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1.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(2): 228-236, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research has documented the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and increased cannabis use, but the studies largely rely on cross-sectional or longitudinal designs. Few studies have examined the impact of recent (i.e., past 6 months) ADHD symptoms on more proximal cannabis-related factors. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between cannabis use motives (coping, boredom, and sleep) and consequences and the impact of ADHD symptoms on these relationships. METHOD: Participants were 62 emerging adults (ages 19-25 years; M = 22.12, SD = 2.07; 60% male) who used cannabis regularly (two or more times in the past 2 weeks) and completed a screener assessing past-6-months ADHD symptoms at baseline followed by 14 daily reports on cannabis use, consequences, and motives. RESULTS: Across the 14 days, cannabis consequences were higher for participants with greater past-6-months symptoms of ADHD. In addition, on days when participants used cannabis for boredom and on days when they used cannabis for sleep, cannabis consequences were higher. Although greater past-6-months ADHD symptoms were associated with more consequences on days when sleep motives were endorsed, contrary to hypotheses, the strength of this relationship was greater on days when sleep motives were not endorsed. Overall, greater daily consequences for those with higher ADHD symptoms may reflect exacerbation of these symptoms, and follow-up analyses revealed that the cannabis consequences associated with higher ADHD scores were indeed ones that overlap with ADHD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that ADHD symptoms, along with sleep and boredom motives, contribute to increased daily cannabis consequences and should be considered in developing interventions for emerging adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Motivação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1793, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741956

RESUMO

Neural substrates of "mind wandering" have been widely reported, yet experiments have varied in their contexts and their definitions of this psychological phenomenon, limiting generalizability. We aimed to develop and test the generalizability, specificity, and clinical relevance of a functional brain network-based marker for a well-defined feature of mind wandering-stimulus-independent, task-unrelated thought (SITUT). Combining functional MRI (fMRI) with online experience sampling in healthy adults, we defined a connectome-wide model of inter-regional coupling-dominated by default-frontoparietal control subnetwork interactions-that predicted trial-by-trial SITUT fluctuations within novel individuals. Model predictions generalized in an independent sample of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In three additional resting-state fMRI studies (total n = 1115), including healthy individuals and individuals with ADHD, we demonstrated further prediction of SITUT (at modest effect sizes) defined using multiple trait-level and in-scanner measures. Our findings suggest that SITUT is represented within a common pattern of brain network interactions across time scales and contexts.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Conectoma/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 8(1): 9-15, ene. 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200364

RESUMO

El procesamiento temporal es una actividad cerebral primordial para el adecuado funcionamiento de las personas en las actividades de la vida diaria y su afectación constituye uno de los signos de disfunción más importantes en el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH). El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los antecedentes y estudios científicos realizados sobre el procesamiento del tiempo en personas con TDAH, así como realizar una propuesta de valoración de esta función en poblaciones con este trastorno del neurodesarrollo. El procesamiento del tiempo ha sido poco estudiado clínicamente, aunque sí en el ámbito neurocientífico y experimental. La mayoría de los estudios se han basado en mecanismos relacionados con la percepción temporal y la reproducción de intervalos de tiempo a nivel motor, en los cuales se han descrito distorsiones en personas con TDAH. Se han propuesto diversas teorías basadas en una afectación primaria de la percepción del tiempo, aunque en otras ocasiones esta afectación se ha considerado secundaria a las alteraciones nucleares del trastorno. Entre las conclusiones del estudio destacamos que los procesos cognitivos relacionados con el procesamiento temporal son diversos y requieren del funcionamiento de distintos dominios cognitivos. Si bien se han desarrollado algunas pruebas para la evaluación de esta función, precisamos de nuevas herramientas para la adecuada valoración del procesamiento del tiempo en personas con TDAH


