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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 1-4, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore susceptibility genes for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was carried out for 60 family trios affected with sporadic ASD. Genetic variants discovered in over 10% of the patients were selected for genotype-phenotype correlation and pathway enrichment analysis using Phenolyzer software and metascape database. Combining gene-phenotypic scores, pathway-related genes associated with neural and neurite triggering were screened for the candidates. RESULTS: A total of 170 common variants were found to be associated with the ASD phenotype. Among these, there was only one high-confidence gene [SHANK2(0.8146)] and four medium-confidence genes [ERBB2(0.1322), LAMC3(0.1117), PPFIA4(0.1059), DISC1(0.1002)]. Twenty-pathways and four biological processes were found to be statistically significant by pathway enrichment analysis, which included neuron projection morphogenesis (GO: 0048812), regulation of neuroblast proliferation (GO: 1902692), modulation of excitatory postsynaptic potential (GO: 0098815), and dendrite morphogenesis (GO: 0048813). Twenty-one genes were found to be closely associated with neurological and neurite triggering, among which only SHANK2, ERBB2, and DISC1 had above-medium confidence correlation scores with the ASD phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Abnormal neuron projection morphogenesis (GO: 0048812) may be closely related to the occurrence of ASD. SHANK2, ERBB2, and DISC1 are susceptibility genes for ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Variação Genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fenótipo , Sinapses/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e90, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915102

RESUMO

For young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the transition from childhood to adulthood especially for those with additional mental health problems can be challenging. Increasing numbers of young people attending child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) have a recognised diagnosis of ASD. What are the outcomes of these young people when they are discharged from CAMHS and how best can services support their needs? In this editorial we consider the emerging literature on transition for young people with long-term conditions and in particular those with ASD. Longer term studies suggest that the outcomes for individuals with ASD across the ability range is mostly poor and that healthcare transfer has generally not been managed well, with service users often reporting a lack of appropriate types of support. Encouragingly there is an increasing awareness of the need to support young people with long-term conditions as they negotiate the many developmental tasks of transition to adulthood. However, less is known about the experiences and aspirations of autistic individuals of all abilities as they transition to adulthood. This knowledge can inform a more nuanced approach to identifying developmentally appropriate outcomes. Recent studies with cognitively able young people with ASD, highlight some features in common with young people with long-term conditions but also the importance of identifying ways to foster underlying skills and the ability of young people with ASD to develop and maintain relationships. Child-focussed and adult-orientated healthcare services need to work directly with autistic individuals and their support networks to facilitate successful engagement with services and enable adults to manage their mental health needs. There is an urgent need to investigate the implementation and effectiveness of research and clinical guideline recommendations that aim to increase wellbeing, health self-efficacy and improve the mental health outcomes for autistic adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
3.
Acta Neurol Taiwan ; 28(2): 27-39, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867704

RESUMO

Cannabis plant has the scientific name called Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis plant has many species, but there are three main species including Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Over 70 compounds isolated from cannabis species are called cannabinoids (CBN). Cannabinoids produce over 100 naturally occurring chemicals. The most abundant chemicals are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). THC is psychotropic chemical that makes people feel "high" while CBD is nonpsychotropic chemical. However, cannabinoid chemicals are not found only in the cannabis plant, they are also produced by the mammalian body, called endocannabinoids and in the laboratory, called synthesized cannabinoids. Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system including brain and peripheral nervous system. There are at least two types of endocannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) which are G-protein coupled receptors. CB1 receptors are particularly abundant in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus and cerebellum, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. They are present in inhibitory GABA-ergic neurons and excitatory glutamatergic neurons. CB2 receptor is most abundantly found on cells of the immune system, hematopoietic cells and glia cells. CB2 is mainly expressed in the periphery under normal healthy condition, but in conditions of disease or injury, this upregulation occurs within the brain, and CB2 is therefore expressed in the brain in unhealthy states. Cannabis and cannabinoid are studied in different medical conditions. The therapeutic potentials of both cannabis and cannabinoid are related to the effects of THC, CBD and other cannabinoid compounds. However, the "high" effect of THC in cannabis and cannabinoid may limit the clinical use, particularly, the study on the therapeutic potential of THC alone is more limited. This review emphasizes the therapeutic potential of CBD and CBD with THC. CBD has shown to have benefit in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, psychosis, neuropathic pain, cancer pain, HIV, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, hypoxic-ischemic injury and epilepsy. CBD is generally well tolerated. Most common adverse events are diarrhea and somnolence. CBD also shows significantly low abuse potential.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Transtornos Mentais , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Canabinoides , Humanos
4.
J Dent Hyg ; 93(6): 35-41, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882559

