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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 318, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941105

RESUMO

The prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin is being developed as a potential treatment for various neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Early studies using intranasal oxytocin in patients with ASD yielded encouraging results and for some time, scientists and affected families placed high hopes on the use of intranasal oxytocin for behavioral therapy in ASD. However, a recent Phase III trial obtained negative results using intranasal oxytocin for the treatment of behavioral symptoms in children with ASD. Given the frequently observed autism-like behavioral phenotypes in Prader-Willi and Schaaf-Yang syndromes, it is unclear whether oxytocin treatment represents a viable option to treat behavioral symptoms in these diseases. Here we review the latest findings on intranasal OT treatment, Prader-Willi and Schaaf-Yang syndromes, and propose novel research strategies for tailored oxytocin-based therapies for affected individuals. Finally, we propose the critical period theory, which could explain why oxytocin-based treatment seems to be most efficient in infants, but not adolescents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Administração Intranasal , Artrogripose , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo , Deficiência Intelectual , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 536, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation, autoimmunity, and gut-brain axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Carboxyhemoglobin (SpCO) as a non-invasive measurement of inflammation has not been studied in individuals with ASD. We conducted this post-hoc study based on our published clinical trial to explore SpCO and its association with ASD severity, autoimmunity, and response to daily Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic supplementation. METHODS: In this study, we included 35 individuals with ASD aged 3-20 years from a previously published clinical trial of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive daily Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic (6 × 1010 CFUs) or a placebo for 16 weeks. The outcomes in this analysis include Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Aberrant Behavior Checklist second edition (ABC-2), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, SpCO measured by CO-oximetry, fecal microbiome by 16 s rRNA sequencing, blood serum inflammatory markers, autoantibodies, and oxytocin (OT) by ELISA. We performed Kendall's correlation to examine their interrelationships and used Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare the means of all outcomes between the two groups at baseline and 16 weeks. RESULTS: Elevated levels of serum anti-tubulin, CaM kinase II, anti-dopamine receptor D1 (anti-D1), and SpCO were found in the majority of ASD subjects. ASD severity is correlated with SpCO (baseline, R = 0.38, p = 0.029), anti-lysoganglioside GM1 (R = 0.83, p = 0.022), anti-tubulin (R = 0.69, p = 0.042), and anti-D1 (R = 0.71, p = 0.045) in treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggests that the easily administered and non-invasive SpCO test offers a potentially promising autoimmunity and inflammatory biomarker to screen/subgroup ASD and monitor the treatment response to probiotics. Furthermore, we propose that the associations between autoantibodies, gut microbiome profile, serum OT level, GI symptom severity, and ASD core symptom severity scores are specific to the usage of probiotic treatment in our subject cohort. Taken together, these results warrant further studies to improve ASD early diagnosis and treatment outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03337035 , registered November 8, 2017.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Probióticos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Autoanticorpos , Autoimunidade , Biomarcadores , Monóxido de Carbono/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Inflamação , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 915701, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937689