Time processing is a primary brain activity for the proper functioning of people in their daily activities. Its affectation is one of the most important signs of dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim was to review the background and scientific studies carried out on time processing in patients with ADHD, as well as top put forward a proposal for evaluating this function in populations with this neurodevelopmental disorder. Although time processing has not been studied clinically in detail, it has been approached experimentally in the neuroscientific field. Most studies of time processing have been based on functional phenomena related to time perception and timed motor reproductions; distortions of these two functions have been described in people with ADHD. Several theories based on a primary affectation of time processing have been proposed; however, on some occasions this affectation has been considered secondary to the nuclear alterations of the disorder. The cognitive processes related to temporal processing are rather diverse and require the functioning of different cognitive domains. Although some tests have been developed for the evaluation of this function, new tools are needed for the proper assessment of time processing in people with ADHD


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Afeto , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia
4.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(4): 903-913, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341993

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder in childhood and identifying risk factors associated with developing ADHD during childhood and adolescence is relevant from a clinical and epidemiological point of view. This work examines (a) whether overweight/obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with increased ADHD symptoms in childhood (cross-sectional analysis), and (b) whether overweight/obesity and low CRF levels during childhood predict increased ADHD symptoms in adolescence (longitudinal analysis). Data were examined from a longitudinal study of Estonian inhabitants who took part in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) in 1998 and 1999 (baseline age 9 years), who were re-evaluated 6 years later as part of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS). CRF was determined via an incremental maximal cycle-ergometer test, overweight/obesity was based on body mass index (BMI), and the 7-point af Klinteberg Hyperactivity Scale was used to assess ADHD symptoms at both time points. In the cross-sectional analysis, children with overweight/obesity were at greater risk of ADHD symptoms compared to underweight/normal weight children, as were those unfit compared to fit children (OR = 1.92 and 95%CI = 1.02-3.55, and OR = 1.84 and 95%CI = 1.13-2.98, respectively). The cross-sectional association between BMI and ADHD symptoms was mediated by CRF (z = 2.116, 42.9%; P = .034). The longitudinal analysis showed being unfit in childhood was associated with a greater risk of increased ADHD symptoms 6 years later in adolescence (OR = 2.26 and 95%CI = 1.14-4.47), even after adjusting for baseline ADHD symptoms and BMI. Our result suggests that being unfit is an additional risk factor for increased ADHD symptoms during childhood and adolescence. The association between BMI and ADHD symptoms was mediated by CRF in the cross-sectional analysis, and no association was seen between overweight/obesity and increased ADHD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 892: 173826, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347825

RESUMO

Finding alternative treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is crucial given the safety and efficacy problems of current ADHD medications. Droxidopa, also known as L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), is a norepinephrine prodrug that enhances brain norepinephrine and dopamine levels. In this study, we used electrophysiological tests to examine effects of L-DOPS on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. We also conducted behavioral tests to assess L-DOPS' effects on ADHD-like behaviors in rats. In chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats, PFC local field potentials oscillated between the active, depolarized UP state and the hyperpolarized DOWN state. Mimicking the effect of d-amphetamine, L-DOPS, given after the peripheral amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, benserazide (BZ), increased the amount of time the PFC spent in the UP state, indicating an excitatory effect of L-DOPS on PFC neurons. Like d-amphetamine, L-DOPS also inhibited dopamine neurons, an effect significantly reversed by the D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride. In the behavioral tests, BZ + L-DOPS improved hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive action of the adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR/NCrl), well-validated animal model of the combined type of ADHD. BZ + L-DOPS also reduced impulsive choice and impulsive action of Wistar rats, but did not ameliorate the inattentiveness of Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/NCrl), proposed model of the ADHD-predominantly inattentive type. In conclusion, L-DOPS produced effects on the PFC and dopamine neurons characteristic of drugs used to treat ADHD. BZ + L-DOPS ameliorated ADHD-like behaviors in rats suggesting its potential as an alternative ADHD treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Droxidopa/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Benserazida/farmacologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Combinada , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Especificidade da Espécie , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiopatologia
6.
Hum Mov Sci ; 75: 102743, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) rely heavily on vision to perform movements, which may contribute to their clumsy movements. However, few studies have objectively and quantitatively investigated the perceptual biases of children with DCD. METHODS: A visual-tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) task was used to measure and compare the perceptual biases of 19 children with DCD and 19 age- and sex-matched typically developing children. The point of subjective equality, which demonstrates when "visual first" and "tactile first" judgment probabilities are equal (50%), obtained by analyzing the results of the visual-tactile TOJ task, was used as an indicator of perceptual biases. Further, variables (age and manual dexterity in all participants; motor function, autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder traits, and depressive symptoms in children with DCD) associated with perceptual biases were examined with correlation analysis. RESULTS: Children with DCD had significantly stronger visual bias than typically developing children. Overall correlation analysis showed that increased visual bias was significantly correlated with poor manual dexterity. CONCLUSION: Children with DCD had a strong visual bias, which was associated with poor manual dexterity.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Julgamento , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Tato , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Percepção
7.
Neurosci Lett ; 744: 135592, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359925