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with maldevelopment of the brain that leads to impaired communication and social interaction skills, possible cognitive decline, and an inability to cope with environmental stimuli. Affected individuals may also exhibit a myriad of stereotypic and maladaptive behaviors. With the increasing prevalence of ASD in the United States, oral healthcare professionals (OHCP) will encounter greater opportunities for patient interactions. There is limited information in the literature regarding ASD and dental radiography. The task of taking diagnostically acceptable radiographs on ASD-affected patients may be hindered by a lack of cooperative behavior, communication difficulties, and an incapacity to understand instructions. This report will review various ASD-related characteristics, comorbidities, and an assortment of general behavior guidance techniques (Picture Exchange Communication System, visual scheduling, social stories, first-then board, voice control, tell-show-do, electronic media devices, nonverbal communication, and desensitization). Guidelines for applying basic and advanced techniques for dental radiographic examinations will be discussed with the goal of improved patient interactions and positive outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adaptação Psicológica , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal , Estados Unidos
5.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 803-816, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047569

RESUMO

A formação de Redes Sociais Virtuais (RSVs) em comunidades como o Facebook tornou-se um importante instrumento de busca por socialização e informação. Este artigo apresenta dados sobre fontes de informação utilizadas por responsáveis de crianças com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) e como essas interferem na percepção de suporte interpessoal e nos processos de governança em saúde. No estudo quantitativo, participaram 90 membros das três maiores RSVs sobre TEA. Para a coleta de dados foi utilizado questionário semiestruturado, cujas respostas foram quantificadas para melhor visualização. Os resultados demonstraram que a participação nessas redes é a principal fonte de informação para metade dos participantes, especialmente para a parcela da população com menor renda; 70/90 voluntários informaram se sentir amparados pelos parceiros de RSV e 63/90 se sentem desamparados pela sociedade em geral. Este fenômeno pode ser explicado pela formação de laços sociais marcados pela reciprocidade de situações vividas.


The formation of Virtual Social Networks (RSVs) in communities as Facebook has become an important tool for searching for socialization and information. This article presents data on the sources of information used by those responsible for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and how they interfere in the perception of interpersonal support and health governance processes. In the quantitative study, 90 members from the 3 largest RSVs on ASD participated. For the data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was used. Responses were quantified to facilitate visualization of the data. The results showed that participation in these networks is the main source of information for half of the participants, especially for the portion of the population with lower income; 70/90 volunteers reported feeling supported by RSV partners and 63/90 reported feeling helpless by society in general. A phenomenon that can be explained by the formation of social bonds marked by the reciprocity of lived situations.


La formación de Redes Sociales Virtuales (RSVs) en comunidades como Facebook se ha convertido en un importante instrumento de búsqueda de socialización e información. Este artículo presenta datos sobre fuentes de información utilizadas por responsables de niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), y cómo interfieren en la percepción de soporte interpersonal y en los procesos de gobernanza en salud. Se trató de estudio cuantitativo, participaron 90 miembros de las 3 mayores RSVs sobre TEA. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un cuestionario semiestructurado. Las respuestas se cuantificaron para facilitar la visualización de los datos. Los resultados demostraron que la participación en esas redes es la principal fuente de información para la mitad de los participantes, especialmente para la parcela de la población con menores ingresos; 70/90 voluntarios informaron sentirse amparados por los socios de RSV y 63/90 informaron sentirse desamparados por la sociedad en general. Fenómeno que puede ser explicado por la formación de lazos sociales marcados por la reciprocidad de situaciones vividas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Apoio Social , Governança Clínica , Rede Social , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Relações Interpessoais , Socialização , Comportamento , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Internet , Acesso à Informação , Mídias Sociais , Governança
6.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(11): 857-862, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665840

