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1.
Gen Dent ; 69(1): 62-68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350958

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting communication, behavior, and socialization in a large number of children and adults. In addition to the classically considered features of autism, individuals with this disorder also often present with multiple significant medical comorbidities that affect dental treatment. This article discusses the most common of these neurologic, psychiatric, and gastrointestinal issues and explores their relevance to dental care. It is incumbent on dentists and members of the dental team to be familiar with the features and comorbidities of autism spectrum disorder and effectively use this knowledge to provide care for patients with autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Comunicação , Comorbidade , Assistência Odontológica , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos
2.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 31(1): 89-105, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visual pedagogy (VP) is a behavioural intervention used to facilitate learning among autistic children. Limited studies have evaluated VP when applied to dentistry. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of VP in improving oral hygiene and gingival health status of autistic children. DESIGN: The interventional study was conducted among 122 autistic preschool children and their parents in Hong Kong. Toothbrushing visual pedagogy (TBVP) was provided to parents for supervising their children with toothbrushing at home. The children's sociodemographic background, developmental profile, and clinical parameters were obtained via parental questionnaire, standardised assessment form, and clinical examination, respectively. The change in plaque and gingival indices over time and potential confounding factors were evaluated with Friedman's two-way analysis of variance and logistic regressions, respectively. RESULTS: Significantly lower level of plaque and gingival inflammation was found at 3 months and 6 months than baseline. The oral health status of children with poorer baseline oral hygiene status and gingival health was more likely to improve with TBVP. Other developmental and socio-economic backgrounds had insignificant associations on the improvement of these clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest TBVP is effective in promoting oral hygiene maintenance and improving the periodontal conditions among individuals diagnosed with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Hong Kong , Humanos , Inflamação , Escovação Dentária
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22826, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The persistent loss of consciousness caused by general anesthesia without the existence of repeated 90-minute cycles of non-REM and REM sleep might significantly disturb and suppress the cycle of normal physiological sleep in postoperative periods after general anesthesia. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with existing circadian rhythm disorder are reported to rapidly deteriorate due to acute sleep disorder during the perioperative period after general anesthesia.A melatonin receptor agonist, ramelteon (Rozerem), which is a sleep cycle regulator, is used as a therapeutic drug for patients with sleep disorders, but there are no studies on the prevention of postoperative sleep disorder after general anesthesia.In this study, we investigate whether prophylactic administration of a sleep-inducing substance, a melatonin receptor agonist, is effective against sleep disorder after general anesthesia in patients with ASD. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is intended for patients with ASD aged 12 years and above who undergo treatment at Nagasaki University Hospital, Isahaya General Hospital Dentistry, and Sasebo City General Medical Center Dentistry and undergo dental treatment under general anesthesia. A melatonin receptor agonist (Rozerem) will be taken 7 days prior and 7 days postsurgery in patients diagnosed with insomnia. A randomized comparison will be made between 2 groups: an experimental group that is additionally administered Rozerem and a control group.The primary endpoint is the incidence of NREM-REM sleep disorders that occur within 3 to 5 days after general anesthesia. The secondary endpoint is the incidence of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (rate of occurrence of sleep-retardation syndrome with drowsiness and strong fatigue). DISCUSSION: Postoperative sleep disorders after general anesthesia has been reported in patients with ASD; however, effective preventive pharmacological treatments have not been established. A sleep cycle regulator, ramelteon (Rozerem), is used as a therapeutic drug for patients with sleep disorders by decreasing the difficulty of falling asleep in insomnia. If sleep disorder can be prevented after the administration of general anesthesia in patients with ASD, we can support social participation while maintaining their quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with the jRCT1071200030.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Indenos/uso terapêutico , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 445, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence is required about the long-term efficacy and safety of melatonin treatment for sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) who underwent adequate sleep hygiene interventions. METHODS: We conducted a 26-week, multicenter, collaborative, uncontrolled, open-label, phase III clinical trial of melatonin granules in children 6 to 15 years of age who had NDDs and sleep problems. The study consisted of the 2-week screening phase, the 26-week medication phases I and II, and the 2-week follow-up phase. Children received 1, 2, or 4 mg melatonin granules orally in the medication phases. Variables of sleep status including sleep onset latency (SOL), aberrant behaviors listed on the Aberrant Behavior Check List-Japanese version (ABC-J), and safety were examined. The primary endpoint was SOL in the medication phase I. RESULTS: Between June 2016 and July 2018, 99 children (80 males and 19 females, 10.4 years in mean age) were enrolled at 17 medical institutions in Japan-74, 60, 22, 9, 6, and 1 of whom had autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disabilities, motor disorders, specific learning disorder, and communication disorders, respectively, at baseline. Fifteen children received the maximal dose of 4 mg among the prespecified dose levels. SOL recorded with the electronic sleep diary shortened significantly (mean ± standard deviation [SD], - 36.7 ± 46.1 min; 95% confidence interval [CI], - 45.9 to - 27.5; P <  0.0001) in the medication phase I from baseline, and the SOL-shortening effect of melatonin persisted in the medication phase II and the follow-up phase. Temper upon wakening and sleepiness after awakening improved significantly (P <  0.0001 each) in the medication phase I from baseline and persisted in the follow-up phase. The following subscales of the ABC-J improved significantly: stereotypic behavior (P = 0.0322) in the medication phase I; and irritability, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech (P <  0.0001) in the medication phase II. Treatment-emergent adverse events did not occur subsequent to week 16 after medication onset, and NDDs did not deteriorate in the follow-up phase. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term melatonin treatment in combination with adequate sleep hygiene interventions may afford clinical benefits to children with NDDs and potentially elevates their well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrils.gov , NCT02757066 . Registered April 27, 2016.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Melatonina , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882981

