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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(686): 543-545, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186800

RESUMO

Although there is a substantial literature concerning the sexuality of people suffering from a psychiatric disorder, such as depression, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders or personality disorders, few studies have investigated the sexuality of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. The purpose of this article is therefore to show current knowledge about sexuality in people suffering from ADHD. The latter seem to have less sexual satisfaction, more sexual desire, more sexual dysfunction and more risky sexual behavior than the general population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Sexualidade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 136-145, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High levels of impulsivity represent a core feature of various psychiatric conditions, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Impulse Control and Conduct Disorders, Bulimia Nervosa, Substance Use Disorders, and other maladaptive behaviors, like non-suicidal self-harm and suicidal behavior. The overall aim of our research is to carry out a trans-diagnostic study of impulsivity as a common behavioral risk factor, taking into consideration the different dimensions of impulsivity (motor, attentional, non-planning). The project investigates inhibitory neurocognitive deficits, electrophysiological correlates, childhood adversities and genetic vulnerability factors in the background of impulsivity. METHODS: In this report, we describe the results of our pilot study which aims to compare impulsivity profiles, personality traits, and levels of aggression in patients with adult ADHD (aADHD) and BPD primary diagnoses, and healthy control subjects, based on self report questionnaires (Barratt Impulivity Scale, Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory). We have also carried out analyses on the role of childhood adverse events in the background of impulsivity. Because of the predominance of female participants in the BPD group, we restrict our analyses to only female subjects (N=111 out of 152 patients overall). RESULTS: Comparing the three groups significant differences were observed in each impulsivity domain: higher levels of attentional and motor impulsivity were present in aADHD, while non-planning impulsivity was more characteristic to BPD (p<0.001). Using the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory aADHD patients reached significant higher levels on six subscales (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependency, perseverance, selfdirection, cooperation) than BPD patients (p<001). Childhood emotional neglect results in higher levels of impulsivity in adulthood (R=0.54, p<0.001) regardless of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Impulsivity, as a diagnostic criterion of different psychiatric disorders is a heterogenous construct. Different characteristics of impulsivity are pronounced with respect to the condition it is part of. Studying impulsivity can improve our understanding of the etiology of different psychiatric conditions, which can result in more specific and effective therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto , Caráter , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
3.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(1): 7401205010p1-7401205010p11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078512

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Women with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptoms may experience difficulty carrying out desired life roles and activities. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a 7-wk tailored occupation-based intervention can reduce perceived stress and ADHD symptoms and enhance perceived performance of and satisfaction with daily roles and activities among women with ADHD. DESIGN: Randomization to intervention (n = 11) and control (n = 12) groups. SETTING: Home and community. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three participants ages 20-55 yr, English speaking, and with a self-reported diagnosis of ADHD. INTERVENTION: The intervention was administered for 7 wk in individual 1-hr sessions and addressed routine establishment, organization, time management, stress management, and sensory regulation in the home and community. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. RESULTS: At 1-wk postintervention, statistically significant differences were found between intervention and control groups in perceived stress (Z = -3.838, p < .000, d = -2.66), ADHD symptoms (Z = -3.605, p < .000, d = -2.17), and COPM Performance (Z = -4.074, p < .000, d = 3.04) and Satisfaction change scores (Z = -3.759, p < .000, d = 2.82). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: A 7-wk tailored intervention reduced perceived stress and ADHD symptoms and enhanced perceived performance of and satisfaction with desired occupational roles and activities in a sample of women with ADHD. Further research is warranted to determine whether the intervention can be useful to women with ADHD beyond the present sample. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This intervention may offer an effective nonpharmacological option for women with ADHD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 481-504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006369

