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1.
Global Health ; 17(1): 48, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influences of digital media use on the core symptoms, emotional state, life events, learning motivation, executive function (EF) and family environment of children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: A total of 192 participants aged 8-16 years who met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD were included in the study. Children scoring higher than predetermined cut-off point in self-rating questionnaires for problematic mobile phone use (SQPMPU) or Young's internet addiction test (IAT), were defined as ADHD with problematic digital media use (PDMU), otherwise were defined as ADHD without PDMU. The differences between the two groups in ADHD symptoms, EF, anxiety and depression, stress from life events, learning motivation and family environment were compared respectively. RESULTS: When compared with ADHD group without PDMU, the group with PDMU showed significant worse symptoms of inattention, oppositional defiant, behavior and emotional problems by Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP), more self-reported anxiety by screening child anxiety-related emotional disorders (SCARED) and depression by depression self-rating scale for children (DSRSC), more severe EF deficits by behavior rating scale of executive function (BRIEF), more stress from life events by adolescent self-rating life events checklist (ASLEC), lower learning motivation by students learning motivation scale (SLMS), and more impairment on cohesion by Chinese version of family environment scale (FES-CV). The ADHD with PDMU group spent significantly more time on both video game and social media with significantly less time spend on physical exercise as compared to the ADHD without PDMU group. CONCLUSION: The ADHD children with PDMU suffered from more severe core symptoms, negative emotions, EF deficits, damage on family environment, pressure from life events, and a lower motivation to learn. Supervision of digital media usage, especially video game and social media, along with increased physical exercise, is essential to the management of core symptoms and associated problems encountered with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , /psicologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 199-199, ene.-abr. 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) is an attentional disorder characterized by the symptoms of slowness in behavior or thinking, a lack of en.ergy, difficulty initiating and sustaining effort, daydreaming, and drowsiness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distinctive attentional characteristics of SCT as compared to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 110 adults were recruited and divided into four groups: SCT+ADHD, SCT, ADHD, and healthy controls. The Revised version of Attention Networks Test was used to investigate each group's attentional profile. RESULTS: The results revealed that the two SCT groups (SCT+ADHD and SCT) showed a significantly weaker orienting network due to the problems of engaging and disengaging attention than the other two groups. Additionally, the two ADHD groups (SCT+ADHD and ADHD) showed a significantly weaker executive control network than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate an attentional distinction between the SCT and the ADHD groups with a greater dysfunction in the orienting network in the SCT group as compared to the ADHD group. Furthermore, a greater executive control dysfunction was observed in the ADHD group as compared to the SCT group


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El Tiempo Cognitivo Lento (TCL) es un trastorno atencional caracterizado por síntomas de lentitud en el comportamiento o pensamiento, falta de energía, dificultad para iniciar y mantener el esfuerzo, soñar despierto y somnolencia. El propósito de este estudio es investigar las características únicas de la atención de TCL en comparación con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad (TDAH). MÉTODO: Se reclutaron 110 participantes y se dividieron en cuatro grupos: TCL+TDAH, TCL, TDAH y controles sanos. Se empleó la versión revisada del Attention Networks Test para investigar el perfil de atención de cada grupo. RESULTADOS: Los dos grupos de TCL (TCL+TDAH y TCL) mostraron una red de orientación significativamente más débil debido a los problemas de atraer y desconectar la atención que los otros dos grupos. Los grupos de TDAH (TCL+TDAH y TDAH) mostraron una red de control ejecutivo significativamente más débil que los otros dos grupos. CONCLUSIONES: Se demuestra una distinción atencional entre los grupos TCL y TDAH con mayor disfunción en la red de orientación en TCL en comparación con TDAH. Además, se observó una mayor disfunción del control ejecutivo en el grupo TDAH en comparación con el grupo TCL


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Função Executiva , Orientação , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Testes de Inteligência , Valores de Referência , Estudos de Casos e Controles
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765076