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a predominant neurobehavioral disorder of childhood with motor and sensory symptoms often persisting into adulthood. Motor control theories highlight the importance of the bidirectional relationship between sensation and movement for maintaining skilled behaviors like speech. The impact of ADHD on speech in adults has not been well established. The purpose of this study is to assess group differences in quantitative speech and oral somatosensory measures in adults with and without ADHD and to describe the relationship between ADHD symptomology and speech production. A total of 50 adults (18-26 years) were recruited and divided in two groups based on diagnosis: those with (n = 28) and those without (n = 22) ADHD. All participants provided a speech sample to measure articulatory accuracy and speech rate and completed quantitative point-pressure testing using tactile detection and discrimination on bilateral sites on the lower lip and lateral edge of the tongue tip. Independent t-tests corrected for multiple comparisons identified significant group differences using FDR corrected q values in speech production for correct syllables per second and overall speech rate (q<.05). Additionally, there were significant group differences (q<.05) for detection and discrimination threshold estimates at one testing location. Bivariate correlations identified a relationship between several speech measures and self-reported ADHD symptoms such that as symptom severity increased, speech accuracy for correct syllables per second decreased. Young adults with ADHD have subtle differences in speech production compared to non-ADHD control participants. Speech scientists might consider screening for ADHD when collecting normative data samples.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pressão , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(12): 438-446, 16 dic., 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199337

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El trastorno por déficit de atención/hiperactividad (TDAH) es uno de los trastornos mentales más comunes en la infancia. Los síntomas nucleares del TDAH se tratan con estimulantes como el metilfenidato; aun así, existe mucha controversia respecto a sus efectos secundarios. OBJETIVOS: Analizar los patrones de actividad en niños con TDAH durante un período de 24 horas durante siete días, antes y después de tomar tratamiento farmacológico estimulante (metilfenidato), y observar si existen diferencias entre las diferentes presentaciones del trastorno (subtipo inatento y combinado). PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Un total de 30 niños y adolescentes (recién diagnosticados de TDAH según los criterios diagnósticos del DSM-IV) fueron evaluados a través de un actígrafo, un instrumento que permite monitorizar los movimientos corporales analizando los patrones de movimiento y las diferencias entre sueño y vigilia. RESULTADOS: Existen diferencias significativas antes y después de realizar el tratamiento, con niveles de actividad más altos en los pacientes con TDAH antes de empezar el tratamiento y un decrecimiento de esta actividad tras el tratamiento farmacológico. También existen diferencias entre los subtipos inatento y combinado, y el último grupo muestra un nivel de actividad mayor. CONCLUSIONES: El nivel de activación que presentan los sujetos con TDAH es mayor antes de tomar tratamiento, e influye en los patrones circadianos, el sueño y la calidad de vida. El tratamiento farmacológico ayuda a disminuir el nivel de activación


INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood. The nuclear symptoms of ADHD are treated with stimulant medication such as methylphenidate; however, there's a lot of controversy regarding its side effects. AIMS. To analyse the activity patterns in children with ADHD during a period of 24 hours for seven days, before and after taking pharmacological treatment with stimulants (methylphenidate) and observe the differences between the different presentations of ADHD (inattentive and combined subtype). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 30 children and adolescents (newly diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV). Analyses were carried out through actigraphy, an instrument that allows us to monitor body movements by analysing movement patterns and differences between sleep and wakefulness. RESULTS: There were significant differences before and after treatment showing higher activity levels in patients with ADHD before treatment, and a decrease in this situation after taking pharmacological treatment. There are also differences between inattentive and combined subtype, showing the last group, higher activity levels. CONCLUSIONS: The level of activation presented by ADHD subjects is higher before taking stimulant treatment, influencing circadian patterns, sleep and quality of life. Pharmacological treatments help to decrease the level of activation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Polissonografia/métodos , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Actigrafia/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378354

RESUMO

Although behavioral studies have repeatedly demonstrated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have deficits in alertness, little is known about its underlying neural basis. It is hypothesized that pupil diameter reflects the firing of norepinephrine (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), and that the LC-NE neuromodulatory system for regulating alertness may be dysfunctional in ADHD. To clinically and non-invasively examine this hypothesis, we monitored the kinetics of pupil diameter in response to stimuli and compared them between adults with ADHD (n = 17) and typically developing (TD) adults (n = 23) during an auditory continuous performance task. Individuals in the ADHD group exhibited a significantly larger tonic pupil diameter, and a suppressed stimulus-evoked phasic pupil dilation, compared to those in the TD group. These findings provide support for the idea that the aberrant regulatory control of pupil diameter in adults with ADHD may be consistent with a compromised state of alertness resulting from a hyperactivated LC-NE system.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Locus Cerúleo/fisiopatologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22388, 2020 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372183

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with increased risk for physical comorbidity. This study used a twin cohort to investigate the association between physical diseases and phenotypic variations of ADHD. A twin cohort enriched for ADHD and other neurodevelopmental conditions were analysed. The Attention Problems subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist/Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL/ABCL-AP) was used to measure the participants' severity of ADHD symptoms. Physical health issues were obtained with a validated questionnaire and were tested in relation to ADHD symptom severity in a co-twin control model. Neurological problems were significantly associated with a diagnosis of ADHD. A conditional model for the analysis of within-twin pair effects revealed an inverse association between digestive problems and the severity of ADHD symptoms, after adjusting for co-existing autism spectrum disorder and ADHD medications. Our findings suggest that individuals with ADHD are susceptible to neurological problems, why a thorough neurological check-up is indicated in clinical practice for this population. In addition, health conditions of digestive system could be considered as a non-shared environmental factor for behavioral phenotypes in ADHD. It supports the possible role of gut-brain axis in the underpinnings of ADHD symptoms, at least for a subgroup of individuals with certain genetic predisposition.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Criança , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5272, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077750

RESUMO

16p11.2 and 22q11.2 Copy Number Variants (CNVs) confer high risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD), but their impact on functional connectivity (FC) remains unclear. Here we report an analysis of resting-state FC using magnetic resonance imaging data from 101 CNV carriers, 755 individuals with idiopathic ASD, SZ, or ADHD and 1,072 controls. We characterize CNV FC-signatures and use them to identify dimensions contributing to complex idiopathic conditions. CNVs have large mirror effects on FC at the global and regional level. Thalamus, somatomotor, and posterior insula regions play a critical role in dysconnectivity shared across deletions, duplications, idiopathic ASD, SZ but not ADHD. Individuals with higher similarity to deletion FC-signatures exhibit worse cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Deletion similarities identified at the connectivity level could be related to the redundant associations observed genome-wide between gene expression spatial patterns and FC-signatures. Results may explain why many CNVs affect a similar range of neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898346