RESUMO

Autism has been increasing dramatically since its description by Leo Kanner in 1943. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2018 has identified 1 in 59 children (1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls) has autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autistic spectrum disorders and ADHD are complex conditions in which nutritional and environmental factors play major roles. It is important to understand how food can have an impact on their current and future health. Appealing food colors stimulate the consumption of different food products. Since 2011, it is evident that dyes are linked to harmful effects in children. Artificial dyes have neurotoxic chemicals that aggravate mental health problems. Many families with autistic children avoid food dyes in their diet in order to avoid behavioral issues. A study reported that there is a correlation between yellow dye and sleep disturbance. Food colors Blue 1 and 2, Green 3, Red 3, Yellow 5 and 6, Citrus Red 2, and Red 40 can trigger many behaviors in most kids. Artificial food color usually contains petroleum and is manufactured in a chemical process that includes formaldehyde, aniline, hydroxides, and sulfuric acids. Most impurities in the food color are in the form of salts or acids. Sometimes lead, arsenic, and mercury may be present as impurities. The U.S. FDA is yet to study the effects of synthetic dyes on behavior in children. A study conducted at Southampton University in England found a link between food dyes and hyperactive behavior in children. The research does not prove that food coloring actually causes autism spectrum disorder, but there seems to be a link. This chapter attempts to provide a broad review of the available literature on food color and the epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of autistic spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Corantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2547-2553, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995978

RESUMO

Anticholinergic organophosphate (OP) agents act on the diverse serine hydrolases, thereby revealing unexpected biological effects. Epidemiological studies indicate a relationship between the OP exposure and development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms, whereas no plausible mechanism for the OP-induced ADHD has been established. The present investigation employs ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF) as an OP-probe, which is an extremely potent inhibitor of endocannabinoid (EC, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol)-hydrolyzing enzymes: that is, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). An ex vivo experiment shows that EOPF treatment decreases FAAH and MAGL activities and conversely increases EC levels in the rat brain. Subsequently, EOPF (treated intraperitoneally once at 0, 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg) clearly induces ADHD-like behaviors (in elevated plus-maze test) in both Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The EOPF-induced behaviors are reduced by a concomitant administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist SLV-319. Accordingly, the EC system is a feasible target for OP-caused ADHD-like behaviors in adolescent rats.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/enzimologia , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Organofosforados/efeitos adversos , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 74, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistent findings reported on maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and child risk of ADHD. In this study, ADHD symptoms at pre-school age children in association with prenatal passive and active tobacco smoke exposure determined by maternal plasma cotinine levels in the third trimester were investigated. METHODS: This was a follow-up study of the birth cohort: the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Children whose parents answered Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to identify child ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems) and total difficulties at age 5 years with available maternal plasma cotinine level at the third trimester were included (n = 3216). Cotinine levels were categorized into 4 groups; ≦ 0.21 ng/ml (non-smoker), 0.22-0.51 ng/ml (low-passive smoker), 0.52-11.48 ng/ml (high-passive smoker), and ≧ 11.49 ng/ml (active smoker). RESULTS: Maternal cotinine levels of active smokers were significantly associated with an increased risk of total difficulties (OR = 1.67) and maternal low- and high-passive smoking also increased the risk (OR = 1.11, 1.25, respectively) without statistical significance. Similarly, maternal cotinine levels of active smokers were associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR = 1.49). Maternal low- and high-passive smoking and active smoking increased the risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR = 1.45, 1.43, and OR = 1.59, respectively) only in boys. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may contribute to the increased risk of child total difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention at pre-school age. Pregnant women should be encouraged to quit smoking and avoid exposure to tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1706, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experience (ACE), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and resilience can all contribute to depressive symptoms. However, little is known regarding the complex relationships between these factors and their joint effects on depressive symptoms. This study aimed to explore the underlying mechanism of ACE, ADHD, and resilience on depressive symptoms among men have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS: A total of 714 MSM were recruited from gay/bisexual men-serving venues in Wuhan, Changsha, and Nanchang of China. The data was collected using computer-assisted self-interview. The mediated and moderated mediation models were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms between ACE, ADHD, resilience, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Among 714 MSM, 51.4% reported at least one ACE and 13.0% reported three or more. ACE had a direct (ß = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.45-1.57) effect on depressive symptoms. ADHD partially mediated the correlation between ACE and depressive symptoms (indirect effect: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34-0.79). Additionally, the effect of ACE on depressive symptoms was moderated and buffered by resilience (ß = -0.09, 95% CI: -0.15 - -0.03). CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that, programs and policies that promote resilience and address ADHD might protect Chinese MSM exposed to ACE from depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 29(124): 124-128, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey the prevalence of retrospectively recalled clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and determine the association of ADHD symptoms in childhood with current academic achievement and psychopathological outcomes among college students in the state of Kerala, India. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 5784 students from 58 colleges selected by cluster random sampling. The Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV was used for recollection of childhood ADHD symptoms; a total score of ≥60 (indicating the 99 percentile) was taken as the cut-off for clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test was used to assess lifetime use of alcohol and tobacco. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess non-specific psychological distress. Lifetime suicidality and exposure to sexual abuse were assessed by asking relevant questions. Students who recalled having clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood were compared with those who did not. RESULTS: Of 5784 students, 639 (11.5%) did not complete the questionnaire. Of the remaining 5145 students, 1750 (34.8%) were men and 3395 (65.2%) were women, with a mean age of 19.4 years. 143 (2.8%) students reported clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood. Childhood ADHD symptoms were significantly more common in men and in those living in urban areas. In the bivariate analysis, those with clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood had significantly higher odds of poorer academic performance, alcohol use, tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, and contact and non-contact sexual abuse, after adjusting for sex and residence. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical evaluation and appropriate management may be warranted for adults who retrospectively recall clinically significant ADHD symptoms in childhood.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(11): 1030-1042, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sluggish cognitive tempo refers to a constellation of symptoms that include slowed behavior/thinking, reduced alertness, and getting lost in one's thoughts. Despite the moniker "sluggish cognitive tempo," the evidence is mixed regarding the extent to which it is associated globally with slowed (sluggish) mental (cognitive) information processing speed (tempo). METHOD: A well-characterized clinical sample of 132 children ages 8-13 years (M = 10.34, SD = 1.51; 47 girls; 67% White/non-Hispanic) were administered multiple, counterbalanced neurocognitive tests and assessed for sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms via multiple-informant reports. RESULTS: Bayesian linear regressions revealed significant evidence against associations between sluggish cognitive tempo and computationally modeled processing speed (BF01 > 3.70), and significant evidence for associations with slower working memory manipulation speed. These findings were consistent across parent and teacher models, with and without control for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms and IQ. There was also significant evidence linking faster inhibition speed with higher parent-reported sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide strong evidence against characterizing children with sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms as possessing a globally sluggish cognitive tempo. Instead, these symptoms appear to be related, to a significant extent, to executive dysfunction characterized by working memory systems that are too slow and inhibition systems that are too fast. Behaviorally, these findings suggest that requiring extra time to rearrange the active contents of working memory delays responding, whereas an overactive inhibition system likely terminates thoughts too quickly and therefore prevents intended behaviors from starting or completing, thereby giving the appearance that children are absent-minded or failing to act when expected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658722