RESUMO

Advances in digital health have enabled clinicians to move away from a reliance on face to face consultation methods towards making use of modern video and web-based conferencing technology. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote telecommunication methods have become much more common place in mental health settings. The current study sought to investigate whether remote telecommunication methods are preferable to face to face consultations for adults referred to an Autism and ADHD Service during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, whether there are any differences in preferred consultation methods between adults who were referred for an assessment of Autism as opposed to ADHD. 117 service users who undertook assessment by the ADHD and Autism Service at South West Yorkshire NHS Partnership Foundation Trust from April to September 2020 completed an adapted version of the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ). Results demonstrated that service users found remote telecommunication to be useful, effective, reliable and satisfactory. Despite this, almost half of service users stated a general preference for face to face consultations. There was no difference in the choice of methods of contact between Autism and ADHD pathways. Remote telecommunication methods were found to be an acceptable medium of contact for adults who undertook an assessment of Autism and ADHD at an NHS Service during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , /virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consulta Remota , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25245, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761719

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We compared the knowledge of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among the general public, parents of children with ADHD, and primary school teachers and identified factors associated with ADHD knowledge in each group, separately.Secondary data analysis was made on the pre-lecture data from those (122 from the general public, 64 parents of children with ADHD, and 515 primary school teachers) attending education lectures by the Department of Public Health, New Taipei City Government, Taiwan, 2014.ADHD onset age was least known in these 3 groups. Knowledge of ADHD was significantly better among teachers (test score, 75.3%) than among parents (65.5%) and the general public (59.2%). Among the general public, the test score significantly decreased with age and was worst in those who did not know their friends or relatives with ADHD. Among parents, service workers, and retired/unemployed knew significantly less about ADHD than housewife did. Among teachers, men knew significantly less than women; those who taught children with ADHD knew significantly more than those who did not.Primary school teachers knew more about ADHD than parents and the general public. Factors associated with ADHD knowledge varied among the 3 groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais , Professores Escolares , Percepção Social , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669970

RESUMO

(1) Background: COVID-19 may deteriorate some aspects among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although some positive aspects were reported during the pandemic, it remains unclear how COVID-19 qualitatively influences their living context; (2) Methods: this study employed interviews with four participants with ADHD during the declaration of emergency issued in Japan. The study was a part of ongoing coaching as a psychosocial intervention for ADHD, which was initiated long before the pandemic. The data were the answers to the question: "how are things going with participants during this pandemic?". In a qualitative analysis, the researchers coded the data to identify different themes and sub-themes; (3) Results and Discussion: the qualitative data analysis yielded five themes: (1) Terrible feeling caused by frustration, stress, and anger; (2) Closeness due to the internal difficulties and conflict; (3) Deteriorating ADHD symptoms and executive function related matters; (4) Condition is the same as usual; and (5) Positive aspects associated with the self-lockdown. As a whole, these results show that the COVID-19 pandemic could be a factor in inducing psychological distress in the participants who adjust relatively better at work/school but did not do well at home before the pandemic; (4) Conclusions: this study indicates the need for special support for individuals with ADHD, especially those who originally had difficulties at home.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Emoções , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
6.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e14, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583471

RESUMO

AIMS: Although the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and transport accidents has been shown, there is limited information on the relationship between medication and dose-response effects and transport accident risk. This study aims to determine whether young people with ADHD, including adolescents, are more prone to transport accidents than those without, and the extent to which methylphenidate (MPH) prescription in these patients reduces the risk. METHODS: We identified 114 486 patients diagnosed with ADHD from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2013. Using a Cox regression model, we compared the risk of transport accidents between ADHD and non-ADHD groups and estimated the effect of MPH on accidents. Furthermore, we applied a self-control case-series analysis to compare the risk of accidents during the medication periods with the same patients' non-medication periods. RESULTS: Male ADHD patients had a higher risk of transport accidents than non-ADHD individuals (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.24, [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.39]), especially for those comorbid with epilepsy, oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), and intellectual disabilities (ID). Female ADHD patients showed no relationship, except for comorbid with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or ID. We found a reduced risk of transport accidents in patients with ADHD with MPH medication than those without MPH, with a plausible dose-response relationship (aHR of 0.23 to 0.07). A similar pattern was found in self-controlled case-series analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Male patients with ADHD, especially those comorbid with epilepsy, ODD/CD, or ID, were at high risk of transport accidents. Female patients, when comorbid with ASD or ID, also exhibited a higher risk of accidents. MPH treatment lowered the accident risk with a dose-response relationship.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 19, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrepancy between child self-report and parent proxy-report has long been documented in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measurement of children with chronic health conditions. This study aims to assess whether child and parent reports of the Kinder Lebensqualität fragebogen (KINDL) questionnaire measure the same construct of HRQoL in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). METHODS: Participants were 122 Iranian children with ADHD and 127 of their parents, who completed the child and parent reports of the KINDL, respectively. Internal consistency of the child and parent reports were assessed by Cronbach's alpha. The intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient and factor analysis were applied to assess whether the child self-report and the parent proxy-report measured the same construct of HRQoL. Additionally, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed using the Spearman correlation. RESULTS: The results of factor analysis revealed that the child self-report and parent proxy-report measure two different aspects of HRQoL. Moreover, both versions of the KINDL instrument showed excellent convergent and discriminant validity. The internal consistency was close to or greater than 0.7 for all domains of both child and parent reports. CONCLUSIONS: Although the child self-report and the parent proxy-report of the Persian version of the KINDL have good psychometric properties, they are not interchangeable. This finding indicates that Iranian children with ADHD and their parents evaluate children's HRQoL from their own viewpoints.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113692, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421841