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the impact of reminder-focused positive psychiatry (RFPP) on attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, vascular-function, inflammation and well-being of adolescents with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Methods: After obtaining informed-consent, 11 adolescents were randomized to RFPP (n = 5) or trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) (n = 6). Eight participants (RFPP: n = 4, TF-CBT: n = 4) completed the twice-weekly intervention for a 6-week trial. The RFPP intervention was inclusive of positive psychiatry interventions on (1) traumatic reminders and (2) avoidance and negative cognition. Vascular function measured as temperature rebound, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, ADHD Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP) Questionnaire, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5-Child/Adolescent Version (CAPS-CA), and neuropsychiatric-measures were measured at baseline and 6 weeks. Subjects were followed for 12 months. The study was conducted from September 2016 to June 2018. Results: A significant improvement in CAPS-CA, SNAP scores, and vascular function of both RFPP and TF-CBT groups was noted at follow-up, but was more-robust in the RFPP group (P < .05). At the sixth week, a significant increase in PERMA, gratitude, resilience, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scores and a significant decrease in homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in the RFPP group, but not the TF-CBT group, were noted (P < .05). At 12-month follow-up, there was no psychiatry hospitalization or suicide ideation reported in either group. A continuation of significant improvement in CAPS-CA and SNAP scores in both groups was noted but was more robust in the RFPP group (P < .05). Similarly, a continuation of significant increase in PERMA, gratitude, resilience and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scores was noted in the RFPP group but not in the TF-CBT group (P < .05). Conclusions: RFPP is associated with improvement in core PTSD and ADHD symptoms, decrease in inflammation, and increase in well-being, vascular function, and posttraumatic growth, as well as a favorable long-term clinical outcome. This finding highlights the importance of the dual role of RFPP in addressing vulnerability symptoms as well as enhancing well-being in youth with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04336072.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Psicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(8): 1214-1222, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856947

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chronotype preference/sleep problems and symptom severity of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during the COVID-19 outbreak and to assess the chronotype preference/sleep problems that may play a mediating role in the relationship between the reactions to trauma and severity of ADHD symptoms. The sample of this single-center cross-sectional study consisted of 76 children with ADHD and their parents. Trauma symptoms were evaluated with the Children's Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-8); sleep habits were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ); and chronotype was assessed using the Children's Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ). There were significant differences in CRIES-8 and CSHQ scores between the eveningness type group and the non-eveningness type group. The CRIES-8 scores of children with ADHD were related to the CCQ and CSHQ scores and severity of ADHD symptoms. In mediation analyses, sleep problems were found to be the full mediating factor in the relationship between CRIES-8 scores and severity of ADHD symptoms and the relationship between CCQ scores and the severity of ADHD symptoms. Our findings indicate that chronotype plays an important role on the negative effects of home confinement of ADHD children during the COVID-19 outbreak. The role of the full mediator of sleep problems in the path from cognition to the behavior of young ADHD and non-ADHD children confined to the home environment during the pandemic period requires further assessment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico
14.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597840

RESUMO

Many children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) are known to have executive dysfunction, which weakens their abilities to learn and behave in daily living. This protocol describes the methodology that is required for the intervention (psychotherapy) based on planning, attention, successive, and simultaneous (PASS theory) cognitive processing and fear emotional processing. It provides guiding principles and practical recommendations. A disproportionately high level of fear (dysregulation) increases the vulnerability for dysfunction in learning and behavior. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition at the neurological level. A go/no go task (The Adventures of Fundi), which involves decision making, is administered in a PC- mode to a sample of 66 ADHD subjects. The Adventures of Fundi, a computer program, was constructed to induce successive or simultaneous processing when involving the training of planning and selective attention. It aims to improve the executive function with planning and selective attention. If executive function improves, learning improves, and behavior ameliorates. After intervention over 6 months, remission was achieved in 70% of subjects. The instructor encourages the use of appropriate strategies and points out the ways in which the strategies can be useful in finding the solution to the problem (go/no go). The emphasis is not on rehearsing and adult instructed verbal sequence. The verbalization may reveal the conscious verbalized strategy to solve a task that is not really the strategy being unconsciously used in that case. A self-verbal report is unreliable. This is an inductive learning rather than deductive rule-learning approach central to cognitive PASS training. This inductive training has proved to produce not only near transfer but also far transfer. Noncognitive factors (emotional factors) must be considered to maximize the benefit of cognitive training. Indirect and metaphorical communication considers the emotional factor.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento , Criança , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497051