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with PCDH19-female limited epilepsy (PCDH19-FE). Methods: The clinical data of 60 female epilepsy patients with PCDH19 gene heterozygous variations at the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from October 2007 to December 2018 were collected and analyzed retrospectively, their clinical manifestations, accessory examination and follow-up treatment were summarized. Results: Data of a total of 60 cases of PCDH19-FE were collected. The seizure onset occurred between 4 and 42 months of age (median: 11 months of age). Focal seizures occurred in 47 patients (78%), generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) occurred in 30 patients (50%), and other rare types of seizures included atypical absence, myoclonic, clonic, tonic, and atonic seizures. Two or more seizures types existed in 24 patients (40%), and seven patients (12%) had attacks of status epilepticus. Sensitivity to fever was observed in 47 out of them (78%) and clustering of seizures as found in all patients. During the interictal phase, focal discharges were monitored in 22 cases (22/45, 49%), multifocal discharges in 12 cases (12/45, 27%), widely discharging in 2 cases (4%), and both focal and widely discharging in 9 cases (20%). Clinical seizures were detected in 30 patients during the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, including focal seizures in 22 cases, GTCS seizures in 8 cases, tonic seizure in three cases, myoclonic seizure followed by GTCS in one case, and two types of seizures in four cases. Before seizure onset, 57 patients had normal development and three patients had delayed language development. After seizure onset, varied degrees of intelligence disability were present in 38 cases (63%), language delay in 36 cases (60%), and gait instability in 10 cases (17%). Autistic features occurred in 17 cases (28%); and other behavioral problems like learning difficulties, personality, or emotional disorders existed in 33 cases (55%). Age at last follow-up ranged from one year and 3 months to 22 years and 3 months of age, 17 patients (28%) were seizure-free for more than 2 years (5 to 22 years at the last follow-up). The efficiency of antiepileptic drugs were 65% (33/51) in sodium valproate, 63% (27/43) in levetiracetam and 59% (20/34) in topiramate. Conclusions: The clinical features of PCDH19-FE are characterized by clustering of seizures, focal seizures in most cases, sensitivity to fever mostly, focal discharges principally in EEG, varied degrees of intellectual disability or movement disorder, combined with autism spectrum disorders in partial and high efficiency in sodium valproate or levetiracetam treatment.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Convulsões/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702648

RESUMO

Reliable molecular signatures are needed to improve the early and accurate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and indicate physicians to provide timely intervention. This study aimed to identify a robust blood small nuclear RNA (snRNA) signature in diagnosing ASD. 186 blood samples in the microarray dataset were randomly divided into the training set (n = 112) and validation set (n = 72). Then, the microarray probe expression profiles were re-annotated into the expression profiles of 1253 snRNAs though probe sequence mapping. In the training set, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) penalized generalized linear model was adopted to identify the 9-snRNA signature (RNU1-16P, RNU6-1031P, RNU6-258P, RNU6-335P, RNU6-485P, RNU6-549P, RNU6-98P, RNU6ATAC26P, and RNVU1-15), and a diagnostic score was calculated for each sample according to the snRNA expression levels and the model coefficients. The score demonstrated a good diagnostic ability for ASD in the training set (area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.90), validation set (AUC = 0.87), and the overall (AUC = 0.88). Moreover, the blood samples of 23 ASD patients and 23 age- and gender-matched controls were collected as the external validation set, in which the signature also showed a good diagnostic ability for ASD (AUC = 0.88). In subgroup analysis, the signature was robust when considering the confounders of gender, age, and disease subtypes, and displayed a significantly better performance among the female and younger cases (P = .039; P = .002). In comparison with a 55-gene signature deriving from the same dataset, the snRNA signature showed a better diagnostic ability (AUC: 0.88 vs 0.80, P = .049). In conclusion, this study identified a novel and robust blood snRNA signature in diagnosing ASD, which might help improve the diagnostic accuracy for ASD in clinical practice. Nevertheless, a large-scale prospective study was needed to validate our results.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/sangue , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(11): 849-855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition associated with sleep disturbances that may result from abnormalities in melatonin production. The correlations of melatonin levels with the severity of sleep disorder and/or severity of ASD were reported. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate urinary levels of the melatonin metabolite, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), in children with ASD, and their associations with sleep abnormalities and behavioural impairments. METHODS: Study involved 77 children with ASD and 84 controls aged 2.5‒15.5 years. Sleep disorders were assessed by Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Morning and afternoon levels of aMT6s were determined by radioimmunoassay method. Urinary creatinine levels were assessed by an enzymatic method. RESULTS: The urinary aMT6s/creatinine values indicate that the night-time melatonin levels are significantly lower in ASD than in controls, but there are no significant differences in the daytime levels. In the ASD group, on average, a 6.8-fold difference between night-time and daytime values of urinary aMT6s/creatinine was found, whereas for the controls a 12.5-fold difference was observed, indicating a lower night-time increase in melatonin levels. In ASD group, the difference in night-time-daytime aMT6s/creatinine value correlated with some types of sleep problems, but not with the severity of ASD. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that in ASD there are differences in the patterns of melatonin secretion that may be associated with sleep impairment (Tab. 4, Fig. 2, Ref. 28).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Melatonina/análogos & derivados , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/urina , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Melatonina/urina , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações
10.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(9): 579-587, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184381