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder that affects normal brain development. The recent finding of the microbiota-gut-brain axis indicates the bidirectional connection between our gut and brain, demonstrating that gut microbiota can influence many neurological disorders such as autism. Most autistic patients suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Many studies have shown that early colonization, mode of delivery, and antibiotic usage significantly affect the gut microbiome and the onset of autism. Microbial fermentation of plant-based fiber can produce different types of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that may have a beneficial or detrimental effect on the gut and neurological development of autistic patients. Several comprehensive studies of the gut microbiome and microbiota-gut-brain axis help to understand the mechanism that leads to the onset of neurological disorders and find possible treatments for autism. This review integrates the findings of recent years on the gut microbiota and ASD association, mainly focusing on the characterization of specific microbiota that leads to ASD and addressing potential therapeutic interventions to restore a healthy balance of gut microbiome composition that can treat autism-associated symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Gastroenteropatias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos
4.
J Neurodev Disord ; 14(1): 43, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether atypical patterns of facial expression production metrics in autism reflect the dynamic and nuanced nature of facial expressions across people or a true diagnostic difference. Furthermore, the heterogeneity observed across autism symptomatology suggests a need for more adaptive and personalized social skills programs. Towards this goal, it would be useful to have a more concrete and empirical understanding of the different expressiveness profiles within the autistic population and how they differ from neurotypicals. METHODS: We used automated facial coding and an unsupervised clustering approach to limit inter-individual variability in facial expression production that may have otherwise obscured group differences in previous studies, allowing an "apples-to-apples" comparison between autistic and neurotypical adults. Specifically, we applied k-means clustering to identify subtypes of facial expressiveness in an autism group (N = 27) and a neurotypical control group (N = 57) separately. The two most stable clusters from these analyses were then further characterized and compared based on their expressiveness and emotive congruence to emotionally charged stimuli. RESULTS: Our main finding was that a subset of autistic adults in our sample show heightened spontaneous facial expressions irrespective of image valence. We did not find evidence for greater incongruous (i.e., inappropriate) facial expressions in autism. Finally, we found a negative trend between expressiveness and emotion recognition within the autism group. CONCLUSION: The results from our previous study on self-reported empathy and current expressivity findings point to a higher degree of facial expressions recruited for emotional resonance in autism that may not always be adaptive (e.g., experiencing similar emotional resonance regardless of valence). These findings also build on previous work indicating that facial expression intensity is not diminished in autism and suggest the need for intervention programs to focus on emotion recognition and social skills in the context of both negative and positive emotions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Emoções , Empatia , Expressão Facial , Humanos
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e39888, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding how individuals think about a topic, known as the mental model, can significantly improve communication, especially in the medical domain where emotions and implications are high. Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) represent a group of diagnoses, affecting up to 18% of the global population, involving differences in the development of cognitive or social functions. In this study, we focus on 2 NDDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which involve multiple symptoms and interventions requiring interactions between 2 important stakeholders: parents and health professionals. There is a gap in our understanding of differences between mental models for each stakeholder, making communication between stakeholders more difficult than it could be. OBJECTIVE: We aim to build knowledge graphs (KGs) from web-based information relevant to each stakeholder as proxies of mental models. These KGs will accelerate the identification of shared and divergent concerns between stakeholders. The developed KGs can help improve knowledge mobilization, communication, and care for individuals with ADHD and ASD. METHODS: We created 2 data sets by collecting the posts from web-based forums and PubMed abstracts related to ADHD and ASD. We utilized the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to detect biomedical concepts and applied Positive Pointwise Mutual Information followed by truncated Singular Value Decomposition to obtain corpus-based concept embeddings for each data set. Each data set is represented as a KG using a property graph model. Semantic relatedness between concepts is calculated to rank the relation strength of concepts and stored in the KG as relation weights. UMLS disorder-relevant semantic types are used to provide additional categorical information about each concept's domain. RESULTS: The developed KGs contain concepts from both data sets, with node sizes representing the co-occurrence frequency of concepts and edge sizes representing relevance between concepts. ADHD- and ASD-related concepts from different semantic types shows diverse areas of concerns and complex needs of the conditions. KG identifies converging and diverging concepts between health professionals literature (PubMed) and parental concerns (web-based forums), which may correspond to the differences between mental models for each stakeholder. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that generating KGs from web-based data can capture the complex needs of families dealing with ADHD or ASD. Moreover, we showed points of convergence between families and health professionals' KGs. Natural language processing-based KG provides access to a large sample size, which is often a limiting factor for traditional in-person mental model mapping. Our work offers a high throughput access to mental model maps, which could be used for further in-person validation, knowledge mobilization projects, and basis for communication about potential blind spots from stakeholders in interactions about NDDs. Future research will be needed to identify how concepts could interact together differently for each stakeholder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão
9.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(4): 645-656, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934491

RESUMO

The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) calls for clear referral and treatment guidelines for children with ASD and their caregivers. Caregiver involvement in intervention is a standard practice of care and research suggests that teaching intervention strategies to caregivers can improve child outcomes and increase caregiver efficacy. Caregiver-mediated interventions that are naturalistic, developmental, and behavioral are effective in improving social and communication skills for children with ASD. Caregiver training models that use behavioral strategies are effective in reducing challenging behaviors. Finally, reducing caregiver barriers to treatment implementation, including stress and strain, are becoming critical components for improving the well-being and care of children with ASD and their families.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Cuidadores , Criança , Família , Humanos , Pais
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 305, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915065

