldom considered. The aim of the current study was to examine whether childhood or adult ADHD should be considered relevant in the differential diagnosis of cognitive complaints during midlife and aging. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects, aged 50-70 years, diagnosed with probable ADHD (pADHD) and 29 controls participated in the present study. The pADHD group included 12 individuals self-referred due to self-complaints regarding cognitive decline or memory impairment, previously undiagnosed with ADHD (ADHD-A) but with lifelong symptomatology of ADHD and fulfilling ADHD criteria and 24 individuals, parents of diagnosed ADHD children and reporting ADHD symptoms (ADHD-B) , without complaints regarding recent cognitive decline. The neuropsychological evaluation included the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-SL, Beck Depression Inventory, and the following cognitive tests: logical memory subscale (LM- WMS), California Verbal study was conducted at the Cognitive Neurology Clinic - Rambam Health Care Campus and was granted the approval of the local IRB committee. RESULTS: ADHD-A were impaired on attention parameters while memory and executive functions were intact. ADHD-B did not present measurable attention or other neuropsychological deficits as compared to the control group. Neither group fulfilled criteria for MCI or dementia. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD should be considered as a new/additional entity in the differential diagnosis of subjective cognitive complaints among middle-aged and older persons. The recognition of the specific cognitive and behavioral profiles of ADHD should contribute to the ability to reach optimal differentiation from pre-dementia conditions in order to tailor appropriate therapies. The pathophysiology and future trajectory of the emerging ADHD symptomatology in older patients fulfilling lifelong ADHD symptomatology remains to be clarified. When examining older adults, ADHD should be considered as a differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Demência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
9.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(4-5): 302-307, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170860

RESUMO

Background and aim: Recent evidence suggests that growth factors might be involved in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to determine whether serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), nerve growth factor (NGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were altered in children with ADHD. Methods: Serum levels of BDNF, GDNF, NT-3, NGF, VEGF and FGF-2 were analyzed in 49 treatment- naive children with ADHD and age, gender matched 36 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ADHD symptoms were scored by Du Paul ADHD Rating Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results: We found that serum VEGF levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001) and GDNF levels were significantly higher in ADHD group compared to control group (p = 0.003). However, we found no correlations between ADHD symptoms and serum VEGF or GDNF levels. Furthermore, we observed no significant alterations in serum BDNF, NT-3, NGF, FGF-2 levels in children with ADHD. Conclusion: To our knowledge, the present study is the first to examine serum VEGF and FGF-2 levels in children with ADHD. Our results indicate that VEGF and GDNF might be involved in the etiology of ADHD. Further studies are required to determine the role of growth factors in the etiology and consequently in the treatment of ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Sports Health ; 11(4): 332-342, 2019 Jul/Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some studies have observed a relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to American football and long-term outcomes, recent findings in collegiate athletes did not observe a relationship between AFE and more intermediate outcomes at early adulthood. This, however, requires independent replication. HYPOTHESIS: There will be no association between AFE to football and behavioral, cognitive, emotional/psychological, and physical functioning in high school and collegiate athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Active high school and collegiate football players (N = 1802) underwent a comprehensive preseason evaluation on several clinical outcome measures. Demographic and health variables that significantly differed across AFE groups were identified as potential covariates. General linear models (GLMs) with AFE as the independent variable were performed for each clinical outcome variable. Similar GLMs that included identified covariates, with AFE as the predictor, were subsequently performed for each clinical outcome variable. RESULTS: After controlling for covariates of age, concussion history, race, and a diagnosis of ADHD, earlier AFE (<12 vs ≥12 years) did not significantly predict poorer performance on any clinical outcome measures (all P > 0.05). A single statistically significant association between AFE group and somatization score was recorded, with AFE <12 years exhibiting lower levels of somatization. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of active high school and collegiate football student-athletes, AFE before the age of 12 years was not associated with worse behavioral, cognitive, psychological, and physical (oculomotor functioning and postural stability) outcomes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The current findings suggest that timing of onset of football exposure does not result in poorer functioning in adolescence and young adults and may contribute to resilience through decreased levels of physically related psychological distress.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais , Cognição , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Postura , Resiliência Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estresse Psicológico , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Wisconsin , Adulto Jovem
11.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(4): 368-384, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068020