RESUMO

The current study examined the impact of the lockdown due to the Covid-19 disease on mood state and behaviours of children and adolescents with ADHD. Nine hundred ninety-two parents of children and adolescents with ADHD filled out an anonymous online survey through the ADHD family association website. The survey investigated the degree of severity of six emotional and mood states (sadness, boredom, little enjoyment/interest, irritability, temper tantrums, anxiety) and five disrupted behaviours (verbal and physical aggression, argument, opposition, restlessness) based on their frequency/week (absent; low: 1-2 days/week; moderate: 3-4 days/week; severe: 5-7 days/week) before and during the lockdown. Important fluctuations were found in all dimensions during the lockdown independently by the severity degree. Subjects with previous low severity degree of these behaviors significantly worsened in almost all dimensions during the lockdown. On the contrary, ADHD patients with moderate and severe degree showed important improvement during the lockdown. Little enjoyment/interests and boredom resulted the dimensions more strongly affected by the condition of restriction, overall in children. Children vs. adolescents showed substantially similar trend but the former resulted significantly more vulnerable to emotive changes. The results provided both the individuation of domains affected, and the indirect benefits produced by restriction condition.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Tédio , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Humor Irritável , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378354

RESUMO

Although behavioral studies have repeatedly demonstrated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have deficits in alertness, little is known about its underlying neural basis. It is hypothesized that pupil diameter reflects the firing of norepinephrine (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), and that the LC-NE neuromodulatory system for regulating alertness may be dysfunctional in ADHD. To clinically and non-invasively examine this hypothesis, we monitored the kinetics of pupil diameter in response to stimuli and compared them between adults with ADHD (n = 17) and typically developing (TD) adults (n = 23) during an auditory continuous performance task. Individuals in the ADHD group exhibited a significantly larger tonic pupil diameter, and a suppressed stimulus-evoked phasic pupil dilation, compared to those in the TD group. These findings provide support for the idea that the aberrant regulatory control of pupil diameter in adults with ADHD may be consistent with a compromised state of alertness resulting from a hyperactivated LC-NE system.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Locus Cerúleo/fisiopatologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos
10.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e1, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm and suicidality are common presentations in children and adolescents requiring a mental health inpatient admission. Although there are several studies on adolescents, there is relatively limited research into childhood self-harm and suicidality during such admissions. METHODS: A retrospective electronic file review was conducted on all children discharged from a national mental health inpatient children's unit over a 6-year period. Several independent variables were compared between self-harm/suicidal and non-self-harm/non-suicidal children. Separate analyses investigated changes in self-harm/suicidality, functional outcomes, and risk assessment ratings between admission and discharge. RESULTS: A total of 105 children were included in this study. During admission, 65.7% of them reported self-harm thoughts, 61% engaged in self-harm, 50.5% expressed suicidal thoughts, and 14.3% engaged in suicidal behavior. Thoughts and acts of self-harm were associated with previous self-harm, longer admissions, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Suicidality overlapped with self-harm and was strongly predicted by previous self-harm. The prevalence of self-harm and suicidal thoughts and acts significantly decreased during admission. Children in the non-self-harm group had marginally better functional outcomes upon discharge compared to those in the self-harm group. Children and parents/caregivers were similarly satisfied with treatment, irrespective of children's self-harm/suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Self-harm and suicidality were widespread among children admitted to hospital. Better understanding of the mechanisms and factors related to self-harm and suicidality in this age group could help mitigate associated risks and improve existing safety strategies.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Saúde Mental , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia
11.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(12): 438-446, 16 dic., 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199337