RESUMO

The emerging literature reports that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) show deficits in executive functioning. To date, the combination of drug therapy with certain evidence-based non-medication interventions has been proven to be the most effective treatment for ADHD. There is a gap in the literature regarding comparing the executive functions (EF) of treatment naïve and medicated children with ADHD with both each other and typically developing children. Altogether, 50 treatment naïve and 50 medicated children with ADHD and 50 typically developing children between the ages of six and 12 were enrolled. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (Mini Kid) and the Test of Attentional Performance for Children (KiTAP) measures were employed. Treatment naïve children with ADHD showed weaker performance on most executive function measures (12 out of 15) than either the medicated ADHD group or the controls. There were no significant differences between the medicated ADHD children and typically developing children in most KiTAP parameters (10 out of 15). Executive function impairments were observable in treatment naïve ADHD children, which draws attention to the importance of treating ADHD. Future studies should focus on the specific effects of stimulant medication on executive functions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Atenção , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Função Executiva , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(6): 468-480, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539285

RESUMO

Children with ADHD and ASD may present differences in the affective-motivational processes. We systematically review the literature regarding temporal discounting in children up to 12 years with ADHD and ASD. Six articles were included, five studies with ADHD children (n = 231), one with ASD children (n = 21), all including typically developing children as controls (n = 210). Five studies (four with ADHD and one with ASD) found greater temporal reward discounting for clinical groups. Occurrence of ADHD appears to rush even more the decision-making process at this stage of development, but there is still a lack in the literature, especially evaluating individuals with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Recompensa , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
J Addict Nurs ; 30(3): 185-192, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have to cope with additional comorbid disorders. In daily practice, practitioners observe that ADHD not only causes a decline in participants' quality of life, but the presence of sleep and eating disorders also has an impact on daily functioning. The aims of this study are to give meaning to the experiences of participants who are living with ADHD and sleep deprivation and are overweight and to provide additional knowledge and data that will inform integrated treatment in the long term. The following research questions were formulated: METHOD: A qualitative design based on a Parse research method provided the best research framework to answer our questions. The method aims for data saturation, employing six steps in which data collection alternates with data analysis. This iterative process with double hermeneutics enlarges participants' perspectives on their experiences. RESULTS: Participants' daily life is continuously influenced by their experiences with (binge) eating, irregular sleeping patterns, and loss of emotional control. These complex phenomena are often caused by their ADHD, because of underdeveloped coping skills. An everyday struggle with life and difficulty making choices are the leading themes in participant narratives. Continuous feelings of failure, referred to in this report as everyday "failure moments," cause negative self-esteem and negative body image. According to participants, standardized care should include opportunities for participants to tell their life stories as well as an individualized analysis of how ADHD core symptoms affect daily decision making, taking into account sleeping and eating patterns. CONCLUSION: The experience of failure moments, the struggle with making choices, and negative self-esteem and body image all develop in a different way for each participant. When professionals treat participants by solely focusing on the core symptoms using a one-dimensional cognitive behavioral approach, they may overlook underlying (biological) interactions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/reabilitação , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Sobrepeso/reabilitação , Autoimagem , Privação do Sono/reabilitação
14.
Res Dev Disabil ; 94: 103464, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience comorbid symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additionally, children with ASD and ADHD often have sleep disturbances and deficits in executive functioning (EF). In typical development, sleep disturbances are causally linked to EF deficits and exacerbate ADHD-like symptoms. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether caregiver-report sleep and EF difficulties predict ADHD symptoms in children with ASD. METHODS: Caregiver-report of child sleep, EF, and ADHD symptom severity was collected for 101 children with ASD, 7-11 years of age. Hierarchical linear regressions tested the independent and interactive effects of sleep and EF in predicting ADHD symptoms. RESULTS: Children with ASD were more likely to have symptoms of ADHD if they experienced both sleep and EF difficulties. Children with difficulties in working memory were particularly at risk for clinically significant symptoms of ADHD. Notably, however, sleep did not mediate or moderate the relation between working memory and ADHD symptoms in this sample, suggesting that these variables act through independent mechanisms to increase vulnerability for comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: These results have clinical significance as sleep and EF deficits may identify an ASD subgroup that is at increased risk for a comorbid ADHD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Função Executiva , Transtornos da Memória , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Cuidadores , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
15.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(6): 1101-1116, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387453

RESUMO

Social anxiety disorder is characterized by a marked fear and avoidance of social situations or a fear of being evaluated by others. Although training for top-down attentional control has been an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder, few studies have demonstrated that individuals with social anxiety have top-down attentional dysfunction. This study used dichotic listening (DL) tasks to investigate the relationship between social anxiety and top-down attentional control over relevant brain activities. We also investigated relationships between both social situation-dependent self-focused attention and external attention bias and situation-independent attentional control. Thirty-six healthy participants underwent near-infrared spectroscopy scanning while performing top-down selective and divided attention DL tasks. Then, they undertook a speech task and completed a questionnaire to assess the degrees of their self-focused attention and external attention bias. The results showed that the degree of social fear and self-focused attention during the speech task were negatively correlated with scores on the selective attention task and with the activity of the left pars opercularis during the selective DL task, which were related to each other. These results suggest that a relationship exists between social fear, self-focused attention in a social situation, and top-down selective attentional dysfunction as assessed both behaviorally and by brain activity changes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Área de Broca/fisiopatologia , Testes com Listas de Dissílabos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fobia Social/psicologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(7): 409-416, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380715