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted, stereotyped behavior. Gastrointestinal (GI), nutritional, and feeding problems are often reported in ASD. We investigated the prevalence of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime difficulties, and their associations with dietary interventions, food supplement use, and behavioral characteristics in a sample involving 247 participants with ASD and 267 controls aged 2-18 years. Data were collected by a questionnaire. GI symptoms were observed in 88.9% of children and adolescents with ASD, more often in girls than in boys. High rates of food selectivity (69.1%) and mealtime problems (64.3%) were found. Food supplements were used by 66.7% of individuals, mainly vitamins/minerals, probiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. In the ASD sample, 21.2% of subjects followed a diet, mostly based on gluten and milk restriction, including individuals exhibiting food selectivity. Frequency of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime problems correlated weakly, but significantly with behavioral characteristics in the ASD group, but not with food supplement use. The study demonstrated that higher frequency of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime problems are a common problem in pre-schoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents with ASD, and together with dietary modification, they are significantly associated with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Masculino
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 423, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-occurring psychiatric disorders in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) contribute to the burden of the healthcare and possibly to the delay of diagnosis. Aim of the study was to clinically assess the prevalence and compare lifetime co-occurring psychopathology in a sample of newly diagnosed ADHD and/or ASD adults and discuss the diagnostic challenges they pose. METHODS: The lifetime prevalence rates of ten of the most frequently co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses was registered in 336 adults of normal intelligence who underwent a thorough clinical evaluation for the diagnosis of ADHD and/or ASD for the first time in their lives. Four study groups were formed: the ADHD (n = 151), the ASD (n = 58), the ADHD+ASD (n = 28) and the nonADHD/nonASD (NN) (n = 88) group. RESULTS: At least one co-occurring psychopathology was found in 72.8% of the ADHD group, in 50% of the ASD group, in 72.4% of the ADHD+ASD group and in 76.1% of the NN group (p = 0.004). In all groups the most frequent psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder. The only significant difference regarding the patterns of psychiatric co-occurrence between the ADHD and the nonADHD groups (ASD and NN groups) was found for SUD (p = 0.001). Also, the proportion of subjects with Bipolar Disorder was significantly greater in the NN group as compared to those with ASD (p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the high prevalence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD and/or ASD with the ASD group presenting the lowest rate. The most marked difference between the ADHD and the nonADHD groups was found for SUD. Moreover, our findings highlight the need for a thorough clinical assessment of all referred patients both in the presence and absence of ADHD and/or ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
10.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(4): 289-302, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614279