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El trastorno por déficit de atención/hiperactividad (TDAH) es uno de los trastornos mentales más comunes en la infancia. Los síntomas nucleares del TDAH se tratan con estimulantes como el metilfenidato; aun así, existe mucha controversia respecto a sus efectos secundarios. OBJETIVOS: Analizar los patrones de actividad en niños con TDAH durante un período de 24 horas durante siete días, antes y después de tomar tratamiento farmacológico estimulante (metilfenidato), y observar si existen diferencias entre las diferentes presentaciones del trastorno (subtipo inatento y combinado). PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Un total de 30 niños y adolescentes (recién diagnosticados de TDAH según los criterios diagnósticos del DSM-IV) fueron evaluados a través de un actígrafo, un instrumento que permite monitorizar los movimientos corporales analizando los patrones de movimiento y las diferencias entre sueño y vigilia. RESULTADOS: Existen diferencias significativas antes y después de realizar el tratamiento, con niveles de actividad más altos en los pacientes con TDAH antes de empezar el tratamiento y un decrecimiento de esta actividad tras el tratamiento farmacológico. También existen diferencias entre los subtipos inatento y combinado, y el último grupo muestra un nivel de actividad mayor. CONCLUSIONES: El nivel de activación que presentan los sujetos con TDAH es mayor antes de tomar tratamiento, e influye en los patrones circadianos, el sueño y la calidad de vida. El tratamiento farmacológico ayuda a disminuir el nivel de activación


INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood. The nuclear symptoms of ADHD are treated with stimulant medication such as methylphenidate; however, there's a lot of controversy regarding its side effects. AIMS. To analyse the activity patterns in children with ADHD during a period of 24 hours for seven days, before and after taking pharmacological treatment with stimulants (methylphenidate) and observe the differences between the different presentations of ADHD (inattentive and combined subtype). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 30 children and adolescents (newly diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV). Analyses were carried out through actigraphy, an instrument that allows us to monitor body movements by analysing movement patterns and differences between sleep and wakefulness. RESULTS: There were significant differences before and after treatment showing higher activity levels in patients with ADHD before treatment, and a decrease in this situation after taking pharmacological treatment. There are also differences between inattentive and combined subtype, showing the last group, higher activity levels. CONCLUSIONS: The level of activation presented by ADHD subjects is higher before taking stimulant treatment, influencing circadian patterns, sleep and quality of life. Pharmacological treatments help to decrease the level of activation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Polissonografia/métodos , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Actigrafia/métodos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficits in visual statistical learning and predictive processing could in principle explain the key characteristics of inattention and distractibility in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, from a Bayesian perspective, ADHD may be associated with flatter likelihoods (increased sensory processing noise), and/or difficulties in generating or using predictions. To our knowledge, such hypotheses have never been directly tested. METHODS: We here test these hypotheses by evaluating whether adults diagnosed with ADHD (n = 17) differed from a control group (n = 30) in implicitly learning and using low-level perceptual priors to guide sensory processing. We used a visual statistical learning task in which participants had to estimate the direction of a cloud of coherently moving dots. Unbeknown to the participants, two of the directions were more frequently presented than the others, creating an implicit bias (prior) towards those directions. This task had previously revealed differences in other neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autistic spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. RESULTS: We found that both groups acquired the prior expectation for the most frequent directions and that these expectations substantially influenced task performance. Overall, there were no group differences in how much the priors influenced performance. However, subtle group differences were found in the influence of the prior over time. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in ADHD do not stem from broad difficulties in developing and/or using low-level perceptual priors.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/etiologia , Aprendizagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044961