RESUMO

El síndrome de Prader-Willi es un trastorno genético causado por alteraciones cromosómicas en el segmento 15q11-q13 que incluye sintomatología cognitiva, mental y conductual, así como un fenotipo somático específico. Tanto las alteraciones psicopatológicas más comunes (discapacidad intelectual, obsesiones, impulsividad, comportamientos de tipo autista, autolesiones) como las comorbilidades principales (cuadros afectivos, psicosis, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo, trastorno del espectro autista) se caracterizan por una gran heterogeneidad, lo que justifica la necesidad de una mayor caracterización de su frecuencia y modo de presentación. Además de sus efectos sobre la composición corporal y la hipotonía, la hormona del crecimiento ha demostrado utilidad en el control conductual, así como algunos psicofármacos. También se han descrito alternativas a nivel experimental que están mostrando resultados alentadores. Un adecuado conocimiento de la psicopatología asociada a este síndrome permitiría mejorar el abordaje clínico, la identificación de los síntomas, la detección de comorbilidades y la instauración de un tratamiento más efectivo


Prader-Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by chromosomal changes in segment 15q11-q13 including cognitive, mental, and behavioral symptoms, as well as a specific physical phenotype. Both the most common psychopathological changes (intellectual disability, obsessions, impulsivity, autism spectrum disorders, self-injuries) and the main psychiatric comorbidities (affective disorders, psychosis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder) are characterized by a great heterogeneity, which warrants the need for better identification of their frequency and clinical signs. In addition to its effects on body compositionand hypotony, growth hormone has been shown to be useful for regulating patient behavior, and psychoactive drugs are also an option. Other alternatives have shown promising results in experimental trials. Adequate understanding of the psychopathology associated to Prader-Willi syndrome would allow for improving clinical approach, symptom identification, detection of comorbidities, and administration of more effective treatments, leading to better clinical outcomes


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia , Comorbidade , Comportamento do Adolescente , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Psicopatologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade
11.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 33-36, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603841

RESUMO

The development and establishment of the normal sleep patterns are very important processes in the final anatomical and physiological architecture of the central nervous system. The relationship between sleep disturbances during childhood with neurodevelopmental disorders is complex and potentially synergistic. Sleep patterns are present since the fetal period but their structure and physiology is modified according with the maturation of the central nervous system. Sleep disorders and their relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders(ADHD), autism spectrum disorders(ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (TDN) are not well understood yet, but significant progresses have been made in understanding associations and potential etiological correlations. We reviewed sleep disturbances in NDT, in ADHD and in ASD. A greater understanding of the pleiotropic functions of the genes involved in sleepwake cycle disorders and deviations from neurological developme nt could lead to new diagnostic and therapeut ic strategies in an early stage in order to improve the quality of life of the patient, relatives and caregivers.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Pré-Escolar , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética
12.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593283