RESUMO

Autism spectrum symptoms in children with congenital blindness Abstract. Objective: Previous studies reported increased rates of autistic symptoms in children with impaired visual abilities (IV). However, the application of existing screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) proved problematic, as intact visual abilities are typically required. The current study examines the general applicability of three autism-screening questionnaires in children with congenital blindness. Methods: Autistic symptoms were assessed in 15 children with congenital blindness, 15 children with ASD (without IV), and 20 typically developing controls (aged from 8 to 14 years), using the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Marburg Rating Scale for Asperger's Syndrome, and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Results: Items assessing motor, mimic/gesture-related, or joint attention deficits were identified as highly prevalent in children with congenital blindness. These children scored, in general, higher on ASD-screening questionnaires than typically developing controls but lower than sighted children with ASD. Depending on the screening questionnaire used, between 23 % and 67 % of the sample with congenital blindness reached clinical cutoff scores for ASD. SRS total score was negatively correlated to cognitive empathy and verbal IQ in those children. Conclusions: Mothers of children with congenital blindness reported increased autistic symptoms in ASD-screening questionnaires. ASD and IV might share a broad range of symptoms. Future development and validation of screening instruments specifically adapted to the needs of persons with impaired visual abilities seem necessary.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Cegueira/congênito , Cegueira/complicações , Adolescente , Síndrome de Asperger/complicações , Síndrome de Asperger/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Cegueira/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21013, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664106

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious nervous system disease, and the cause is not known. Sialic acid (SA) is an indispensable nutrient for early brain development. In previous study, it was found that the SA level of ASD group was lower than that of control group. However, the reason for this has not well explained. A case-control study was conducted to understand the association between the SA synthase enzyme regulatory gene and ASD. The study sample included 65 ASD children and 64 healthy children. The levels of the GNE gene were measured, which encodes UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE), a key enzyme in SA biosynthesis. The symptom severity, intelligence development level, and behavioral performance of ASD children were estimated. There was a significant difference in the levels of GNE between the ASD and control groups (t = 2.028, P = .045). Moreover, the levels of GNE were negatively related to stereotypical behaviors according to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) assessment (r = -0.386, P = .039). However, there is no the correlation between the levels of GNE and autistic severity. As evaluated through the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the levels of GNE were negatively associated with autistic mannerisms scores, social cognition scores and SRS total scores in the children with ASD (r = -0.314, P = .020). These results indicate that the GNE gene may be associated with autism spectrum disorder, and it is also related to autistic behavioral performance, such as stereotypical behaviors, autistic mannerisms, and social cognition ability. Our data suggest that future studies to explore the causal relationship between GNE and the etiology of ASD may be needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20247, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481392

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Eye rubbing (ER) is a proven factor that can trigger the onset and progression of keratoconus (KC). Apart from allergy, ER is a repetitive motor stereotypy. Eye rubbing is frequently observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in individuals who may be at risk for developing KC. We present a child with ASD who developed progressive KC following standard corneal cross-linking (CXL), most likely because of abnormal ER associated with allergy and repetitive behavior due to ASD symptoms. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 14-year-old boy was referred to our clinic because of asymmetric visual acuity reduction. DIAGNOSIS: The child was diagnosed as having keratoconus. He had a strong ER habit. The child had been previously diagnosed as having ASD. INTERVENTIONS: Corneal cross-linking was performed in both the eyes. On account of keratoconus progression, most likely associated with persistent ER habit, he was retreated with CXL in the right eye. Behavioral modification intervention for ER habit reversal was also applied. OUTCOMES: Corneal cross-linking in combination with behavioral modification intervention for ER habit reversal prevented further KC progression. LESSONS: Behavioral interventions are likely to provide positive results in an ER habit reversal in children with ASD. Keratoconus treatment with CXL combined with behavioral management for ER reversal seemed effective in halting keratoconus progression in a young patient with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Ceratocone/complicações , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental , Hábitos , Humanos , Ceratocone/radioterapia , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual
13.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109899, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505067