RESUMO

Research found that adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have more problems with financial decision-making than healthy controls. The present study investigates the impact of symptoms of ADHD on impulsive buying and the use of financial decision styles. Furthermore, the influence of personality, symptoms of depression and demographics on the association between ADHD and these aspects of financial decision-making is evaluated. A community sample of 1292 participants (age range 18-93 years, 45.4% male) completed questionnaires related to ADHD, impulsive buying, financial decision styles, personal financial situation, depression and personality. Four groups were formed based on self-reported ADHD symptoms: an 'ADHD' group (n = 45), an 'Adult-only ADHD' group (n = 57), a 'Subthreshold ADHD' group (n = 162) and a 'No ADHD' group (n = 265). Groups were compared using ANOVA and chi-square tests. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses in the complete sample were employed to examine the association between ADHD and financial decision-making. The ADHD and Adult-only ADHD groups reported significantly more impulsive buying, used more often an avoidant or spontaneous decision style and less often saved money compared to the No ADHD group. Regression analyses revealed that impulsive buying and financial decision styles were not significantly associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for personality, symptoms of depression and demographics. The present study confirms previous research on adults with ADHD by indicating more impulsive buying and a more frequent use of disadvantageous financial decision styles (i.e., avoidant and spontaneous styles) in individuals with an elevated number of current symptoms of ADHD compared to individuals without symptoms of ADHD. Personality and demographic variables were found to be related to both impulsive buying and the use of specific financial decision styles and might be of influence on the association between impulsive buying, the use of financial decision styles and ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/patologia , Status Econômico , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5272, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077750