RESUMO

The current longitudinal study examined academic outcomes of children diagnosed with secondary attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (S-ADHD) following stroke in comparison to children with stroke-only and children with developmental ADHD (D-ADHD), and explored potential predictors of progress in these groups. We followed 55 children (n = 17 S-ADHD, n = 18 stroke-only, and n = 20 D-ADHD) over approximately four years. Children with S-ADHD and D-ADHD were more likely to have a comorbid learning disability, but children with S-ADHD were more likely to have declines in their reading scores over time. No individual or neurological factors accounted for declines. Math scores were equally likely to decline across all youth.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Leitura , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Dislexia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Matemática , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
12.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(3): 7303345030p1-7303345030p8, 2019 May/Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120847

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with driving deficits. Visual standards for driving define minimum qualifications for safe driving, including acuity and field of vision, but they do not consider the ability to explore the environment efficiently by shifting the gaze, which is a critical element of safe driving. OBJECTIVE: To examine visual exploration during simulated driving in adolescents with and without ADHD. DESIGN: Adolescents with and without ADHD drove a driving simulator for approximately 10 min while their gaze was monitored. They then completed a battery of questionnaires. SETTING: University lab. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with (n = 16) and without (n = 15) ADHD were included. Participants had a history of neurological disorders other than ADHD and normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Control participants reported not having a diagnosis of ADHD. Participants with ADHD had been previously diagnosed by a qualified professional. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We compared the following measures between ADHD and non-ADHD groups: dashboard dwell times, fixation variance, entropy, and fixation duration. RESULTS: Findings showed that participants with ADHD were more restricted in their patterns of exploration than control group participants. They spent considerably more time gazing at the dashboard and had longer periods of fixation with lower variability and randomness. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results support the hypothesis that adolescents with ADHD engage in less active exploration during simulated driving. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This study raises concerns regarding the driving competence of people with ADHD and opens up new directions for potential training programs that focus on exploratory gaze control.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Condução de Veículo , Fixação Ocular , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Br J Sports Med ; 53(12): 741-745, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097459

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common brain developmental disorder in the general population that may be even more prevalent in elite athletes in certain sports. General population studies of ADHD are extensive and have reported on prevalence, symptoms, therapeutic and adverse effects of treatment and new clinical and research findings. However, few studies have reported on prevalence, symptoms and treatments of ADHD in elite athletes. This narrative review summarises the literature on symptoms, comorbidities, effects of ADHD on performance and management options for elite athletes with ADHD. The prevalence of ADHD in student athletes and elite athletes may be 7%-8%. The symptoms and characteristics of ADHD play a role in athletes' choice of a sport career and further achieving elite status. Proper management of ADHD in elite athletes is important for safety and performance, and options include pharmacologic and psychosocial treatments.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Desempenho Atlético , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Humanos , Prevalência
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010068

RESUMO

The psychometric properties of the Parental Smartphone Use Management Scale (PSUMS) and its prospective relationships with symptoms of smartphone addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were studies in a sample of parents of adolescents with ADHD. This is a scale to measure parents' perceived self-efficacy on managing their children's smartphone use. Construct validity (exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis), criterion-related validity (known-group validity and concurrent validity), and reliability (Cronbach's alpha) were performed for data analyses. The results showed that the PSUMS had good factorials validity and high reliabilities, with Cronbach's alphas ranging between 0.93 and 0.95. The 17-item PSUMS accounted for 78.58% of the total variance and contains three theoretically and statistically appropriate subscales: reactive management, proactive management, and monitoring. Strong relationships were found between parental smartphone use management and symptoms of smartphone addiction and ADHD in expected directions. Moreover, parents of children with smartphone addiction yielded lower scores on all three PSUMS subscales than parents of children without smartphone addiction. The PSUMS is considered a valuable and reliable tool in the study of parental management on their adolescent children's smartphone use, while providing us with important targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Poder Familiar , Pais , Autoeficácia , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 47(2): 45-53, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children varies due to the methodology used. In Mexico, the health sector recognizes difficulties in measuring and treating it, so the WHO recommends carrying out screening in populations with a probability of presenting it. The objective was to measure the prevalence of ADHD for screening purposes in second-grade students, their comorbidity, and to describe the experience using version 3 of the Conners scale. METHOD: Descriptive observational study, with the purpose of screening, applying the short versions to parents and teachers of 3,985 schoolchildren in a sample of 55 public schools obtained at random from two delegations in Mexico City, the cases were referred to psychology and psychiatry to corroborate diagnosis and treatment. Results We detected 458 (16%) cases, both informants, the prevalent subtype was hyperactive in both sexes, predominantly male, learning problems and executive functions more frequent in girls with hyperactive and combined subtype, only completed the psychological evaluation 150 schoolchildren and 127 attended with the paidopsiquiatra, who confirmed 72% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence for screening purposes, subtype of ADHD and affected gender is similar to that reported in the literature, the comorbidity identified by both informants is an advantage offered by the Conners scale 3, the limiting factor to corroborate the diagnosis was the resistance of the parents to go with the specialists. It is necessary to guide and inform parents more about the disorder to achieve better participation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 47(2): 45-53, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181339