RESUMO

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemia is infecting millions of people and some studies relate conditions that might increase the risk of developing a fatal course for the disease, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and obesity. In COVID-19 physiopathology, one of the main inflammation mechanisms is the "cytokine storm", causing a pro-inflammatory state, related to cardiac and pulmonary damage. There is also a less effective role of lymphocyte B and T in the humoral immunity due to the reduction of their proliferative response. The physiopathology of ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) involves several modifications at the genetic and at the immune level, such as the increase of inflammatory cytokines and abnormal immune response in several levels. We hypothesize that ASD could be a risk-factor as the other conditions are.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , /epidemiologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Comorbidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Inflamação , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Linfócitos T/citologia
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e271-e277, jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1116919

RESUMO

Los problemas médicos gastrointestinales, nutricionales, metabólicos, endocrinológicos y de microbiota en los pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) son parte de los problemas médicos concomitantes al diagnóstico. La prevalencia alcanza a más del 91 % en el caso de los problemas gastrointestinales, hasta el 89 % para los nutricionales y metabólicos, más del 50 % de disfunción tiroidea y hasta el 100 % para los relacionados con la microbiota.Es urgente actualizar la práctica médica para incluir la evaluación, testeo, diagnóstico y tratamiento de estos problemas médicos concomitantes al diagnóstico de TEA en la población pediátrica, adolescente y adulta. El tratamiento riguroso de dichos problemas genera cambios positivos en la calidad de vida y en la sintomatología bajo la cual el TEA se diagnostica en muchos casos. Debe basarse en evidencia científica de alta calidad, con control y cuidado médico adecuado


Gastrointestinal, nutritional, metabolic, endocrine, and microbiota medical problems in pediatric patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are some of the coexisting medical conditions in ASD diagnosis. Their prevalence reaches more than 91 % for gastrointestinal problems, up to 89 % for nutritional and metabolic disorders, more than 50 % for thyroid dysfunction, and up to 100 % for microbiota-related conditions.There is an urgency for medical practice to be updated and to include the assessment, testing, diagnosis, and treatment of these coexisting medical conditions in ASD diagnosis in the pediatric, adolescent, and adult population. A strict management of such conditions results in positive changes in the quality of life and symptoms based on which ASD is diagnosed many times. It should be based on high-quality scientific evidence with an adequate medical care and control


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Microbiota , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Sintomas Concomitantes , Estado Nutricional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 285, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are two of the most frequently-observed neurodevelopmental disorders. Autistic traits are detected frequently in children who have ADHD. This study aimed to examine autism symptoms in children diagnosed with ADHD and their parents; and also, to investigate parental risk factors that increase autistic traits in children. Besides the risk factors related to pregnancy, birth and developmental history were examined. METHODS: Two groups were created consisting of 66 children diagnosed with ADHD and 33 children not diagnosed with ADHD and their parents. Autism symptoms were screened with the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) in children, and Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in parents. Also, Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale and Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to determine ADHD symptoms in parents. RESULTS: It was determined that there were more autism symptoms in children who were diagnosed with ADHD than in the control group without ADHD. There were more autistic symptoms in boys and the presence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Although there were more ADHD symptoms in the parents of children diagnosed with ADHD, it was determined that they did not differ from parents in the control group in terms of autism symptoms. It was also determined that maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms were predictive for autism symptoms in children. It was also shown that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with more autistic traits. CONCLUSION: ASD and ADHD show high levels of comorbidity. The etiology remains unclear. Both ADHD and ASD show strong hereditary transition. We found that maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms predict autism symptoms in children with ADHD. However, more studies are needed to reveal the etiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(10): 1278-1287, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mealtimes can be stressful. Up to 90% of children with ASD present with problems related to food selectivity and disruptive mealtime behavior. Researchers have associated parent behaviors with maintained maladaptive feeding behaviors in children. Studies have also shown a positive association between children's feeding problems and maternal concern for their children's health, suggesting maternal anxiety and negative feelings may contribute to feeding issues. However, most research and subsequent interventions focus primarily on children. METHOD: Cross-sectional data was gathered from sixty-four mothers of children aged 2-8 with ASD visiting a developmental/behavioral pediatric clinic in the Southeastern U.S. who completed the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS), assessing child feeding behavior and parent strategies for feeding problems, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), measuring anxiety currently (state) and as an enduring characteristic (trait). RESULTS: Over 50% of mothers reported clinical difficulties with child feeding. Significant associations were found between child feeding behaviors and parent feelings/strategies related to child feeding. Maladaptive maternal feelings and strategies were also significantly related to both total anxiety (r = .299, p = .027) and trait anxiety (r = .368, p = .006). Although maternal anxiety explained significant variance in child feeding behavior, parent mealtime feeling/strategies were the strongest predictors of child feeding problems. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal anxiety and maladaptive feeding strategies correlate with problematic child feeding behaviors, suggesting that maternal feelings and strategies may contribute to the development and maintenance of feeding behaviors in children with ASD. Treatments that address feeding problems in children with ASD may also need to address maternal behaviors.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Refeições , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Psychiatr Prax ; 47(6): 300-307, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The review systematically reviews the literature on co-occurring gender dysphoria/gender variance and autism spectrum disorder among children and adolescents. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted for the years 1946 to December 2018. RESULTS: 144 publications could be identified in the literature search. Out of these, 22 publications met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. 4.7 to 13.3 % of the children and adolescents with primarily diagnosed gender dysphoria/variance examined in the studies also had an autism diagnosis. In samples of children and adolescents with primarily diagnosed autism gender variance was overrepresented with a prevalence of 4 to 6.5 %. CONCLUSION: The results of the systematic review point towards an overrepresentation of co-occurring gender dysphoria/variance and autism spectrum disorder. Methodological and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Disforia de Gênero , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Disforia de Gênero/complicações , Disforia de Gênero/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544176