RESUMO

16p11.2 and 22q11.2 Copy Number Variants (CNVs) confer high risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD), but their impact on functional connectivity (FC) remains unclear. Here we report an analysis of resting-state FC using magnetic resonance imaging data from 101 CNV carriers, 755 individuals with idiopathic ASD, SZ, or ADHD and 1,072 controls. We characterize CNV FC-signatures and use them to identify dimensions contributing to complex idiopathic conditions. CNVs have large mirror effects on FC at the global and regional level. Thalamus, somatomotor, and posterior insula regions play a critical role in dysconnectivity shared across deletions, duplications, idiopathic ASD, SZ but not ADHD. Individuals with higher similarity to deletion FC-signatures exhibit worse cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Deletion similarities identified at the connectivity level could be related to the redundant associations observed genome-wide between gene expression spatial patterns and FC-signatures. Results may explain why many CNVs affect a similar range of neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 45(9): 983-989, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We recently transitioned from in-person delivery of a brief behavioral parent intervention to telepsychology delivery to meet families' needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this topical review, we describe how we used treatment fidelity as a guiding principle to orient adaptations for telepsychology, as well as preliminary findings and early lessons learned in this implementation. Methods: Using rapid-cycle quality improvement methods, we adapted a brief parent training group (Bootcamp for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; BC-ADHD) to three groups of caregivers (i.e., 5-7 families) of school-aged children with ADHD (n = 20; 85% males). Families were from the following ethnic backgrounds: 75% White non-Hispanic, 15% White Hispanic, and 10% Black. Clinicians completed measures on their implementation experience. Observers completed measures on content/process fidelity and attendance. Caregivers completed measures on demographics, treatment satisfaction, and telepsychology experience. RESULTS: Telepsychology BC-ADHD can be implemented with comparably high levels of content and process fidelity and treatment satisfaction to in-person groups; and it appears to be feasible and acceptable to caregivers. Caregiver and clinician qualitative feedback revealed themes of appreciating the convenience of telepsychology, while experiencing some challenges in relating to others and sharing over video. CONCLUSIONS: When treatment fidelity is used as a guiding tool, telepsychology parent training groups can be delivered with high fidelity and appear to be acceptable and feasible to caregivers and clinicians. Future research using larger and more diverse samples, multimethod and multi-informant measurement approaches, and controlled designs is needed to further assess the generalizability and efficacy of telepsychology parent training groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237906, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To our knowledge, no case-control study has investigated the relationships between stealing, clinical implications, and psychiatric diagnosis among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with or without a history of stealing. Thus, the associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and a history of stealing remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between stealing, clinical implications, and psychiatric diagnosis among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with or without a history of stealing. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, the proportions of clinical implications among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with and without a history of stealing were compared. Data regarding age, sex, primary diagnosis, junior high school student or not, both father and mother are the caregivers or not, family history, abuse history, school refusal, depressive state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were retrieved from medical records. Participants consisted of Japanese junior high school students and younger patients (maximum age, 15 years) at the first consultation. All patients were examined and diagnosed by psychiatrists according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, or the Fifth Edition. Stealing was reported by the patients or caregivers to the psychiatrist, or the psychiatrist had inquired about a history of stealing at the first consultation. RESULTS: Among 1972 patients who consulted the clinic, at the first consultation, 56 (2.84%) had a history of stealing (cases), and 1916 (97.16%) did not (controls). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the proportions of males, junior high school students, abuse history, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and conduct disorder were significantly higher, and the proportions of adjustment disorders and school refusal were significantly lower in cases than in controls. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio increased further when the two factors were considered together, such as ASD with abuse history and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with abuse history. CONCLUSIONS: Children with a history of stealing were more likely to be diagnosed with ASD or ADHD with abuse history. Child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a history of stealing were more likely to be older and male. Our study should be understood without prejudice because this study is reporting associations, not causality. Therefore, a prospective study to investigate causality among ADHD, ASD, abuse history, and stealing is needed. If ADHD and ASD with abuse history can be correlated to a history of stealing, interventions can be more effective by understanding the mechanisms underlying these connections.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
17.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(15): 1897-1913, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ADHD causes significant distress and functional impairment in multiple domains of daily life. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment are important to improve the quality of life of people. The pharmacotherapy for ADHD is well established but needs systematic evaluation in Intellectual Disability (ID) populations. AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews the ADHD pharmacological treatment in people with ID using the PRISMA guidance for scoping reviews to help identify the nature and strength of evidence. EXPERT OPINION: In the last 20 years, seven randomized controlled trials have evaluated pharmacotherapies for ADHD in people with ID; five looking at methylphenidate. Generally, studies were underpowered; all but two had less than 25 participants. Of the two larger trials one was single blinded and therefore open to bias. Only two used a parallel-group method, the remainder were mostly short crossover trials; not ideal when measuring behavioral and psychological parameters which are long standing. The remaining evidence is made up of observational studies. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine, particularly at higher doses, have shown clear benefits in people with ID. Most people with ID tolerated ADHD medications well. Benefits were seen in behavioral and/or cognitive domains. The evidence base is limited, though promising, for dexamfetamine, clonidine, and guanfacine.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Clonidina/uso terapêutico , Dextroanfetamina/uso terapêutico , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iran has serious problems with traffic-related injuries and death. A major reason for traffic accidents is cognitive failure due to deficits in attention. In this study, we investigated the associations between traffic violations, traffic accidents, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), age, and on an attentional network task in a sample of Iranian adults. METHODS: A total of 274 participants (mean age: 31.37 years; 80.7% males) completed questionnaires covering demographic information, driving violations, traffic accidents, and symptoms of ADHD. In addition, they underwent an objective attentional network task (ANT), based on Posner's concept of attentional networks. RESULTS: More frequent traffic violations, correlated with lower age and poorer performance on the attentional network tasks. Higher symptoms of ADHD were associated with more accidents and more traffic violations, but not with the performance of the attentional tasks. Higher ADHD scores, a poorer performance on attentional network tasks, and younger age predicted traffic violations. Only higher symptoms of ADHD predicted more traffic accidents. CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of Iranian drivers, self-rated symptoms of ADHD appeared to be associated with traffic violations and accidents, while symptoms of ADHD were unrelated to objectively assessed performance on an attentional network task. Poor attentional network performance was a significant predictor of traffic violations but not of accidents. To increase traffic safety, both symptoms of ADHD and attentional network performance appear to merit particular attention.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Criminoso , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497051