RESUMO

Introducción. La prevalencia del Trastorno de Déficit de atención e hiperactividad TDHA en población infantil varia debido a la metodología empleada, en México el sector salud reconoce dificultades para medirla y tratarla, asi la OMS recomienda realizar cribados en poblaciones con probabilidad de presentarla. El objetivo fue medir la prevalencia de TDAH con propósitos de cribado en escolares de segundo grado, su comorbilidad, y describir la experiencia utilizando la versión 3 de la escala de Conners. Método. Estudio observacional descriptivo, con propósito de cribado aplicando las versiones cortas a padres y maestros de 3,985 escolares en una muestra de 55 escuelas publicas obtenidas al azar de dos delegaciones en la Ciudad de México, los casos fueron referidos a psicología y Psiquiatría para corroborar diagnostico y tratamiento. Resultados. Se detectaron 458(16%) casos, por ambos informantes, el subtipo prevalente fue hiperactivo en ambos sexos con predominio masculino, los problemas de aprendizaje y funciones ejecutivas mas frecuentes en niñas con subtipos hiperactivo y combinado, solo completaron la evaluación psicológica 150 escolares y 127 acudieron con el paidopsiquiatra, quien confirmo 72% de los casos. Conclusiones. La prevalencia con fines de cribado, subtipo de TDAH y genero afectado es semejante a la reportada en la literatura, la comorbilidad identificada por ambos informantes es una ventaja que ofrece la escala Conners 3, la limitante para corroborar el diagnostico fue la resistencia de los padres para acudir con los especialistas. Es necesario orientar e informar mas a los padres sobre el trastorno para lograr una mejor participación


Introduction. The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children varies due to the methodology used. In Mexico, the health sector recognizes difficulties in measuring and treating it, so the WHO recommends carrying out screening in populations with a probability of presenting it. The objective was to measure the prevalence of ADHD for screening purposes in second-grade students, their comorbidity, and to describe the experience using version 3 of the Conners scale. Method. Descriptive observational study, with the purpose of screening, applying the short versions to parents and teachers of 3,985 schoolchildren in a sample of 55 public schools obtained at random from two delegations in Mexico City, the cases were referred to psychology and psychiatry to corroborate diagnosis and treatment. Results We detected 458 (16%) cases, both informants, the prevalent subtype was hyperactive in both sexes, predominantly male, learning problems and executive functions more frequent in girls with hyperactive and combined subtype, only completed the psychological evaluation 150 schoolchildren and 127 attended with the paidopsiquiatra, who confirmed 72% of the cases. Conclusions. The prevalence for screening purposes, subtype of ADHD and affected gender is similar to that reported in the literature, the comorbidity identified by both informants is an advantage offered by the Conners scale 3, the limiting factor to corroborate the diagnosis was the resistance of the parents to go with the specialists. It is necessary to guide and inform parents more about the disorder to achieve better participation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , México/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 47(2): 54-60, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181340

RESUMO

Introducción. El trastorno por déficit de atención (TDA) ha sido estudiado desde muchos puntos de vista, sin embargo, todavía se desconocen los mecanismos neurobiológicos subyacentes al mismo. Los potenciales evocados y entre ellos el componente P300 pueden servir para investigar los procesos de las funciones cognitivas y atencionales deficitarios en los niños con TDA. Metodología. En este estudio analizamos la eficacia del programa del neuroeducativo HERVAT (acrónimo de Hidratación, Equilibrio, Respiración. Visión, Audición, Tacto) en el potencial evocado P300 en un grupo de niños, entre 7 y 11 años con TDA. Resultados. Los resultados indican que al final del estudio los niños con TDA que han hecho el programa HERVAT han mejorado la latencia del P300 y han reorganizado la actividad cerebral hacia áreas frontales mientras que el grupo control mantiene la misma latencia del P300 y las mismas áreas corticales posteriores durante la tarea de discriminación de estímulos multisensoriales. Conclusiones. Como conclusión podríamos decir que el programa neuroeducativo HERVAT manifiesta su eficacia en el acortamiento de la latencia del potencial evocado P300, responsable del procesamiento cerebral de la información, así como en la reorganización de la actividad cerebral desde áreas posteriores cerebrales hacia áreas corticales frontales, responsables de los procesos atencionales de las funciones ejecutivas