RESUMO

The D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) gene encodes the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of D-aspartate, an atypical amino acid enriched in the mammalian brain and acting as an endogenous NMDA receptor agonist. Considering the key role of NMDA receptors in neurodevelopmental disorders, recent findings suggest a link between D-aspartate dysmetabolism and schizophrenia. To clarify the role of D-aspartate on brain development and functioning, we used a mouse model with constitutive Ddo overexpression and D-aspartate depletion. In these mice, we found reduced number of BrdU-positive dorsal pallium neurons during corticogenesis, and decreased cortical and striatal gray matter volume at adulthood. Brain abnormalities were associated with social recognition memory deficit at juvenile phase, suggesting that early D-aspartate occurrence influences neurodevelopmental related phenotypes. We corroborated this hypothesis by reporting the first clinical case of a young patient with severe intellectual disability, thought disorders and autism spectrum disorder symptomatology, harboring a duplication of a chromosome 6 region, including the entire DDO gene.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Adulto , Animais , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , D-Aspartato Oxidase/química , D-Aspartato Oxidase/genética , D-Aspartato Oxidase/metabolismo , Ácido D-Aspártico/genética , Ácido D-Aspártico/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Camundongos , Oxirredutases , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
11.
F1000Res ; 11: 50, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923290

RESUMO

Background: Ayres Sensory Integration (ASI) is widely employed by occupational therapists working with clients who experience challenges in sensory integration, including those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is a dearth of research examining the feasibility of ASI outside of Western nations. This study documented the barriers associated with ASI in Saudi Arabia and assessed whether the intervention could improve process and participation skills. Methods: A pre-test/post-test case study design was used. The participant was a 4-year-old girl with ASD from Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on sensory processing, motor skills, and participation in activities of daily living. The study used semi-structured interviews and assessments (Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests, the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool, and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2) to develop goals, identify outcome measures, and plan an ASI intervention. Results: Despite the limited availability of resources (e.g., toys, treatment spaces) and Arabic measures, improvements were observed on motor and sensory tasks and in occupational performance. Conclusion: ASI that adheres to the ASI fidelity tool can be of value for Saudi Arabian children with ASD. Additionally, the study provides a stepping-stone to further research for occupational therapists in Saudi Arabia working with children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Terapia Ocupacional , Atividades Cotidianas , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Arábia Saudita
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271406, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This questionnaire-based validation study investigated if the dental examination of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder is viewed by dentists with key expertise in paediatric dentistry as a challenge or a threat in terms of transactional stress theory. The Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM) was used for this purpose and it's feasibility and validity was examined as a first part of a multi-stage process for validation in dentistry with a sample of German dentists. It has hardly been investigated how the treatment of children and adolescents with a disorder from the autism spectrum is perceived by dentists. METHODS: An online-based survey (39 questions) plus the SAM as an add-on as well as a preceding short story of imagination on the topic (appointment for a dental check-up in a special school) were developed. Via e-mail members of the German Society of Paediatric Dentistry (DGKiZ) received a link which enabled interested members to participate. The majority of the members of the DGKiZ have additional qualifications in the treatment of children and adolescents and further training in the area of special needs care in dentistry. The data analysis was based on the SAM and its subscales. RESULTS: Out of the 1.725 members of DGKiZ 92 participants (11 male, 81 female) fully completed the questionnaire and the SAM. All in all the dentists rated their own psychological and physical stress in course of treating children and adolescents with a disorder from the autism spectrum between less and partly stressful. Although the structure of the SAM could not be fully mapped by means of a factor analysis, the different ratings "challenge" or "threat" could be comprehensibly evaluated after reading the story. The participants rated the situation from the story in general as challenging but not as threatening. Intercorrelations between the subscales of the SAM (e.g threat and centrality) of r = .56 showed that the scales are not clearly independent of one another. According to the transactional stress model, the SAM bases on, stress (perceived stressfulness) arises from appraisal processes (e.g. threat, controllable-by-self) that bring about a comparison between the requirements for the described situation and one's own possibilities in terms of a person-environment-fit. In the hierarchical regression a variance of R2 = .48 could be explained with all six subscales (appraisal processes) to predict perceived stressfulness of the SAM within a sample of dentists. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the response rate the results of the SAM are not representative for all German dentists, but it offers an insight into topics of special needs dentistry in Germany that have not yet been examined. Overall, the feasibility and validity of the SAM in the context of mapping cognitive appraisal processes and stress could be confirmed. Taking into account the result that the treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder is seen as a challenge, it is concluded that there is a need to improve the education of dental students and graduated dentists in Germany in the field of special needs dentistry.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Odontopediatria , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Odontólogos/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Odontopediatria/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13359, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922658