RESUMO

METHOD: We collected 130 short semi-structured interviews following treatment sessions from 30 participants with ADHD receiving NF using slow cortical potential training (SCP). The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes where evaluated for changes over-time and between participants with high/low treatment compliance. Interviews from 14 participants who had undergone at least five completed interviews were examined in more depths, aiming to establish typical strategy/training profiles. RESULTS: We identified 16 strategies covering four domains: cognitive, physiological, emotional and unspecified. Typical of most strategies were that they served as a vehicle to regulate mental arousal. Overall, no clear patterns of changes over time were found. Highly compliant participants reported to use the strategies from the emotional domain and the strategy focus more frequently than neutral compliant participants did, while neutral compliant participants reported the use of the strategies muscular activity and passivity more often than participants did with high compliance. Across participants, three strategy profiles were derived, those who handled the task by manipulating their state of mind in relation to the NF task, those who were mainly manifest and concrete towards the task, and those who were mostly unaware of what they were doing. These profiles differed in self-regulatory performance, and only participants showing the state of mind profile experienced a decrease of ADHD symptoms accompanied by objectively measured improvements in self-regulation. In addition, compliance affected both how and what strategies were used. CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: A heterogeneous array of cognitive and other strategies is used at varying levels of training compliance by participants with ADHD during SCP that could be condensed to three prototypical profiles. Future research should take compliance and strategy/training profiles into account when evaluating NF. The latter may help to clarify which and how brain activity regulating mechanisms drive training, individual response to NF, and how they are influenced by motivational factors. Our findings might also help to facilitate more effective instructions in how to approach SCP in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Eletroencefalografia , Neurorretroalimentação/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Cognição , Sistemas Computacionais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Motivação , Neurorretroalimentação/fisiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração , Vigília
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 292, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often demonstrate sensory processing difficulties in the form of altered sensory modulation, which may contribute to their symptomatology. Our objective was to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of sensory processing deficits and the electrophysiological characteristics of early information processing in adult ADHD, measured by the P1 event-related potential (ERP). METHODS: We obtained ERPs during a Go/NoGo task from 26 adult patients with ADHD and 25 matched controls using a high-density 128-channel BioSemi ActiveTwo recording system. RESULTS: ADHD patients had a significantly reduced P1 component at occipital and inferotemporal scalp areas compared to controls. The reduction was associated with inattention and hyperactivity symptom severity, as measured by the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale. ADHD patients with higher inattention scores had significantly smaller P1 amplitudes at posterior scalp sites, while higher hyperactivity scores were associated with higher P1 amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in early sensory processing, as measured by the P1 ERP component, are present in adult ADHD patients and are associated with symptom severity. These findings are suggestive of bottom-up cognitive deficits in ADHD driven by impairments in early visual processing, and provide evidence that sensory processing problems are present at the neurophysiological level in this population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados , Adulto , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 834-843, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The authors sought to directly compare these disorders using structural brain imaging data from ENIGMA consortium data. METHODS: Structural T1-weighted whole-brain MRI data from healthy control subjects (N=5,827) and from patients with ADHD (N=2,271), ASD (N=1,777), and OCD (N=2,323) from 151 cohorts worldwide were analyzed using standardized processing protocols. The authors examined subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area differences within a mega-analytical framework, pooling measures extracted from each cohort. Analyses were performed separately for children, adolescents, and adults, using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for age, sex, and site (and intracranial volume for subcortical and surface area measures). RESULTS: No shared differences were found among all three disorders, and shared differences between any two disorders did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Children with ADHD compared with those with OCD had smaller hippocampal volumes, possibly influenced by IQ. Children and adolescents with ADHD also had smaller intracranial volume than control subjects and those with OCD or ASD. Adults with ASD showed thicker frontal cortices compared with adult control subjects and other clinical groups. No OCD-specific differences were observed across different age groups and surface area differences among all disorders in childhood and adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest robust but subtle differences across different age groups among ADHD, ASD, and OCD. ADHD-specific intracranial volume and hippocampal differences in children and adolescents, and ASD-specific cortical thickness differences in the frontal cortex in adults, support previous work emphasizing structural brain differences in these disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Cérebro , Neuroimagem/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Cérebro/patologia , Cérebro/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Psicopatologia , Relatório de Pesquisa , Análise de Sistemas
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517384