RESUMO

The major symptoms of Tourette syndrome are motor and vocal tics, but Tourette syndrome is occasionally associated with cognitive alterations as well. Although Tourette syndrome does not affect the majority of cognitive functions, some of them improve. There is scarce evidence on the impairment of learning functions in patients with Tourette syndrome. The core symptoms of Tourette syndrome are related to dysfunction of the basal ganglia and the frontostriatal loops. Acquired equivalence learning is a kind of associative learning that is related to the basal ganglia and the hippocampi. The modified Rutgers Acquired Equivalence Test was used in the present study to observe the associative learning function of patients with Tourette syndrome. The cognitive learning task can be divided into two main phases: the acquisition and test phases. The latter is further divided into two parts: retrieval and generalization. The acquisition phase of the associative learning test, which mainly depends on the function of the basal ganglia, was affected in the entire patient group, which included patients with Tourette syndrome with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, or no comorbidities. Patients with Tourette syndrome performed worse in building associations. However, the retrieval and generalization parts of the test phase, which primarily depend on the function of the hippocampus, were not worsened by Tourette syndrome.


Assuntos
Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome de Tourette/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Gânglios da Base/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Síndrome de Tourette/complicações
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469991

RESUMO

Gaming disorder, which is characterized by multiple cognitive and behavioral symptoms, often has comorbid psychiatric conditions such as depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurobiological effects of the comorbid disorders so far reported are not converging, exhibiting positive and negative alterations of the connectivity in brain networks. In this study, we conducted resting-state functional magnetic-resonance imaging and whole brain functional connectivity analyses for young participants consisting of 40 patients diagnosed with the gaming disorder, with and without comorbid conditions, and 29 healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, the gaming disorder-alone patients had partially diminished connectivities in the reward system and executive control network, within which there existed central nodes that served as a hub of diminished connections. In the gaming disorder patients who had comorbidity of autism spectrum disorder, the diminished connections were enlarged, with alteration of the hub nodes, to the entire brain areas involved in the reward system including cortical, subcortical and limbic areas that are crucial for reward processing, and to the whole cortical areas composing the executive control network. These observations suggest that the neurodevelopmental condition coexisting with the gaming disorder induced substantial impairment of the neural organizations associated with executive/cognitive and emotional functions, which are plausibly causal to the behavioral addiction, by rearranging and diminishing functional connectivities in the network.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Jogo de Azar , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Cognição , Emoções , Função Executiva , Jogo de Azar/complicações , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
20.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(313): 44-46, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446557

RESUMO

Catatonia and its treatment in patients with autism spectrum disorders are poorly documented in the child psychiatry literature. Étienne is a 13-year-and-10-months-old adolescent who was diagnosed with autism at an early age. He presents recurrent episodes of stuporous catatonia aggravating major motor agitation type behavioural disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Catatonia/terapia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino
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