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficiencies in social interaction and repetitive behaviors. Multiple studies have reported abnormal cell membrane composition and autoimmunity as known mechanisms associated with the etiopathogenesis of ASD. In this study, multiple regression and combined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve as statistic tools were done to clarify the relationship between phospholipase A2 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio (PLA2/PE) as marker of lipid metabolism and membrane fluidity, and antihistone-autoantibodies as marker of autoimmunity in the etiopathology of ASD. Furthermore, the study intended to define the linear combination that maximizes the partial area under an ROC curve for a panel of markers. Forty five children with ASD and forty age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Using ELISA, the levels of antihistone-autoantibodies, and PLA2 were measured in the plasma of both groups. PE was measured using HPLC. Statistical analyses using ROC curves and multiple and logistic regression models were performed. A notable rise in the area under the curve was detected using combined ROC curve models. Additionally, higher specificity and sensitivity of the combined markers were documented. The present study indicates that the measurement of the predictive value of selected biomarkers related to autoimmunity and lipid metabolism in children with ASD using a ROC curve analysis should lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of ASD and its link with metabolism. This information may enable the early diagnosis and intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Criança , Histonas , Humanos , Fosfatidiletanolaminas , Curva ROC
14.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(12)2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914814

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is caused by human chromosome 21 (HSA21) trisomy. It is characterized by a poorly understood intellectual disability (ID). We studied two mouse models of DS, one with an extra copy of the Dyrk1A gene (189N3) and the other with an extra copy of the mouse Chr16 syntenic region (Dp(16)1Yey). RNA-seq analysis of the transcripts deregulated in the embryonic hippocampus revealed an enrichment in genes associated with chromatin for the 189N3 model, and synapses for the Dp(16)1Yey model. A large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen (82 different screens, including 72 HSA21 baits and 10 rebounds) of a human brain library containing at least 107 independent fragments identified 1,949 novel protein-protein interactions. The direct interactors of HSA21 baits and rebounds were significantly enriched in ID-related genes (P-value < 2.29 × 10-8). Proximity ligation assays showed that some of the proteins encoded by HSA21 were located at the dendritic spine postsynaptic density, in a protein network at the dendritic spine postsynapse. We located HSA21 DYRK1A and DSCAM, mutations of which increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 20-fold, in this postsynaptic network. We found that an intracellular domain of DSCAM bound either DLGs, which are multimeric scaffolds comprising receptors, ion channels and associated signaling proteins, or DYRK1A. The DYRK1A-DSCAM interaction domain is conserved in Drosophila and humans. The postsynaptic network was found to be enriched in proteins associated with ARC-related synaptic plasticity, ASD, and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. These results highlight links between DS and brain diseases with a complex genetic basis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Síndrome de Down , Deficiência Intelectual , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Síndrome de Down/genética , Síndrome de Down/metabolismo , Drosophila , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Camundongos
15.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) ; 65(1): 41-43, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793509

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Transient hyperphosphatasemia of infancy and early childhood (THI) is a benign laboratory disorder characterized by transiently extremely elevated activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (S-ALP). CASE REPORT: We present a 21-month-old girl with a right leg limp, most probably due to reactive arthritis after febrile viral infection, and deterioration of psychomotor development with concomitant transient elevation of S-ALP (61.74 µkat/L; normal 2.36-7.68 µkat/L). Normal values of serum creatinine, aspartate-aminotransferase, alanin-aminotransferase, calcium, phosphate, together with normal wrist X-ray ruled out rickets or other bone or hepatic cause of high S-ALP. The S-ALP gradually decreased within 3 months, thus fulfilling the THI criteria. Screening for inborn errors of metabolism was negative and meticulous neurologic, psychologic and psychiatric assessment pointed to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There was no causal relationship between THI and ASD, as high S-ALP was an accidental and transient finding within the routine laboratory assessment. However, when THI occurs in a child with an onset of a new disorder, or with a pre-existing bone or liver disease, it might seriously concern the physician. CONCLUSION: Children with THI should be spared from extensive evaluations and unnecessary blood draws.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Hiperfosfatemia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/diagnóstico , Hiperfosfatemia/etiologia , Lactente , Valores de Referência
16.
J Dr Nurs Pract ; 15(2): 75-83, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820787

RESUMO

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a major treatment focus for clinicians treating children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A review of the literature identified medical conditions that may be risk factors for an individual engaging in SIB. This study involved the creation and preliminary validation of a standardized assessment checklist: Risk Assessment Checklist for Self-Injury in Autism-Medical (RASCA-M) for the physical, behavioral, and diagnostic evaluation of non-verbal children with autism and SIB living in a residential setting. Preliminary content validity, criterion-related validity, and interobserver agreement were established. The RACSA-M is a promising instrument to assess underlying medical issues in non-verbal children with ASD and SIB.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11496, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798758