Introduction. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) has been investigated from various perspectives. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this condition remain unknown. Evoked potentials, including P300, can be used to investigate the processes underlying deficient attentional and cognitive functions in children with ADD. Methods. In this study, we analyze the effect of a neuroeducational program, HERVAT (Hidratacion [hydration], Equilibrio [balance], Respiracion [breathing], Vision [vision], Audicion [hearing], Tacto [touch]), on evoked potential P300 in a group of children aged 7-11 years with ADD. Results. At the end of the study, the latency of P300 improved and brain activity was reorganized toward frontal areas in children with ADD who undertook the HERVAT program. In the control group, on the other hand, the latency of P300 and the posterior cortical areas remained unchanged during tests to discriminate between multisensory stimuli. Conclusions. In conclusion, the neuroeducational program HERVAT effectively shortened the latency of evoked potential P300, which is responsible for information processing in the brain, and reorganized brain activity from posterior areas toward frontal cortical areas, which are responsible for the attentional processes involved in executive function


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Neurobiologia/instrumentação , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(641): 555-558, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860327

RESUMO

Psychological examination aims at objectifying the key symptoms of hyperactivity, namely the disorders of attention and of the exe-cutive functions (briefly, the activation-inhibition control). The -records of 237 patients, aged 5 to 17 and attending our day clinics between 2004 and 2016, are analyzed retrospectively. 40 cases present an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined presentation, after DSM-5 criteria. These children and adolescents show not only a typical impulsivity on the computerized test of -attention, but also some deficit in learning to write, a precocious manifestation of their neurodevelopmental disorders. This comorbidity correctly classifies 82.4 % of the hyperactivity and control cases, a quite strong effect in the context of the hard to reach -diagnosis of the ADHD syndrom.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord ; 11(1): 5-19, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927228

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly associated with the delayed sleep phase disorder, a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder, which is prevalent in 73-78% of children and adults with ADHD. Besides the delayed sleep phase disorder, various other sleep disorders accompany ADHD, both in children and in adults. ADHD is either the cause or the consequence of sleep disturbances, or they may have a shared etiological and genetic background. In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the relationship between the circadian rhythm, sleep disorders, and ADHD. We also discuss the various pathways explaining the connection between ADHD symptoms and delayed sleep, ranging from genetics, behavioral aspects, daylight exposure, to the functioning of the eye. The treatment options discussed are focused on improvement of sleep quality, quantity, and phase-resetting, by means of improving sleep hygiene, chronotherapy, treatment of specific sleep disorders, and by strengthening certain neuronal networks involved in sleep, e.g., by sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback. Ultimately, the main question is addressed: whether ADHD needs to be redefined. We propose a novel view on ADHD, where a part of the ADHD symptoms are the result of chronic sleep disorders, with most evidence for the delayed circadian rhythm as the underlying mechanism. This substantial subgroup should receive treatment of the sleep disorder in addition to ADHD symptom treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/complicações , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Cronoterapia , Humanos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Higiene do Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia
20.
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord ; 11(1): 21-29, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927229

RESUMO

We determined the validity of a parent-report questionnaire as a research tool for rating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Using Cohen's kappa and Pearson correlation, we examined the agreement between parent reports of ADHD symptoms (using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Questionnaire-IV; SNAP-IV) and clinical judgment (using a semi-structured parent interview). Also, we explored factors that may be associated with the level of agreement, using regression analyses. We found moderate levels of agreement for severity of overall ADHD (r = 0.43) and for hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (r = 0.54), but no significant agreement for inattentive symptoms. On individual symptom level (range kappa = - 0.05-0.22) and for the presence/absence of ADHD (kappa = 0.14), agreement was poor. Therefore, we conclude that parent-report questionnaires may be acceptable to rate the overall severity of ADHD symptoms in treatment effect studies, but not to detect the presence of ADHD in epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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