RESUMO

METHOD: We collected 130 short semi-structured interviews following treatment sessions from 30 participants with ADHD receiving NF using slow cortical potential training (SCP). The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes where evaluated for changes over-time and between participants with high/low treatment compliance. Interviews from 14 participants who had undergone at least five completed interviews were examined in more depths, aiming to establish typical strategy/training profiles. RESULTS: We identified 16 strategies covering four domains: cognitive, physiological, emotional and unspecified. Typical of most strategies were that they served as a vehicle to regulate mental arousal. Overall, no clear patterns of changes over time were found. Highly compliant participants reported to use the strategies from the emotional domain and the strategy focus more frequently than neutral compliant participants did, while neutral compliant participants reported the use of the strategies muscular activity and passivity more often than participants did with high compliance. Across participants, three strategy profiles were derived, those who handled the task by manipulating their state of mind in relation to the NF task, those who were mainly manifest and concrete towards the task, and those who were mostly unaware of what they were doing. These profiles differed in self-regulatory performance, and only participants showing the state of mind profile experienced a decrease of ADHD symptoms accompanied by objectively measured improvements in self-regulation. In addition, compliance affected both how and what strategies were used. CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: A heterogeneous array of cognitive and other strategies is used at varying levels of training compliance by participants with ADHD during SCP that could be condensed to three prototypical profiles. Future research should take compliance and strategy/training profiles into account when evaluating NF. The latter may help to clarify which and how brain activity regulating mechanisms drive training, individual response to NF, and how they are influenced by motivational factors. Our findings might also help to facilitate more effective instructions in how to approach SCP in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Eletroencefalografia , Neurorretroalimentação/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Cognição , Sistemas Computacionais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Motivação , Neurorretroalimentação/fisiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração , Vigília
20.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S85-S92, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the French government has decided a general lockdown. This unprecedented situation has raised concerns about children's and adolescent's mental health. Children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may find this context of restrained activity particularly tricky. The objectives of our study are to gather information about the well-being and global life conditions of children and adolescents with ADHD during the COVID-19 outbreak in France. METHODS: We designed a survey including both open-ended questions and questionnaire items for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD. Parents responded to the following open-ended questions: 1) "How is your child doing since the lockdown?" 2) "How is life at home since the lockdown?" 3) "If you had a remote service provision with a mental health professional (e.g. by telephone or video technology), please share your thoughts and any suggestions with us" 4) "Please share any other items that you think are important about ADHD symptoms of your child and the lockdown situation". This survey was posted on social media on the 6th of April and disseminated by French ADHD-parent and patient organizations. The present article reports the descriptive, qualitative and textometrical analyses of the survey. RESULTS: Between day 20 and 30 of lockdown, 538 parents responded to the survey, and we included 533 responses in the final analysis. The vast majority of responders were women 95 % (95 % CI 93,50; 97,18) with children whose mean age was 10,5 (95 % CI 7.58; 13.44). Since the lockdown, 34.71 % (95 % CI 30.70; 38.94) of children experienced a worsening in well-being, 34.33 % (95 % CI 30.34; 38.56) showed no significant changes and 30.96 % (95 % CI 27.09; 35.10) were doing better according to their parents. The thematic analysis showed that an improvement of their children's anxiety was one of the main topics addressed by parents. This improvement related to less school-related strain and flexible schedules that respected their children's rhythm. Improved self-esteem was another topic that parents linked with a lesser exposure of their children to negative feed-back. Parents repeatedly reported both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, optimal lockdown life conditions seemed to compensate for the impact of ADHD symptoms (e.g. sufficient space at home, presence of a garden). Some parents reported worsening of general well-being in their children, and this manifested as oppositional/defiant attitudes and emotional outbursts. Parents also cited sleep problems and anxiety in this context. As regards everyday life during lock-down, at-home schooling was another major topic-parents described that their children struggled to complete school-related tasks and that teachers seemed to have forgotten about academic accommodations. The lockdown situation seems to have raised parents' awareness of the role of inattention and ADHD symptoms in their children's learning difficulties. Due to potential selection biases, the results of our survey may not be generalizable to all children and adolescents with ADHD. The main strengths of this rapid survey-based study lies in the reactivity of the participants and the quality and diversity of their responses to the open-ended questions. CONCLUSIONS: According to their parents, most children and adolescents with ADHD experience stability or improvement of their well-being. An improvement in school-related anxiety and the flexible adjustment to the children's' rhythms as well as parents' increased awareness of the difficulties their children experience are among the key topics in parents' descriptions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Atitude , Tédio , Criança , Educação , Relações Familiares , Feminino , França , Habitação , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Autoimagem , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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