RESUMO

Purpose and aim: The overall aim of the present study was to examine quality of life in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients age ≥60 years. First, we compared older adults with ADHD to both healthy controls of the same age and younger adults with ADHD. Second, we examined executive functioning as a possible underlying factor for quality of life among older adults with ADHD. Methods: The study included 158 participants in three groups: (1) older adults (60-75 years of age) with ADHD (n = 42), (2) healthy controls of the same age (n = 58), and (3) younger adults (age 18-45 years of age) with ADHD (n = 56). The patients with ADHD were clinically-referred. Quality of life was examined through self-ratings and executive functioning was examined using both self-ratings and tests. Results: Older adults with ADHD differed significantly from controls the same age on all aspects of quality of life, with large effect sizes. However, they showed similar levels of quality of life compared to younger adults with ADHD. The exception was psychological health, for which older adults displayed better quality of life compared to younger adults with ADHD. Executive deficits measured through self-ratings, especially working memory, were related to quality of life, sometimes also beyond the influence of ADHD symptom levels. Conclusions: Older adults with ADHD show serious impairments in quality of life, that are comparable to the levels found for younger adults. Impairments may increase further as these individuals grow older and clinics need to meet the needs of this increasingly larger group of patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4515-4522, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410697

RESUMO

Internet addiction (IA) has been reported as prevalent in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the course of IA in this population has not been elucidated. The authors performed a 2-year follow-up study including 89 out of 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a psychiatric clinical setting who participated in the original cross-sectional study assessing IA prevalence. Within this sample of participants from both the original and the follow-up study, results showed a 2-year IA remission and incidence rate of 60% and 5%, respectively. Our findings imply that the course of IA in psychiatric populations with ASD and/or ADHD might be similar to reports from previous studies with general adolescent populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Internet , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(9): 588-596, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441667

RESUMO

This study examined both children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing students in dynamic measures of intelligence through the use of a virtual avatar. Three conditions were compared: in the first condition, the avatar simply gave the instructions; in the second condition, the avatar presented the instructions and gave feedback on the attention of the learner; in the third condition, the avatar was not presented. Results indicated that ADHD subtypes do not differ in problem solving and the interactive avatar improved the performance of groups with ADHD in the dynamic intelligence test. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that the function of regulation and feedback of the avatar improve the attention process and, consequently, boosts performance.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Retroalimentação , Testes de Inteligência , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Criança , Humanos
19.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 37: 39-46, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is growing interest in how mindful parenting interventions (MPI) may support families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to explore the potential barriers and enablers to parents' participation in a MPI from the perspectives of parents of children with ADHD and healthcare providers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen parents of children with ADHD attended focus groups, and seven healthcare providers participated in semi-structured phone interviews. Transcripts of the focus groups and interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three overarching themes related to potential barriers and enablers were identified: parent motivation and capacity to engage in a MPI, the need for multimodal and personalised delivery, and considerations for real-world program implementation. CONCLUSION: Parents of children with ADHD appear to require flexible, multimodal MPIs that consider parents' emotional experiences, priorities, and personal struggles.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Atenção Plena , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Amor , Masculino , Metilfenidato/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 47(4): 158-64, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461155

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in the child and adolescent population, with a known impact on learning, social relations and quality of life. However, the lifestyle habits of patients with this disorder have been poorly studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 160 children and adolescents, aged between 6 and 16 years, participated in the study. Half of them were treatment-naïve patients with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, and without comorbidities. The remaining 80 participants were typically developing (TD) controls without known neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders. Parents of all participants completed a questionnaire about their children´s lifestyle habits (e.g, daily hours of sleep, media use and study). RESULTS: The groups had a similar socioeconomic background and did not differ with respect to age and sex distribution. However, patients with ADHD spent more time than TD children studying, and less time watching TV, playing video games, using computers and playing with other people. They also slept fewer hours per night than children and adolescents with TD. ADHD and TD groups spent similar time reading, listening to music and playing sports. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that children and adolescents with ADHD have different lifestyle habits compared to age- and sex-matched controls. These findings are not explained by comorbid disorders or medication/ psychological treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Hábitos , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo
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