RESUMO

Advances in perinatal intensive care have resulted in increased survival of the most immature preterm infants (born before 28 gestational weeks) and these new survivors are now entering school. While the clear majority of all children born preterm have a normal development, the extremely preterm infant is at a considerable risk for long term disabilities and rates of adverse development increase at lower gestational ages. Lung function is commonly affected in children born extremely preterm, and many have treatment for obstructive symptoms. The incidences of major neuromotor impairments, i.e. cerebral palsy, are low, but there is an increasing awareness of common cognitive and neuropsychiatric problems in extremely preterm children and their special needs in school. Extremely preterm children therefore need follow up of lung function and neurodevelopment at least until school start.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Assistência ao Convalescente/organização & administração , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 333-339, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in France is heterogeneous and poorly evaluated to date. Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is a developmental and behavioral model of intervention for toddlers with ASD which has already shown very interesting outcomes on the development of children with ASD in various studies with different settings. However, it is not possible with the current research to agree on the best setting. Thus, we implemented an ESDM program according to our context where children are often pre-schooling early from 30 months old. This therapy was applied by a multidisciplinary team working in close collaboration with parents and other partners. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study including 19 toddlers with ASD was conducted. We evaluated improvement on the cognitive level of toddlers with ASD receiving therapist-delivered ESDM intervention for 12 hours per week. RESULTS: Significant improvements in verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills at the Mullen Scale of Early Learning were obtained after 10 months of intervention in our sample. The largest improvement was in receptive language development quotient with a mean improvement of 19.6 points. We also observed promising outcomes in daily adaptive behavior, with a slight improvement in communication at the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scale. These outcomes, when compared to the conclusions of previous studies, are leading us to the need for a therapy duration beyond 10 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our outcomes were very encouraging even with low cognitive and nonverbal children. These outcomes may be confirmed in a multicenter randomized controlled trial that is ongoing.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pais/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17274, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight status and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are rising public health concerns. An increasing number of reports indicate that individuals with ASD may have unhealthy weight status, but the evidence is mixed. To understand the weight status in individuals with ASD and provide strategies for prevention and intervention, we describe the protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at assessing the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in ASD. METHODS: A broad range of key bibliographic databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science will be searched to identify studies reporting the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in patients with ASD. Retrieved records will be independently screened by 2 authors and relevant estimates will be extracted from studies reporting data on obesity, overweight, and underweight prevalence among individuals with ASD. The assessment of study quality will be conducted primarily using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and checklist proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Prevalence estimates of obesity and overweight will be separately pooled using random-effects model. The pooled estimates will be summarized and presented by regional groupings. Subgroup analysis will be conducted for variables (such as study setting, participants' age, and geographical region) across studies, depending on data availability. Between-study heterogeneity will be assessed using the I statistic and explored through subgroup analyses. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be reported following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses checklist and the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology statements guidelines for meta-analysis and systematic reviews of observational studies. RESULTS: In this study, we will outline details of the aims and methods on the meta-analysis of weight status of individuals with ASD. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will summarize the current data of weight status of individuals with ASD. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO-National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42019130790).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Peso Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/psicologia
16.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(7): 481-494, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589087

RESUMO

This randomized clinical trial ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ID# NCT02276534) examined the impact of a peer-mediated, theater-based social skills intervention, SENSE Theater®, on social cognition and behavior in 77 youth (ages 8-16) with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Analysis of Covariance models revealed that post-treatment, the experimental group (n = 44) performed significantly better than the controls (n = 33) on NEPSY theory of mind (verbal) subtest, demonstrated increased neural evidence of memory for faces, and engaged in more cooperative play and verbal interaction with novel peers. The study extends previous findings showing that SENSE Theater® contributes to improvement in social cognition and behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Grupo Associado , Psicodrama/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Social , Teoria da Mente
17.
Spec Care Dentist ; 39(6): 551-556, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664728

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate if yoga could be an adjunct to regular training methods in training brushing skill to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Seventy-two children with ASD aged 7-15 years were selected and divided into two groups (N = 36). Children in Group I received visual pedagogy and video modeling and children in Group II received visual pedagogy and video modeling with yoga. Plaque and gingival indices (PI and GI) were recorded at baseline and at the end of first, second, third, and sixth month. The scores were summarized as mean and standard deviation and inter-group comparison was done using independent t-test. RESULTS: Inter-group comparison of mean plaque and gingival indices scores were statistically significant at second month (P = .039 for PI and P = .009 for GI). The scores were statistically significant even at third month (P = .001 for PI and P = .002 for GI) and sixth month (P = .001 PI and GI), with children in Group II demonstrating better oral hygiene. CONCLUSION: Yoga training can be used as an adjunct to enhance tooth brushing learning capabilities of children with ASD in addition to visual modeling and pedagogy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Placa Dentária , Ioga , Adolescente , Criança , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Escovação Dentária
20.
Pediatr Dent ; 41(5): 397-403, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648672

RESUMO

Purpose: The purposes of this study of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who had successfully accepted a dental examination seated in a dental chair following desensitization interventions, were to: (1) determine if ability to accept an examination was maintained two years following initial success; (2) quantify new dental skills acquired; and (3) analyze the use of advanced behavior guidance techniques. Methods: This retrospective two-year case series included 138 ASD children. Data were obtained from dental records. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons of interest. Results: Most children (92 percent) maintained the ability to receive minimum threshold examinations once the initial exam had been achieved. New basic dental skills attained by most children included receiving toothbrush prophylaxis (83 percent) and accepting fluoride varnish (77 percent). Few children required oral sedation or protective stabilization, but 22 percent received general anesthesia. Conclusions: Most children with autism spectrum disorder who learned to accept an examination maintained that skill over time, and many accepted toothbrush prophylaxis and fluoride varnish. Sensory-invasive skills, such as radiographs and rubber cup prophylaxis, were acquired with lower frequency. Therefore, when treating ASD patients, it is important to consider that some will require advanced behavior guidance techniques. (Pediatr Dent 2019;41(5):397-403).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Anestesia Geral , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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