RESUMO

A growing number of studies support the theory that physical activity can effectively foster the cognitive function of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examines the effect of acute moderate physical activity on the executive functions and attention performance of (1) typically developing children (without psychological, psychiatric or neurological diagnosis and/or associated treatment stated in their medical history); (2) treatment-naïve ADHD children; and (3) medicated children with ADHD. In the current study, a total sample of 150 (50 non-medicated, 50 medicated, and 50 typically developing) children between the ages of 6 and 12 took part in the experiment. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI Kid) was used to measure ADHD and the child version of the Test of Attentional Performance (KiTAP) was applied to evaluate the children's attentional and executive function performance before and after two types of intervention. In order to compare the effects of physical activity and control intervention, half of the children from each group (25 participants) took part in a 20-min long, moderately intense physical activity session on the 60-80% of their maximum heart rate, while watching a cartoon video. In the control condition, the other half of the children (25 participants) from each group watched the same cartoon video for 20 min while seated. Physical activity (compared to the just video watching control condition) had a significantly positive influence on 2 out of 15 measured parameters (median reaction time in the alertness task and error rates in the divided attention task) for the medicated group and on 2 out of the 15 measured variables (number of total errors and errors when distractor was presented, both in the distractibility task) regarding the treatment-naïve group. Future studies should focus on finding the optimal type, intensity, and duration of physical activity that could be a potential complementary intervention in treating deficits regarding ADHD in children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Atenção , Função Executiva , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0224186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497045

RESUMO

Recent discussions in the literature, along with the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) (American Psychiatric Association 2013), suggest aetiological commonalities between the highly comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Addressing this discussion requires studying these disorders together by comparing constructs typical to each of them. In the present study, we investigate global processing, known to be difficult for participants with ASD, and Intra-Subject Variability (ISV), known to be consistently increased in participants with ADHD, in groups, aged 10-13 years, with ADHD (n = 25), ASD without comorbid ADHD (ASD-) (n = 13) and ASD with ADHD (ASD+) (n = 18) in comparison with a typically developing group (n = 22). A Copying task, typically requiring global processing and in this case particularly designed using equally complex stimuli to also measure ISV across trials, was selected. Oculomotor measures in this task proved to be particularly sensitive to group differences. While increased ISV was not observed in the present task in participants with ADHD, both ASD groups looked longer on the figure to be drawn, indicating that global processing takes longer in ASD. However, the ASD+ group fixated on the figure only between drawing movements, whereas the ASD- group did this throughout the drawing process. The present study provides evidence towards ASD and ADHD being separate, not-overlapping, disorders. Since the pure ASD- group was affected more by central coherence problems than the ASD+ group, it may suggest that neuropsychological constructs interact differently in different clinical groups and sub-groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7771, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385310

RESUMO

Working memory (WM) impairments in ADHD have been consistently reported along with deficits in attentional control. Yet, it is not clear which specific WM processes are affected in this condition. A deficient coupling between attention and WM has been reported. Nevertheless, most studies focus on the capacity to retain information rather than on the attention-dependent stages of encoding and retrieval. The current study uses a visual short-term memory binding task, measuring both behavioral and electrophysiological responses to characterize WM encoding, binding and retrieval comparing ADHD and non-ADHD matched adolescents. ADHD exhibited poorer accuracy and larger reaction times than non-ADHD on all conditions but especially when a change across encoding and test displays occurred. Binding manipulation affected equally both groups. Encoding P3 was larger in the non-ADHD group. Retrieval P3 discriminated change only in the non-ADHD group. Binding-dependent ERP modulations did not reveal group differences. Encoding and retrieval P3 were significantly correlated only in non-ADHD. These results suggest that while binding processes seem to be intact in ADHD, attention-related encoding and retrieval processes are compromised, resulting in a failure in the prioritization of relevant information. This new evidence can also inform recent theories of binding in visual WM.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Atenção , Cognição , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Potencial Evocado P300 , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
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