RESUMO

Entrainment, the unconscious process leading to coordination between communication partners, is an important dynamic human behavior that helps us connect with one another. Difficulty developing and sustaining social connections is a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subtle differences in social behaviors have also been noted in first-degree relatives of autistic individuals and may express underlying genetic liability to ASD. In-depth examination of verbal entrainment was conducted to examine disruptions to entrainment as a contributing factor to the language phenotype in ASD. Results revealed distinct patterns of prosodic and lexical entrainment in individuals with ASD. Notably, subtler entrainment differences in prosodic and syntactic entrainment were identified in parents of autistic individuals. Findings point towards entrainment, particularly prosodic entrainment, as a key process linked to social communication difficulties in ASD and reflective of genetic liability to ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Comunicação , Humanos , Pais , Comportamento Social
18.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 3540271, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35800976

RESUMO

Objective: Autistic children experience sensory challenges that interfere with participation and increase parent stress. Sensory-based interventions are used to address children's behaviors affected by sensory processing difficulties, but research is limited regarding use of sensory garments to support participation of autistic children. This study explored sensory garment effects on participation, parental competence, and perceived stress of autistic children and their parents. Method: Twenty-one children were recruited and 17 males with ASD and atypical sensory processing patterns completed the 14-week study. The Canadian Occupational Performance (COPM) and Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) were used to set and monitor participation goals. After a baseline period, children wore sensory garment(s) for 8 weeks. The COPM, GAS, Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), and Parent Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) were administered four times (prebaseline, before and after the intervention, and three weeks postintervention). Results: There were moderate to large significant differences in both COPM and GAS scores after the intervention and from the beginning to the end of the study indicating sensory garments may improve participation of autistic children. There were no significant differences in PSI or PSOC at any timepoint. Two children rejected the garments. Conclusions: Parent- or child-selected sensory garments may improve participation in individually meaningful activities for children who can tolerate wearing them. Children's improvement in participation did not improve parent stress or competence, possibly due to the passive nature of the intervention. More research is needed explore the influence of heterogeneous sensory patterns on response to intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Terapia Ocupacional , Canadá , Criança , Vestuário , Humanos , Masculino , Pais
19.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 112, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the serious developmental disorders that is usually diagnosed below the age of three years. Although the severity of the disease's symptoms varies from patient to patient, the ability to communicate with others is affected in all forms of ASD. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ASD in high-risk groups by continent. METHODS: The present study was conducted by systematic review and meta-analysis from 2008 to July 2021. Databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, SID, Magiran, Web of Science (WoS), and Google Scholar from 2008 to July 2021 were searched to find related studies. Data were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 2). RESULTS: A total of 74 studies with 30,212,757 participants were included in this study. The prevalence of ASD in the world was 0.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.4-1%). Subgroup analyses indicated that the prevalence of ASD in Asia, America, Europe, Africa and Australia was 0.4% (95% CI: 0.1-1), 1% (95% CI: 0.8-1.1), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-1), 1% (95% CI: 0.3-3.1), 1.7% (95% CI: 0.5-6.1) respectively. CONCLUSION: ASD imposes a heavy health burden on communities around the world. Early detection of ASD can reduce the incidence of developmental disorders and improve patients' communication skills. Therefore, health policymakers need to be aware of the prevalence and increasing trend of ASD to implement appropriate planning and interventions to reduce its consequences.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Prevalência
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805248

RESUMO

In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), sleep disturbances are a frequent comorbidity with an adverse effect on their behavior and functioning. It was suggested that melatonin deficit is at least partly responsible for the sleep problems. The study aimed to investigate, in a sample of 56 children with ASD aged 2.8-13.3 years, if the sleep problems and melatonin secretion can serve as predictors of adaptive functioning and severity of the ASD core symptoms. We demonstrated that, after adjustment for age, the Sleep score assessed by the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire predicts the Adaptive behavior composite score only in children younger than 6 years, and the preferred predictive model is for the domain Socialization. The age-adjusted Sleep score predicted Externalizing and Internalizing maladaptive behavior, with a near-zero contribution of age to the relationship between the Internalizing maladaptive behavior and Sleep score. After adjustment for age, the reduced night-time melatonin secretion predicted a higher severity of ASD symptoms in the domain Social affect and the Calibrated Severity Score, but not the sleep problems. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing sleep problems as a modifiable predictor of behavior in children with ASD and support the hypothesis about the role of melatonin in pathophysiology of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Melatonina , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Criança , Humanos , Melatonina/análogos & derivados , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
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